3,402 results match your criteria localized cranial


Radiation enhances the delivery of antisense oligonucleotides and improves chemo-radiation efficacy in brain tumor xenografts.

Cancer Gene Ther 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR, USA.

Overexpression of O-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) contributes to resistance to chemo-radiation therapy (CRT) in brain tumors. We previously demonstrated that non-ablative radiation improved delivery of anti-MGMT morpholino oligonucleotides (AMONs) to reduce MGMT levels in subcutaneous tumor xenografts. We evaluate this approach to enhance CRT efficacy in rat brain tumor xenograft models. Read More

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Born in the Purple: An Exceptional Case of Cutis Marmorata Telangiectatica Congenita.

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2020 Dec;28(4):247-248

Department of Dermatology, University General Hospital of Patras, Rion, Greece, Greece;

A full-term, 2-day-old female neonate with a congenital non-tender reticular patch that did not disappear with local warming was referred to our department for consultation. The family history as well as the antenatal course and delivery were unremarkable. On examination, we evidenced a fixed, marbled, bluish to deep purple lesion with a fishnet appearance extending over the right side of her body, face, and scalp. Read More

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December 2020

Medico-Legal Opinion Based on Autopsy Findings of a Victim of an Explosion Involving Mass Fatality.

Acad Forensic Pathol 2020 Dec 12;10(3-4):158-165. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Introduction: Investigation into explosions is one of the major areas in forensic medicine and pathology. Medico legal issues associated with these deaths are diverse and forensic experts are often expected to make clarifications. Assistance of a methodical scientific investigation of such a death in evaluation of unanswered medico legal issues, of an autopsy of one of the victims of Easter Sunday explosions is discussed. Read More

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December 2020

Giant Epidermoid Cyst of Posterior Fossa-Our Experience and Literature Review.

Dose Response 2021 Jan-Mar;19(1):15593258211002061. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Otosurgery Unit, ULSS2, Treviso Hospital, Treviso, Italy.

Introduction: Intracranial epidermoid cysts are the most frequent congenital intracranial lesion. They rare and benign tumors that can present in different clinical situations depending on location and extension of the disease. Diagnosis is obtained with radiological imaging with RM and non-enhanced TC as elective investigating methods. Read More

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Masses of the Lacrimal Gland: Evaluation and Treatment.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2021 Feb 18;82(1):100-106. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States.

Lacrimal gland lesions account for approximately 9 to 10% of all biopsied orbital masses. Potential causes include nongranulomatous and granulomatous inflammation, autoimmune disease, lymphoproliferative disorders, benign epithelial proliferation, malignant neoplasia, and metastatic disease. Inflammatory lesions and lymphoproliferative disorders are the most common and may be unilateral or bilateral; they may also be localized to the orbit or associated with systemic disease. Read More

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February 2021

The Endonasal Endoscopic Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea.

Cureus 2021 Feb 20;13(2):e13457. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, SAU.

Introduction Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is the result of a bony defect at the skull base with disruption of the arachnoid, dura mater, and sinonasal mucosa that leads to an active CSF leak and flow of clear fluid from the nose. The endoscopic repair of CSF leaks and skull defects have been used by an increasing number of surgeons and is the standard of care for repairing CSF leaks. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective study of all cases of CSF leaks managed via the endonasal endoscopic approach from 2010 to 2020 at a tertiary referral hospital of King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam (KFSH-D). Read More

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February 2021

Characterization of optogenetically-induced cortical spreading depression in awake mice using graphene micro-transistor arrays.

J Neural Eng 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Clinical & Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, 8th Floor Queen Square House, Queen, London, London, WC1N 3BG, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

Objective: Development of experimental methodology utilising graphene micro-transistor arrays to facilitate and advance translational research into cortical spreading depression (CSD) in awake brain.

Approach: CSDs were reliably induced in awake non-transgenic mice using optogenetic methods. High-fidelity DC-coupled electrophysiological mapping of propagating CSDs were obtained using flexible arrays of graphene soultion-gated field-effect transistors (gSGFETs). Read More

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FDG PET/CT to Detect Incidental Findings in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Additional Benefit for Patients Considered for Liver Transplantation?

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

From the Clinic of Nuclear Medicine Clinic of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Purpose: FDG PET/CT has been described for noninvasive grading, detection of extrahepatic spread, and recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As compared with localized imaging approaches (MRI, ultrasonography), FDG PET/CT not only focuses on the liver, but covers a long field of view from the base of the skull to the thighs, visualizing pathologic findings not related to HCC. The aims of this retrospective study were to (1) describe the frequency of relevant incidental findings on FDG PET/CT in HCC patients, (2) evaluate the impact on treatment strategy in HCC patients considered for liver transplantation, and (3) to discuss the role of FDG PET/CT in patients considered for transplantation in general. Read More

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Occipital condyle fracture-A rare but severe injury in cranial fracture patients.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4 E, PO Box 220, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

We clarified occurrence, severity, and associated injuries of occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) in a cranial fracture population. Retrospective data of cranial fracture patients were analyzed. The outcome variable was presence of OCF in cranial fracture patients. Read More

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February 2021

Human burials at the Kisese II rockshelter, Tanzania.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 May 21;175(1):187-200. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Institute of Human Origins, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

Objectives: The Late Pleistocene and early Holocene in eastern Africa are associated with complex evolutionary and demographic processes that contributed to the population variability observed in the region today. However, there are relatively few human skeletal remains from this time period. Here we describe six individuals from the Kisese II rockshelter in Tanzania that were excavated in 1956, present a radiocarbon date for one of the individuals, and compare craniodental morphological diversity among eastern African populations. Read More

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Outcomes after first relapse of childhood intracranial ependymoma.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Feb 9:e28930. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorder Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Ependymoma is the third most common malignant CNS tumor in children. Despite multimodal therapy, prognosis of relapsed ependymoma remains poor. Approaches to therapy for relapsed ependymoma are varied. Read More

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February 2021

Surgical occlusion of middle meningeal artery in treatment of chronic subdural haematoma: anatomical and technical considerations.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 04 8;163(4):1075-1081. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: The primary aim of chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) treatment is to relieve pressure to improve neurological symptoms. The secondary aim is to avoid recurrence. The blood supply from the middle meningeal artery (MMA) to the haematoma membranes has recently become a research target, to enhance our understanding of the processes leading to growth and re-growth of a CSDH. Read More

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Soft tissue sarcoma at the site of a previous laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in a dog.

Can Vet J 2021 02;62(2):173-178

Ontario Veterinary College Ringgold standard institution, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1.

An 8-year-old, spayed female, Doberman pinscher dog was presented to the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Center for evaluation of a large subcutaneous mass on the right cranial ventral abdomen. Computed tomography localized a 6 × 7 cm soft tissue mass to the site of a laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy performed 3 years earlier. Body wall resection with wide surgical margins was performed. Read More

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February 2021

Accumulation of lipofuscin in broiler chicken with wooden breast.

Anim Sci J 2021 Jan;92(1):e13517

Department of Food Science and Human Wellness, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Japan.

Lipofuscin is one of the indicators of oxidative stress. To elucidate the role of oxidative stress in the development of wooden breast, this study investigates lipofuscin accumulation in various parts of wooden breast muscles. Sampling was performed using 46-day-old broiler chickens housed at a commercial Japanese poultry slaughterhouse. Read More

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January 2021

Respiratory variability of sinus node activation in humans: insights from ultra-high-density mapping.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Princesse Grace, Monaco, Monaco.

Purpose: Experimental data suggest that shifts in the site of origin of the sinus node (SN) correlate with changes in heart rate and P wave morphology. The direct visualization of the effect of respiration on SN electrical activation has not yet been reported in humans. We aimed to measure the respiratory shifting of the SN activation using ultra-high-density mapping. Read More

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January 2021

Invasive cervical resorption of central incisor during orthodontic treatment.

Dental Press J Orthod 2020 Nov-Dec;25(6):49-58

Universidade Federal da Bahia, Departamento de Ortodontia (Salvador/BA, Brazil).

Introduction: Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) is a relatively rare type of ERR (External Root Resorption), in which a localized resorption begins in the cervical area of the tooth, below the epithelial junction and above the ridge crest.

Objective: Describe the clinical case of an 11-year-old boy with no dental trauma history, presenting moderate crowding and ectopic eruption of the maxillary right central incisor. He had been undergoing orthodontic treatment elsewhere, and his family was dissatisfied with the results. Read More

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January 2021

Analysis of temporal bone thickness outside of the petrous temporal bone between superior semicircular canal dehiscence and normal patients.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Feb 28;84:23-28. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States; UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Office of the Patient Experience, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Department of Surgery, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, United States.

Background: SSCD is a rare inner ear disorder. This study aims to compare the thickness of the temporal bone beyond the petrous portion between healthy subjects and those with SSCD to determine whether the etiopathology of SSCD is localized to the petrous temporal bone or generalized to other parts of the temporal bone.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of electronic medical records from September 2011 to February 2018 was conducted at a single-institution study at the University of California, Los Angeles. Read More

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February 2021

The use of an O-arm in endonasal endoscopic operations of the skull base.

BMC Surg 2021 Jan 23;21(1):58. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc, I. P. Pavlova 185/6, Olomouc, 779 00, Czech Republic.

Background: Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches are broadly used nowadays for a vast spectrum of pathologies sited in the anterior and middle cranial fossa. The usage of neuronavigation systems (neuronavigation) in these surgeries is crucial for improving orientations deeply inside the skull and increasing patient safety.

Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the use of optical neuronavigation, together with an intraoperative O-arm O2 imaging system, in a group of patients with hypophyseal adenoma that underwent a transnasal transsphenoidal surgery, and correlate the accuracy and its deviation during the navigational process against the use of conventional neuronavigation that uses preoperative MRI and CT scans. Read More

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January 2021

Implementation and validation of finite element model of skull deformation and failure response during uniaxial compression.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 03 5;115:104302. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005, USA. Electronic address:

Numerical studies aimed at evaluating head injury due to externally applied loading can be made more biofidelic by incorporating nonlinear mechanism-based and microstructurally-inspired material models representing the mechanical response and fracture (failure or injury) of the human skull bone. Thus, incorporation of these mechanism-based models would increase the ability of simulations of mechanical impact to identify more realistic fracture-based injuries at clinical relevancy, such as linear (tensile), depressed (compressive), or penetration (shear). One of the challenges for accurate modeling of the mechanical response of the human skull is the intricate location dependent heterogeneous mesostructural arrangement of bone within the structure of the skull. Read More

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Analysis of cranial type characteristics in term infants: a multi-center study.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Jan 19;21(1):20. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Pediatrics, the Second Affiliate Hospital of Army Medical University, No. 83 Xinqiao Street, 400037, Chongqing, China.

Background: Positional head deformity (PHD) is defined as a change in the shape of an infant's skull due to an external force. In certain cases, it can lead to cosmetic deformities or even neurological issues due to its impact on the developing nervous system. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the incidence and characteristics of PHD in term infants in China and preliminarily establish a localized diagnostic reference standard. Read More

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January 2021

Management of a neurological lesion involving Canalis Sinuosus: A case report.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2021 Feb 13;23(1):149-155. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

This case report describes the management of a lesion involving the Canalis Sinuosus (CS), that is a bone channel originating from the infraorbital canal below the orbital margin and posterior to the infraorbital foramen and coursing in an anterolateral direction to the anterior wall of the nasal cavity. A female patient, 62y, ASA 1, wearing full mobile dentures, came to our clinic asking for upper jaw rehabilitation. Due to a severe bone atrophy, a graft procedure was performed and the placement of eight implants was planned. Read More

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February 2021

Trigeminal Amyloidoma: A Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2020 Dec 30;81(6):620-626. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Division of Anatomic Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Cerebral amyloidomas, characterized by localized amyloid deposits in the nervous system in the absence of systemic disease, are rare. These typically consist of immunoglobulin light chain (AL)-type, predominantly lambda. Trigeminal nerve involvement is exceptionally rare with only 21 previously reported cases, three with bilateral disease. Read More

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December 2020

Emergence of Lyme borreliosis in the province of Verona, Northern Italy: Five-years of sentinel surveillance.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 03 13;12(2):101628. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Infectious, Tropical Diseases and Microbiology, I.R.C.C.S. Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Via Sempreboni 5, 37024, Negrar di Valpolicella, Italy. Electronic address:

We investigated the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory data and antibiotic treatment of Lyme borreliosis in the province of Verona, Northern Italy, during the period 2015-2019. One hundred and 29 cases of Lyme borreliosis were diagnosed in a single hospital representing 27 % of all cases reported in the Veneto region in the same period. The mean annual incidence of Lyme borreliosis was 0. Read More

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Chiari 1 malformation and exome sequencing in 51 trios: the emerging role of rare missense variants in chromatin-remodeling genes.

Hum Genet 2021 Apr 18;140(4):625-647. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio", University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Type 1 Chiari malformation (C1M) is characterized by cerebellar tonsillar herniation of 3-5 mm or more, the frequency of which is presumably much higher than one in 1000 births, as previously believed. Its etiology remains undefined, although a genetic basis is strongly supported by C1M presence in numerous genetic syndromes associated with different genes. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 51 between isolated and syndromic pediatric cases and their relatives was performed after confirmation of the defect by brain magnetic resonance image (MRI). Read More

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Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia: Microscopic variations and proposed change to nomenclature.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2021 Mar 5;131(3):329-338. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA), Athens, Greece.

Objectives: Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia (LJSGH) is a recently described entity with distinct manifestations. Herein we report a comprehensive histopathologic study of 21 lesions and a literature review. Additionally, we propose a new term that we consider more appropriate. Read More

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[Orbital venous varices: modern diagnostic methods and differential diagnosis].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2020 ;84(6):33-48

Burdenko Center of Neurosurgery, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: To study the possibility of the modern CT and MRI methods in diagnostics of the orbital venous varices (OVV), discover the special characteristics of these lesions concerning their hemodynamic and differential diagnosis with other orbital lesions.

Material And Methods: In the period from 2012 to 2019 ten patients with OVV were evaluated. Four of them were men, three women and three children (boys aged 7, 10, and 12 years). Read More

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December 2020

Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia Involvements of Mccune-albright Syndrome: a Review with an Additional Case.

Curr Med Imaging 2020 Dec 8. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Ankara University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Ankara. Turkey.

Background: McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS) is a genetic disorder with a triad of endocrine diseases, caféau-lait macules and fibrous dysplasias. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is a term that is used to describe the fibrous dysplasia which were localized at the craniofacial skeleton and it is common in MAS patients.

Objective: The objective of this review is to determine the involvement frequency of cranial and facial bones in the patients with MAS and CFD. Read More

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December 2020

Eosinophilic Granuloma of the Skull Presenting as Non-Traumatic Extradural Haematoma in Children.

Int J Gen Med 2020 24;13:1229-1234. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Neurosciences Research Centre, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, UK.

Cranial extradural haematoma (EDH) is a neurosurgical emergency that can be caused by traumatic or non-traumatic causes with the former being more prevalent. Non-traumatic causes are variable and can include infection, vascular malformation and haematological disorders. This paper will address an extremely rare non-traumatic cause of EDH. Read More

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November 2020

[Analysis of clinical features of Craniofacial Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Nov;34(11):999-1001

Department of Otolaryngology,Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders,National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders;China International Science and Technology Cooperation base of Child Development and Critical Disorders;Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University;Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics,Chongqing,400014,China.

To investigate the clinical features of craniofacial Langerhans cell histiocytosis(LCH) in children. The clinical data of 11 children with craniofacial LCH confirmed by surgical histopathology were analyzed retrospectively, and their clinical characteristics were compared. Eleven children with craniofacial LCH had a history of misdiagnosis and mistreatment. Read More

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November 2020

Classification of crista galli pneumatization and clinical considerations for anterior skull base surgery.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Dec 25;82(Pt B):225-230. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage caused by frontal sinus exposure is a serious complication in the basal interhemispheric approach (BIHA). Crista galli pneumatization (CGP) is often observed on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan. The aim of this study was to classify and describe variations in anatomical measurements of CGP. Read More

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December 2020