4,224 results match your criteria local redox

Characterization of Fluorescent Proteins with Intramolecular Photostabilization*.

Chembiochem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Molecular Microscopy Research Group, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Genetically encodable fluorescent proteins have revolutionized biological imaging in vivo and in vitro. Despite their importance, their photophysical properties, i. e. Read More

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The Structure of Natural Biogenic Iron (Oxyhydr)oxides Formed in Circumneutral pH Environments.

Geochim Cosmochim Acta 2021 Sep 8;308:237-255. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA.

Biogenic iron (Fe) (oxyhydr)oxides (BIOS) partially control the cycling of organic matter, nutrients, and pollutants in soils and water via sorption and redox reactions. Although recent studies have shown that the structure of BIOS resembles that of two-line ferrihydrite (2LFh), we lack detailed knowledge of the BIOS local coordination environment and structure required to understand the drivers of BIOS reactivity in redox active environments. Therefore, we used a combination of microscopy, scattering, and spectroscopic methods to elucidate the structure of BIOS sampled from a groundwater seep in North Carolina and compare them to 2LFh. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of polyphenols extracted from and plants on glutathione S-transferase of the cattle tick () (Acari: Ixodidae).

J Parasit Dis 2021 Jun 5;45(2):524-538. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Buhouth St, Ad Doqi, Dokki, Cairo, 12622 Cairo Governorate Egypt.

Ticks are hematophageal ectoparasites that transport major pathogens around the world. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are involved in resistance to acaricide and redox balancing during the life cycle of the tick. The inhibition of tick GST enzymes by certain phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and tannins, can be a promising approach to tick control. Read More

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Iron-rich microstructure records of high temperature multi-component silicate melt behavior in nuclear fallout.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Jul 19;237:106700. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, USA.

Above-ground nuclear explosions that interact with the surface of the earth entrain materials from the surrounding environment, influencing the resulting physical and chemical evolution of the fireball, which can affect the final chemical phase and mobility of hazardous radionuclides that are dispersed in the environment as fallout particles. The interaction of iron with a nuclear explosion is of specific interest due to the potential for iron to act as a redox buffer and because of the likelihood of significant masses of metals to be present in urban environments. We investigated fallout from a historic surface interacting nuclear explosion conducted on a steel tower and report the discovery of widespread and diverse iron-rich micro-structures preserved within the samples, including crystalline dendrites and micron-scale iron-rich spheres with liquid immiscibility textures. Read More

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Proline metabolism and redox; maintaining a balance in health and disease.

Amino Acids 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.

Proline is a non-essential amino acid with key roles in protein structure/function and maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. It is available from dietary sources, generated de novo within cells, and released from protein structures; a noteworthy source being collagen. Its catabolism within cells can generate ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Read More

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Redox Isomerism in the S3 State of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex Resolved by Coupled Cluster Theory.

Chemistry 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Molecular Theory and Spectroscopy, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470, Muelheim an der Ruhr, GERMANY.

The electronic and geometric structures of the water oxidizing complex of Photosystem II in the steps of the catalytic cycle that precede dioxygen evolution remain hotly debated. Recent structural and spectroscopic investigations support contradictory redox formulations for the active-site Mn4CaO x cofactor in the final metastable S3 state. These range from the widely accepted Mn(IV)4 oxo-hydroxo model, which presumes O-O bond formation to occur in the ultimate transient intermediate (S4) of the catalytic cycle, to a Mn(III)2Mn(IV)2 peroxo model representative of the contrasting "early-onset" O-O bond formation hypothesis. Read More

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Sedimentary pyrite sulfur isotopes track the local dynamics of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone.

Nat Commun 2021 07 20;12(1):4403. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Sulfur cycling is ubiquitous in sedimentary environments, where it mediates organic carbon remineralization, impacting both local and global redox budgets, and leaving an imprint in pyrite sulfur isotope ratios (δS). It is unclear to what extent stratigraphic δS variations reflect local aspects of the depositional environment or microbial activity versus global sulfur-cycle variations. Here, we couple carbon-nitrogen-sulfur concentrations and stable isotopes to identify clear influences on δS of local environmental changes along the Peru margin. Read More

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Reusable OIRD Microarray Chips Based on a Bienzyme-Immobilized Polyaniline Nanowire Forest for Multiplexed Detection of Biological Small Molecules.

Anal Chem 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Luminescent and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, School of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

Quantitative detection of multiple biological small molecules is critical for health evaluation and disease diagnosis. In this study, a microarray chip featuring a bienzyme-immobilized polyaniline nanowire forest on fluorine-doped tin oxide (bienzyme-PANI/FTO) is developed for this purpose. On such a chip, the target molecules are oxidized under the catalysis of their attached oxidases to produce hydrogen peroxide, which further induces the partial oxidation of local PANI nanowires in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. Read More

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Arsenic fate in upper Indus river basin (UIRB) aquifers: Controls of hydrochemical processes, provenances and water-aquifer matrix interaction.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 3;795:148734. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, WB 721302, India.

Major river basins of the Himalayas contain a significant amount of arsenic (As) in the geological matrix, which tends to contaminate the groundwater at a local and regional scale. Although As enrichment in Quaternary deposits has been linked to primary provenances (Himalayan orogeny), limited studies have reported As enrichment in bedrock aquifers. In the present study, the hard rock and groundwater samples were collected across the upper Indus river basin (UIRB), Ladakh to assess the hydrogeochemical processes and environments responsible for As mobilization and release. Read More

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A microtubule-localizing activity-based sensing fluorescent probe for imaging hydrogen peroxide in living cells.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Jul 7:128252. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, United States; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, United States. Electronic address:

Hydrogen peroxide (HO) is a major reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living systems with broad roles spanning both oxidative stress and redox signaling. Indeed, owing to its potent redox activity, regulating local sites of HO generation and trafficking are critical to determining downstream physiological and/or pathological consequences. We now report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of Microtubule Peroxy Yellow 1 (MT-PY1), an activity-based sensing fluorescent probe bearing a microtubule-targeting moiety for detection of HO in living cells. Read More

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Ab initio random structure searching for battery cathode materials.

J Chem Phys 2021 May;154(17):174111

Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS, United Kingdom.

Cathodes are critical components of rechargeable batteries. Conventionally, the search for cathode materials relies on experimental trial-and-error and a traversing of existing computational/experimental databases. While these methods have led to the discovery of several commercially viable cathode materials, the chemical space explored so far is limited and many phases will have been overlooked, in particular, those that are metastable. Read More

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Electronic Structure of Superoxidized Radical Cationic Dodecaborate-Based Clusters.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Jul 9;125(28):6141-6150. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.

The expanding field of boron clusters has attracted continuous theoretical efforts to understand their diverse structures and unique bonding. We recently discovered a new reversible redox event of B(-3-methylbutyl) in which the superoxidized radical cationic form [B(-3-methylbutyl)] was identified and isolated for the first time. Herein, comprehensive (TD-)DFT studies in tandem with electrochemical experiments were employed to demonstrate the generality of the reported behavior across perfunctionalized B(OR) clusters (R = aryl or alkyl). Read More

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Metabolic Screening of Cytotoxic T-cell Effector Function Reveals the Role of CRAC Channels in Regulating Lethal Hit Delivery.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Cell Biology, RIMLS, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediate cytotoxicity toward tumor cells by multistep cell-cell interactions. However, the tumor microenvironment can metabolically perturb local CTL effector function. CTL activity is typically studied in two-dimensional (2D) liquid coculture, which is limited in recapitulating the mechanisms and efficacy of the multistep CTL effector response. Read More

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Upregulation of brain hepcidin in prion diseases.

Prion 2021 Dec;15(1):126-137

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Accumulation of redox-active iron in human sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) brain tissue and scrapie-infected mouse brains has been demonstrated previously. Here, we explored whether upregulation of local hepcidin secreted within the brain is the underlying cause of iron accumulation and associated toxicity. Using scrapie-infected mouse brains, we demonstrate transcriptional upregulation of hepcidin relative to controls. Read More

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December 2021

Metal-Nitrogen-Carbon Catalysts of Specifically Coordinated Configurations toward Typical Electrochemical Redox Reactions.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 3:e2100997. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

State Key Lab of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai, 200050, China.

Metal-nitrogen-carbon (M-N-C) material with specifically coordinated configurations is a promising alternative to costly Pt-based catalysts. In the past few years, great progress is made in the studies of M-N-C materials, including the structure modulation and local coordination environment identification via advanced synthetic strategies and characterization techniques, which boost the electrocatalytic performances and deepen the understanding of the underlying fundamentals. In this review, the most recent advances of M-N-C catalysts with specifically coordinated configurations of M-N (x = 1-6) are summarized as comprehensively as possible, with an emphasis on the synthetic strategy, characterization techniques, and applications in typical electrocatalytic reactions of the oxygen reduction reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, hydrogen evolution reaction, CO reduction reaction, etc. Read More

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[Effects of Cold Acclimation on the Activity of Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal in Granular Sludge and Its Bacterial Population Structure].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Jul;42(7):3422-3429

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China.

Cold acclimation is an effective approach for improving the nitrogen removal performance and operational stability of partial nitritation/ANAMMOX (PN/A) combined processes at low temperatures. To explore the specific effects of cold acclimation on the characteristics of sludge, differentiations in temperature sensitivity, granular morphology, composition of extracellular polymer substance (EPS), and bacterial community structure between PN/A granular sludges cultivated at medium-high temperature (30℃) and acclimated to low temperature (15℃) were investigated in this study. The results of reaction thermodynamics showed that the nitrogen removal performance of the granules acclimated to low temperature (G) was significantly higher than that of those cultivated at medium-high temperature (G) under the low temperature (10-20℃), and the apparent activation energy () of total inorganic nitrogen removal for the former was decreased by 28. Read More

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Beyond the Lactate Paradox: How Lactate and Acidity Impact T Cell Therapies against Cancer.

Antibodies (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;10(3). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Center for Cellular Immunotherapies, Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

T cell therapies, including CAR T cells, have proven more effective in hematologic malignancies than solid tumors, where the local metabolic environment is distinctly immunosuppressive. In particular, the acidic and hypoxic features of the tumor microenvironment (TME) present a unique challenge for T cells. Local metabolism is an important consideration for activated T cells as they undergo bursts of migration, proliferation and differentiation in hostile soil. Read More

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Physical Exercise and Cardiac Repair: The Potential Role of Nitric Oxide in Boosting Stem Cell Regenerative Biology.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 23;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.

Over the years strong evidence has been accumulated showing that aerobic physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on the prevention and reduction of cardiovascular risk. Exercise in healthy subjects fosters physiological remodeling of the adult heart. Concurrently, physical training can significantly slow-down or even reverse the maladaptive pathologic cardiac remodeling in cardiac diseases, improving heart function. Read More

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In Vivo Detection of Redox-Inactive Neurochemicals in the Rat Brain with an Ion Transfer Microsensor.

ACS Sens 2021 Jul 30;6(7):2757-2762. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China.

Electrochemical tracking of redox-inactive neurochemicals remain a challenge due to chemical inertness, almost no Faraday electron transfer for these species, and the complex brain atmosphere. In this work, we demonstrate a low-cost, simple-making liquid/liquid interface microsensor (LLIM) to monitor redox-inactive neurochemicals in the rat brain. Taking choline (Ch) as an example, based on the difference in solvation energies of Ch in cerebrospinal fluid (aqueous phase) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE; organic phase), Ch is recognized in the specific ion-transfer potential and distinctive ion-transfer current signals. Read More

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The Use of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles to Reprogram Macrophage Responses and the Immunological Tumor Microenvironment.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:693709. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Immunology and Oncology, and NanoBiomedicine Initiative, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB)-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.

The synthesis and functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) is versatile, which has enhanced the interest in studying them as theranostic agents over recent years. As IONPs begin to be used for different biomedical applications, it is important to know how they affect the immune system and its different cell types, especially their interaction with the macrophages that are involved in their clearance. How immune cells respond to therapeutic interventions can condition the systemic and local tissue response, and hence, the final therapeutic outcome. Read More

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Metabolic and molecular signatures of improved growth in Atlantic salmon () fed surplus levels of methionine, folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 throughout smoltification.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 25:1-37. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway.

A moderate surplus of the 1C nutrients methionine, folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 above dietary recommendations for Atlantic salmon has shown to improve growth and reduce hepatosomatic index in the on-growing salt water period when fed throughout smoltification. Metabolic properties and molecular mechanisms determining the improved growth are unexplored. Here, we investigate metabolic and transcriptional signatures in skeletal muscle taken before and after smoltification to acquire deeper insight into pathways and possible nutrient-gene-interactions. Read More

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Barite precipitation in porous media: Impact of pore structure and surface charge on ionic diffusion.

J Contam Hydrol 2021 Jun 22;242:103851. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

DES-ISAS-Service d'Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Several scientific fields such as global carbon sequestration, deep geological radioactive waste disposal, and oil recovery/fracking encounter safety assessment issues originating from pore-scale processes such as mineral precipitation and dissolution. These processes occur in situations where the pore solution contains chemical complexity (such as pH, ionic strength, redox chemistry, etc.…) and the porous matrix contains physical complexity (such as pore size distribution, surface charge, surface roughness, etc. Read More

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PEX5 prevents cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via suppressing the redox-sensitive signaling pathways MAPKs and STAT3.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Sep 24;906:174283. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; National and Local United Engineering Lab of Druggability and New Drugs Evaluation; Guangdong Engineering Laboratory of Druggability and New Drug Evaluation; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Design and Evaluation, Sun Yat-sen University, China. Electronic address:

Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 5 (PEX5) is a member of peroxisome biogenesis protein family which serves as a shuttle receptor for the import of peroxisome matrix protein. The function of PEX5 on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy remained to be elucidated. Our study demonstrated that the protein expression level of PEX5 was declined in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with phenylephrine (PE) and hearts from cardiac hypertrophic rats induced by abdominal aortic constriction (AAC). Read More

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September 2021

Coordinated Adsorption and Catalytic Conversion of Polysulfides Enabled by Perovskite Bimetallic Hydroxide Nanocages for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

Small 2021 Jun 23:e2101538. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Shenzhen Geim Graphene Center, Engineering Laboratory for Functionalized Carbon Materials, Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Catalysis is an effective remedy for the fast capacity decay of lithium-sulfur batteries induced by the shuttling of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs), but too strong adsorption ability of many catalysts toward LiPSs increases the risk of catalyst passivation and restricts the diffusion of LiPSs for conversion. Herein, perovskite bimetallic hydroxide (CoSn(OH) ) nanocages are prepared, which are further wrapped by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the catalytic host for sulfur. Because of the coordinated valence state of Co and Sn and the intrinsic defect of the perovskite structure, such bimetallic hydroxide delivers moderate adsorption ability and enhanced catalytic activity toward LiPS conversion. Read More

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Multi-component bioresponsive nanoparticles for synchronous delivery of docetaxel and TUBB3 siRNA to lung cancer cells.

Nanoscale 2021 Jul;13(26):11414-11426

Division of Molecular Therapeutics and Formulation, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

Bioresponsive nanoparticles (NPs) are of interest for anticancer nanomedicines, owing to the possibility to 'design in' selective modulation of drug release at target sites. Here we describe the double emulsion formulation of redox-responsive NPs based on modified polyethylene glycol (PEG)-co-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) block copolymers and oligo (β-aminoesters) (OBAE), both of which contained disulfide linkages, for the co-delivery of a cytotoxic small molecule drug and a nucleic acid. In particular, we focused our attention on docetaxel (DTX) and a siRNA against TUBB3, a gene that encodes for βIII-tubulin, in order to have a synergistic effect in the treatment of lung cancer. Read More

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Imine-Induced Metal-Organic and Covalent Organic Coexisting Framework with Superior Li-Storage Properties and Activation Mechanism.

ChemSusChem 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai, 200444, P. R. China.

Due to the adjustable structure and the broad application prospects in energy and other fields, the exploration of porous organic materials [metal-organic polymers (MOPs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs), etc.] has attracted extensive attention. In this work, an imine-induced metal-organic and covalent organic coexisting framework ([email protected]) hybrid was designed based on the combination between the amino units from the organic ligands of Co-MOP and the aldehyde groups from COF. Read More

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Transcriptomic responses to drought stress among natural populations provide insights into local adaptation of weeping forsythia.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 15;21(1):273. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Innovation Platform of Molecular Biology, College of Landscape and Art, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Understanding the genetic mechanisms of local adaptation is an important emerging topic in molecular ecology and evolutionary biology.

Results: Here, we identify the physiological changes and differential expression of genes among different weeping forsythia populations under drought stress in common garden experiments. Physiological results showed that HBWZ might have higher drought tolerance among four populations. Read More

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Simultaneous Intelligent Imaging of Nanoscale Reactivity and Topography by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy.

Anal Chem 2021 06 15;93(25):8906-8914. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas, 1501 Wakarusa Drive, Lawrence, Kansas 66047, United States.

Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) enables reactivity and topography imaging of single nanostructures in the electrolyte solution. The in situ reactivity and topography, however, are convoluted in the real-time image, thus requiring another imaging method for subsequent deconvolution. Herein, we develop an intelligent mode of nanoscale SECM to simultaneously obtain separate reactivity and topography images of non-flat substrates with reactive and inert regions. Read More

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Attoampere Nanoelectrochemistry.

Small 2021 Jul 13;17(29):e2101253. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, 4020, Austria.

Electrochemical microscopy techniques have extended the understanding of surface chemistry to the micrometer and even sub-micrometer level. However, fundamental questions related to charge transport at the solid-electrolyte interface, such as catalytic reactions or operation of individual ion channels, require improved spatial resolutions down to the nanoscale. A prerequisite for single-molecule electrochemical sensitivity is the reliable detection of a few electrons per second, that is, currents in the atto-Ampere (10 A) range, 1000 times below today's electrochemical microscopes. Read More

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Redox-sensitive hyaluronic acid-cholesterol nanovehicles potentiate efficient transmembrane internalization and controlled release for penetrated "full-line" inhibition of pre-metastatic initiation.

J Control Release 2021 Jun 11;336:89-104. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, 639 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211198, China. Electronic address:

Metastatic breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The tumor-specific penetration and triggered drug release for "full-line" inhibition of pre-metastatic initiation are of essential importance in improving mortality rates. Here, a crosslinked, redox-sensitive amphiphilic conjugate (cHLC) was constructed with a combination of features, including hyaluronic acid (HA)-mediated tumor active targeting, lipoic acid (LA) core-crosslinking based bio-stability and reducibility, and lipid raft anchoring-promoted HA-mediated endocytosis through cholesterol (CHO) modification for the penetrated co-delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and the multi-targeted anti-metastatic agent, silibinin (SB). Read More

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