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Novel treatment of dihydrogen sulfide inhalation using hyperbaric oxygen during mass casualty.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 Second Quarter;48(2):153-156

U.S. Navy Medical Corps, Naval Hospital Guam.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas produced via breakdown of organic matter. Hydrogen sulfide exposure can cause symptoms ranging in severity from mild effects (dizziness, headache, nausea) to severe lactic acidosis, respiratory failure, pulmonary edema, cardiac arrhythmias and death. Treatment modalities include oral countermeasures and 100% FiO2 with supportive therapy. Read More

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Implementation of National Health Policy for the Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Disease in South Korea: Regional-Local Cardio-Cerebrovascular Center and Nationwide Registry.

Korean Circ J 2021 May;51(5):383-398

Department of Internal Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in South Korea. The prevalence of preventable and treatable risk factors for CVD such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking has continued to increase, despite improvements management of hypertension. Active leadership, participation, and support of professional organizations and medical institutions in national cardiovascular registries and regional treatment network have proven to be effective models to reduce the global burden of CVD in the Europe and North America. Read More

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Evidence-Based Health Informatics as the Foundation for the COVID-19 Response: A Joint Call for Action.

Methods Inf Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Center for Biomedical Data Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States.

Background:  As a major public health crisis, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demonstrates the urgent need for safe, effective, and evidence-based implementations of digital health. The urgency stems from the frequent tendency to focus attention on seemingly high promising digital health interventions despite being poorly validated in times of crisis.

Aim:  In this paper, we describe a joint call for action to use and leverage evidence-based health informatics as the foundation for the COVID-19 response and public health interventions. Read More

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Asset map in a Chilean Health Promoting University: 'a strategy for revitalization'.

Health Promot Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Public Health Research Group, University of Alicante, Campus San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante 03690, Spain.

Health Promoting Universities (HPUs) are more likely to perform actions intended to change habits and increase personal empowerment, than they are to develop community actions. The objective of this research is to create an asset map to visualize collective actions in a Chilean HPU. A qualitative study, based on the ABCD model was conducted. Read More

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A health and wellbeing programme for preadolescents in underserved Australian communities: child and stakeholder perspectives.

Health Promot Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

Social inequities in childhood affect children's health and development. Active In-Betweens is a weekly, healthy lifestyle and outdoor activity after-school programme, tailor-made for preadolescent children (9-12 year olds), incorporating a strengths-based, trauma-informed, co-designed and place-based approach. This study evaluated the extent to which the programme strategies and activities met the anticipated short- to medium-term programme outcomes during its first year of operation in two socio-economically disadvantaged housing communities in New South Wales, Australia. Read More

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The influence of patient size on the overall uncertainty in radiographic dose audit.

J Radiol Prot 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medical Physics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of patient and cohort size on the overall uncertainty associated with dose audit using radiography of the abdomen as the exemplar. Water equivalent diameter Dw was used as the surrogate for patient size and its distribution (σ(Dw)) was used to quantify the effect of sample size. The more precise the KAP calibration, the more patients are required in the cohort to have the same impact on the overall uncertainty. Read More

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An injectable peptide hydrogel with excellent self-healing ability to continuously release salvianolic acid B for myocardial infarction.

Biomaterials 2021 Apr 29;274:120855. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Drug-loaded hydrogels can improve blood supply and inhibit extracellular matrix degradation after myocardial infarction. However, due to the continual dynamic motion of cardiac tissue, the hydrogel structure cannot be reconstructed in time, causing accelerated degradation and drug burst release. Here, a novel, superior, self-healing elastin-mimic peptide hydrogel (EMH) was fabricated for the local delivery of salvianolic acid B (SaB). Read More

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Viral infection and allergy - What equine immune responses can tell us about disease severity and protection.

Mol Immunol 2021 May 8;135:329-341. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, United States. Electronic address:

Horses have many naturally occurring diseases that mimic similar conditions in humans. The ability to conduct environmentally controlled experiments and induced disease studies in a genetically diverse host makes the horse a valuable intermediate model between mouse studies and human clinical trials. This review highlights important similarities in the immune landscape between horses and humans using current research on two equine diseases as examples. Read More

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Developmental neurotoxicity of antimony (Sb) in the early life stages of zebrafish.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 8;218:112308. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular Implants, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China. Electronic address:

Accumulating studies have revealed the toxicity of antimony (Sb) to soil-dwelling and aquatic organisms at the individual level. However, little is known about the neurotoxic effects of antimony and its underlying mechanisms. To assess this issue, we investigated the neurotoxicity of antimony (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/L) in zebrafish embryos. Read More

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Pollution level and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine fish from two coastal regions, the South China Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 8;168:112376. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519080, China; Pearl River Estuary Marine Ecosystem Research Station, Ministry of Education, Zhuhai 519082, China. Electronic address:

Marine fishes are consumed in large quantities by humans as nutritious food. However, the intake of fish polluted by chemicals may pose a severe threat to human health. This study measured the concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the muscles of 22 species of marine fish from two coastal regions, i. Read More

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Sustainability assessment of Construction and Demolition Waste management applied to an Italian case.

Waste Manag 2021 May 8;128:83-98. Epub 2021 May 8.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Seville, Spain.

Construction and Demolition Waste represents a priority stream for the European Union and has a large potential for closing the material circulation loop in line with the Circular Economy principles. The present study focuses on the socio-economic and environmental implications of the management of such waste in the Campania Region (Italy), with the aim of documenting the benefits of recycling actions and landfill avoidance. By using local primary data, and complementing them with data from literature and datasets, three scenarios have been investigated: i) Status Quo, i. Read More

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Aspects of economic costs and evaluation of health surveillance systems after a radiation accident with a focus on an ultrasound thyroid screening programme for children.

Environ Int 2021 May 8;156:106571. Epub 2021 May 8.

ISGlobal - Instituto de Salud Global de Barcelona, Spain.

Health surveillance initiatives targeted at populations evacuated from, and residing in, areas affected by radiation contamination were implemented by international institutions as well as national and local governments after the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. Most of these initiatives included a component of childhood thyroid cancer monitoring, with the more comprehensive schemes corresponding to national programmes of health monitoring for adults and children around general health and wellbeing. This article provides a short overview of available data on the costs and resources associated with surveillance responses to two recent nuclear accidents: Chernobyl and the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear plant accidents. Read More

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Dry and wet deposition of microplastics in a semi-arid region (Shiraz, Iran).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147358. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, PL4 8AA, UK.

Microplastics (MP) have been retrieved from settled dusts and rainfall collected monthly over a period of a year and daily over an additional period of ten days in the city of Shiraz and at an elevated remote site (Mount Derak) in Iran. Total monthly deposition ranged from about 1000 to 3500 MP m at Shiraz and about 200 to 600 MP m at Mount Derak, with greater deposition taking place during the dry months (June to November) than in months when precipitation events occurred. Overall, MP deposition was dominated by dry deposition, with precipitation appearing to washout MP and inhibit local resuspension of material by dampening the ground. Read More

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Topography and climate in the upper Indus Basin: Mapping elevation-snow cover relationships.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 4;786:147363. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Geosciences, Universität Potsdam, Germany.

The Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which covers a wide range of climatic and topographic settings, provides an ideal venue to explore the relationship between climate and topography. While the distribution of snow and glaciers is spatially and temporally heterogeneous, there exist regions with similar elevation-snow relationships. In this work, we construct elevation-binned snow-cover statistics to analyze 3415 watersheds and 7357 glaciers in the UIB region. Read More

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A critical review on the distribution and ecological risk assessment of steroid hormones in the environment in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147452. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Chair of Ecological Systems Design, Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

During past two decades, steroid hormones have raised significant public concerns due to their potential adverse effects on the hormonal functions of aquatic organisms and humans. Considering China being a big producer and consumer of steroid hormones, we summarize the current contamination status of steroid hormones in different environmental compartments in China, and preliminarily assess the associated risks to ecological systems. The results show that steroid hormones are ubiquitously present in Chinese surface waters where estrogens are the most studied steroids compared with androgens, progestogens and glucocorticoids. Read More

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Microstimulation-evoked neural responses in visual cortex are depth dependent.

Brain Stimul 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Physiology and Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Vic, 3800, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function, Australia; Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic, 3800, Australia; Monash Vision Group, Monash University, Clayton, Vic, 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Cortical visual prostheses often use penetrating electrode arrays to deliver microstimulation to the visual cortex. To optimize electrode placement within the cortex, the neural responses to microstimulation at different cortical depths must first be understood.

Objective: We investigated how the neural responses evoked by microstimulation in cortex varied with cortical depth, of both stimulation and response. Read More

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Clinical management of severe infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: a worldwide cross-sectional survey addressing the use of antibiotic combinations.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Diagnostic and Public Health, University of Verona, P.Le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134, Verona, Italy.

Objectives: Optimal treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative (CR-GNB) infections is uncertain due to the lack of good-quality evidence and the limited effectiveness of available antibiotics. The aim of this survey was to investigate clinicians' prescribing strategies for treating CR-GNB infections worldwide.

Methods: A 36-items-questionnaire was developed addressing the following aspects of antibiotic prescribing: respondent's background, diagnostic and therapeutic availability, preferred antibiotic strategies and rationale for selecting combination therapy. Read More

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Perspectives of Endoscopic Trans-septal Inter-fornicial Approach for Retro-Foraminal Colloid Cyst.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Although the inter-forniceal approach with the preservation of the fornix is useful during the endoscopic approach for retroforaminal colloid cysts, it carries a significant risk of memory and cognitive difficulties. Since most reports have reported the endoscopic approach to colloid cysts through the foramen with little emphasis on the retroforaminal cysts. The aim of this study is to investigate the colloid cysts as a special entity with regard to their different characteristics and surgical approaches and outcomes. Read More

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Hepatic hilar and celiac plexus nerve blocks as analgesia for doxorubicin-eluting bead embolization procedures for hepatocellular carcinoma: A non-blinded randomized clinical trial.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Faculty of Human Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Purpose: To investigate whether hepatic hilar and celiac plexus nerve blocks provide safe and effective analgesia to patients undergoing doxorubicin-eluting embolics embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, randomized trial, 92 patients undergoing drug-eluting embolics transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled. The control group received standard intraprocedural local anesthetic, intraarterial lidocaine, and intravenous analgesia; the study group (HHCB) underwent hepatic hilar and celiac plexus nerve blockade in addition. Intraarterial lidocaine, intravenous and postprocedural oral narcotics and antiemetics requirements, pain, patient satisfaction, adverse events, and hospital stay were compared. Read More

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Extension of early esophageal squamous cell neoplasia into ducts and submucosal glands and the role of endoscopic ablation therapy.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands;; Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands;. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Early esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) is preferably treated with en-bloc endoscopic resection. Ablation might be an alternative for flat ESCN, but ESCN extension along the epithelial lining of ducts and submucosal glands (SMGs) might jeopardize ablation efficacy. Clinical studies suggest that local recurrence might arise from such buried ESCN niches after ablation. Read More

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SARS-CoV2 Antibody Positivity Rates and Employee Expectations of Positivity Rates among Health Care Workers at a Community Hospital in North Carolina.

Am J Infect Control 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

FirstHealth of the Carolinas Department of Pathology, Pinehurst NC.

Our study surveyed over 2000 employees of a community health care system in the Southeast United States for SARS-CoV2 antibodies. Survey included subjects' expectation of the result. Our local area had low community prevalence of SARS-CoV2 but low diagnostic testing capacity during much of the early phase of the epidemic. Read More

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The importance of using local populations to assess fetal and preterm infant growth.

Authors:
William W Hay

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

University of Colorado, Pediatrics, Boulder, United States. Electronic address:

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Intratumoral bacteria generate a new class of therapeutically relevant tumor antigens in melanoma.

Cancer Cell 2021 May;39(5):601-603

Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Center for Microbiome Innovation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The functional repertoire of intratumoral microorganisms and their local effects on the host remain poorly characterized. By revealing potentially immunogenic bacterial peptides on melanoma cells, a Nature paper provides evidence that intratumoral bacteria can directly modulate antitumor immune responses, and it details a new class of therapeutically relevant, non-human tumor antigens. Read More

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Ancient genomes reveal structural shifts after the arrival of Steppe-related ancestry in the Italian Peninsula.

Curr Biol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Estonian Biocentre, Institute of Genomics, University of Tartu, Riia 23B, Tartu 51010, Estonia; St. John's College, University of Cambridge, St. John's Street, Cambridge CB2 1TP, UK. Electronic address:

Across Europe, the genetics of the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age transition is increasingly characterized in terms of an influx of Steppe-related ancestry. The effect of this major shift on the genetic structure of populations in the Italian Peninsula remains underexplored. Here, genome-wide shotgun data for 22 individuals from commingled cave and single burials in Northeastern and Central Italy dated between 3200 and 1500 BCE provide the first genomic characterization of Bronze Age individuals (n = 8; 0. Read More

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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health among local residents in South of Brazil: during pandemic times, youth sleep matters.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia, Departamento de Psicologia do Desenvolvimento e da Personalidade, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Introduction: Social isolation has been associated with poor sleep quality and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, most studies included a heterogeneous sample with variances in social disruption policies and did not focus on a local profile with homogeneous prevention policies.

Objectives: Thus, the present study's purpose was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and sleep quality in a specific region in South of Brazil with similar culture and social distance policies adopted by the local governments. Read More

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Non-invasive preimplantation genetic testing for putative mosaic blastocysts: a pilot study.

Hum Reprod 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Anhui, China.

Study Question: What is the potential of applying non-invasive preimplantation genetic testing (niPGT) for chromosome abnormalities in blastocysts reported with a mosaic trophectoderm (TE) biopsy?

Summary Answer: niPGT of cell-free DNA in blastocyst culture medium exhibited a good diagnostic performance in putative mosaic blastocysts.

What Is Known Already: Advances in niPGT have demonstrated the potential reliability of cell-free DNA as a resource for genetic assessment, but information on mosaic embryos is scarce because the mosaicism may interfere with niPGT. In addition, the high incidence of mosaicism reported in the context of PGT and the viability of mosaic blastocysts raise questions about whether mosaicism really exists. Read More

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COVID-19 diagnosis from CT scans and chest X-ray images using low-cost Raspberry Pi.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0250688. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

The diagnosis of COVID-19 is of vital demand. Several studies have been conducted to decide whether the chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scans of patients indicate COVID-19. While these efforts resulted in successful classification systems, the design of a portable and cost-effective COVID-19 diagnosis system has not been addressed yet. Read More

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A fatal rabies case and experiences of a mass post exposure prophylaxis among healthcare workers.

Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

3Emergency Medicine Department, Mehmet Akif Ersoy State Hospital, Canakkale, Turkey.

We aimed to monitor the adverse effects (AE) and efficacy of post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in health care workers (HCWs) exposed to a rabies patient. In this study 109 HCWs and eight household contacts were PEP candidates. Contact persons without infection control precautions were in Group I (high risk-82 cases). Read More

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Are we prepared for the future? A mixed-method study on quality management in decentralized family medicine teaching.

Med Educ Online 2021 Dec;26(1):1923114

Institute for General Practice and Interprofessional Health Care, Tübingen University Hospital, Tübingen, Germany.

In Germany, two-week clinical clerkships in university-associated general practices have existed since 2002. Approximately 10,000 medical students participate in these decentral clerkships each year. Empirical information on quality management strategies in decentral learning environments is sparse. Read More

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December 2021

The Golden Hour: Sustainability and Clinical Outcomes of Adequate Time to Antibiotic Administration in Children with Cancer and Febrile Neutropenia in Northwestern Mexico.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 May;7:659-670

Department of Global Pediatric Medicine, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Purpose: Time to antibiotic administration (TTA) is a commonly used standard of care in pediatric cancer settings in high-income countries. Effective interventions to improve outcomes in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) often address timely and appropriate antibiotic administration. We assessed the effectiveness of a locally adapted multimodal strategy in decreasing TTA in a resource-constrained pediatric cancer center in Mexico. Read More

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