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Absence of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in a Global Hotspot for Salamander Biodiversity.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Middle Tennessee State University, Toxicology and Disease Group, Department of Biology, 1672 Greenland Drive, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132, USA.

Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is an emerging fungal pathogen that affects salamander and newt populations in Asia and Europe. In the Western Hemisphere, Bsal represents a major threat to endemic amphibian populations, which have not evolved resistance to infection, and which could experience local extinction events such as those observed in European fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). We report findings of a survey focusing specifically on wild lungless salamanders in the southeastern US, the most biodiverse location for salamander species globally. Read More

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Classification of certain vertebral degenerations using MRI image features.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Engineering Design, IIT Madras, IIT Madras, Chennai, 600036, INDIA.

This article describes a fully automatic system for classifying various spinal degenerative phenotypes namely Modic changes, endplate defects and focal changes which are associated with lower back pain. These are obtained from T1/T2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans. Lower back pain is a predominantly occurring ailment, which is prone to have various roots including the anatomical and pathophysiological aspects. Read More

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Sex ratios and mental health: Evidence from China.

Econ Hum Biol 2021 Apr 30;42:101014. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Wenlan School of Business, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, China; The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

While sex ratios (i.e., relative numbers of men and women) have been linked to various economic and social outcomes, how sex ratios affect mental health is underexplored. Read More

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White matter microstructure alterations in cortico-striatal networks are associated with parkinsonism in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 May 10;50:64-74. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. Electronic address:

The specific role of white matter (WM) microstructure in parkinsonism among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) is largely unknown. To determine whether topographical alterations of WM microstructure contribute to parkinsonism in SSD patients, we examined healthy controls (HC, n=16) and SSD patients with and without parkinsonism, as defined by Simpson-Angus Scale total score of ≥4 (SSD-P, n=33) or <4 (SSD-nonP, n=62). We used whole brain tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), tractometry (along tract statistics using TractSeg) and graph analytics (clustering coefficient (CCO), local betweenness centrality (BC)) to provide a framework of specific WM microstructural changes underlying parkinsonism in SSD. Read More

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High spatial resolution measurements of passive-sampler derived air concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the Campania region, Italy: Implications for source identification and risk analysis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 29;286:117248. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Resources, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 80125, Italy.

Because most relevant studies have used small sample sizes, to date, representative atmospheric monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on a regional scale has been very limited, which makes it difficult to precisely identify "hotspots" and possible pollution sources. In this study, an ultrahigh resolution monitoring technique was used to measure the atmospheric spatial variations in POP concentrations on a regional scale, throughout Campania, Italy. The occurrence of specific POPs-including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phthalate esters (PAEs)-were investigated using polyurethane foam-based passive air samplers (PUF-PAS), which were deployed at 129 sites across the Campania Territory between April and July 2016. Read More

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Organ and tissue-specific distribution of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ApoE-KO mouse.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 24;286:117219. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875, China. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most prevalent classes of environmental pollutants resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Exposure to PAHs is implicated in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and even cancer. However, little is known about organ- and tissue-specific distribution patterns of PAHs in animals at macro-tissue and microscopic levels. Read More

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Hypofractionated versus single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 20;206:106645. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, Indonesia. Electronic address:

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the latest evidence on the hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HF-SRS) compared to single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SF-SRS) for the treatment of brain metastases.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, EuropePMC, ProQuest, and Cochrane Central Databases. Original research articles investigating patients with brain metastasis receiving HF-SRS or SF-SRS reporting the local control/failure and/or radionecrosis during follow-up were included. Read More

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Sorptive and microbial riddance of micro-pollutant ibuprofen from contaminated water: A state of the art review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 1;786:147327. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, India. Electronic address:

Continuous discharge of ibuprofen, a pharmaceutical compound in local water systems is becoming a budding concern as seen from data procured from the past few decades. Increased concentrations of the compound in water reservoirs resulted in adverse effects on the environment. In order to prevent the deleterious impacts of increasing ibuprofen concentration in water bodies, application of cost effective and energy efficient elimination of ibuprofen (IBP) is needed. Read More

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PARP inhibitor olaparib has a potential to increase the effectiveness of electrochemotherapy in BRCA1 mutated breast cancer in mice.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 May 1;140:107832. Epub 2021 May 1.

Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Health Sciences, Zdravstvena pot 5, SI - 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a local therapy, has different effectiveness among tumor types. In breast cancer, its effectiveness is low; therefore, combined therapies are needed. The aim of our study was to combine ECT with PARP inhibitor olaparib, which could inhibit the repair of bleomycin or cisplatin induced DNA damage and potentiate the effectiveness of ECT. Read More

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The battle to increase tobacco taxes: Lessons from Philippines and Ukraine.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 7;279:114001. Epub 2021 May 7.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, 2213 McElderry Street, Fourth Floor, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Introduction: While increasing taxes on tobacco is one of the most effective tobacco control measures, its adoption has been slow compared to other tobacco control policies. Given this, there is an urgent need to better understand the political and economic dynamics that lead to its adoption despite immense tobacco industry opposition. The primary aim of this study is to explore the process, actors, and determinants that helped lead to the successful passage of the 2012 Sin Tax Reform Law in the Philippines and the 2017 seven-year plan for tobacco tax increases in Ukraine. Read More

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Bioretention systems for stormwater management: Recent advances and future prospects.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 10;292:112766. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Bioretention is a popular stormwater management strategy that is often utilized in urban environments to combat water quality and hydrological impacts of stormwater. This goal is achieved by selective designing of a system, which consists of suitable vegetation at the top planted on an engineered media with drainage system and possible underdrain at the bottom. Bibliometric analysis on bioretention studies indicates that most of the original research contributions are derived from a few countries and selected research groups. Read More

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Assessing potential ecosystem service dynamics driven by urbanization in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, China.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 10;292:112734. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Ecosystem services (ESs) link natural and social processes and play an important role in sustaining ecological security, human well-being, and sustainable development. However, uncertainties in future socioeconomic land use drivers may result in very different land use dynamics and consequences for land-based ESs. In this study, land use transitions in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) were simulated in the short term (2018-2030), medium term (2030-2040), and long term (2040-2050) using the future land use simulation (FLUS) model based on the local shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Read More

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Functional brain networks underlying automatic and controlled handwriting in Chinese.

Brain Lang 2021 May 10;219:104962. Epub 2021 May 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Center for Brain Science and Learning Difficulties, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to identify the functional brain networks underlying the distinctions between automatic and controlled handwriting in Chinese. Network-based analysis was applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected while adult participants performed a copying task under automatic and speed-controlled conditions. We found significant differences between automatic and speed-controlled handwriting in functional connectivity within and between the frontoparietal network, default mode network, dorsal attention network, somatomotor network and visual network; these differences reflect the variations in general attentional control and task-relevant visuomotor operations. Read More

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Modulation of CXCR1 and CXCR3 expression on NK cells via Tim-3 in a murine model of primary biliary cholangitis.

Mol Immunol 2021 May 10;135:342-350. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 650101 Yunnan Province, China; Yunnan Research Center for Liver Diseases, Kunming, 650101 Yunnan Province, China. Electronic address:

Tim-3, which is expressed on a variety of innate immune cells including NK cells, plays a key role in many autoimmune diseases. However, the immunomodulatory actions of Tim-3 on NK cells in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) remain uncertain. Using a murine model of PBC we evaluated the expression of Tim-3 and its ligand Gal-9 in peripheral blood, liver, and spleen. Read More

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Proton beam therapy for children and adolescents and young adults (AYAs): JASTRO and JSPHO Guidelines.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Apr 16;98:102209. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Nagaizumi, Shizuoka, Japan.

Children and adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are often treated with a multidisciplinary approach. This includes use of radiotherapy, which is important for local control, but may also cause adverse events in the long term, including second cancer. The risks for limited growth and development, endocrine dysfunction, reduced fertility and second cancer in children and AYAs are reduced by proton beam therapy (PBT), which has a dose distribution that decreases irradiation of normal organs while still targeting the tumor. Read More

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Neuronal replacement: Concepts, achievements, and call for caution.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2021 May 10;69:185-192. Epub 2021 May 10.

Physiological Genomics, Biomedical Center (BMC), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU), Großhaderner Str. 9, 82152 Planegg/Martinsried, Germany; Helmholtz Center Munich, Biomedical Center (BMC), Institute of Stem Cell Research, Großhaderner Str. 9, 82152 Planegg/Martinsried, Germany. Electronic address:

Regenerative approaches have made such a great progress, now aiming toward replacing the exact neurons lost upon injury or neurodegeneration. Transplantation and direct reprogramming approaches benefit from identification of molecular programs for neuronal subtype specification, allowing engineering of more precise neuronal subtypes. Disentangling subtype diversity from dynamic transcriptional states presents a challenge now. Read More

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PCR detection and genetic characterization of piroplasms from dogs in Myanmar, and a possible role of dogs as reservoirs for Theileria parasites infecting cattle, water buffaloes, and goats.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Apr 21;12(4):101729. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Parasitology, Graduate School of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818, Japan. Electronic address:

Canine vector-borne pathogens can act as zoonotic agents in humans; however, it poorly understood whether dogs play a role as reservoirs of vector-borne parasites in livestock animals. Here, we report the unexpected detection of 18S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences of five ruminant Theileria species from the peripheral blood of dogs in Myanmar, in addition to those of two canine Babesia species. Using novel BTH primers capable of amplifying the 18S rDNA of Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon spp. Read More

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Procurement, commissioning and QA of AI based solutions: An MPE's perspective on introducing AI in clinical practice.

Phys Med 2021 May 10;83:257-263. Epub 2021 May 10.

University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Purpose: In this study, we propose a framework to help the MPE take up a unique and important role at the introduction of AI solutions in clinical practice, and more in particular at procurement, acceptance, commissioning and QA.

Material And Methods: The steps for the introduction of Medical Radiological Equipment in a hospital setting were extrapolated to AI tools. Literature review and in-house experience was added to prepare similar, yet dedicated test methods. Read More

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Navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves the outcome of postsurgical paresis in glioma patients - A randomized, double-blinded trial.

Brain Stimul 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Technical University of Munich, Germany, School of Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Germany; TUM Neuroimaging Center, Technical University of Munich, Germany, School of Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (nrTMS) is effective therapy for stroke patients. Neurorehabilitation could be supported by low-frequency stimulation of the non-damaged hemisphere to reduce transcallosal inhibition.

Objective: The present study examines the effect of postoperative nrTMS therapy of the unaffected hemisphere in glioma patients suffering from acute surgery-related paresis of the upper extremity (UE) due to subcortical ischemia. Read More

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Lipophilic recombinant-protein insertion endows lymphocytes with enhanced targeting-infiltration ability in EGFR positive cancer.

Cell Immunol 2021 May 5;365:104376. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University & Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Adoptive T cell transfer is one of the most promising ways to combat solid tumors. However, the weak infiltration of T cells into tumor sites has restricted their antitumor efficacy. To overcome this obstacle, we used the lipophilic protein painting strategy to improve tumor targeting and penetrating capacity of lymphocytes for the first time. Read More

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Regulation of macrophage functions by FABP-mediated inflammatory and metabolic pathways.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 May 10;1866(8):158964. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Electronic address:

Macrophages are almost everywhere in the body, where they serve pivotal functions in maintaining tissue homeostasis, remodeling, and immunoregulation. Macrophages are traditionally thought to differentiate from bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Emerging studies suggest that some tissue macrophages at steady state originate from embryonic precursors in the yolk sac or fetal liver and are maintained in situ by self-renewal, but bone marrow-derived monocytes can give rise to tissue macrophages in pathogenic settings, such as inflammatory injuries and cancer. Read More

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Differences between the child and adult brain in the local functional structure of the cerebral cortex.

Neuroimage 2021 May 10:118150. Epub 2021 May 10.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Ciber on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Imaging studies on neuronal network formation provide relevant information as to how the brain matures during adolescence. We used a novel imaging approach combining well-established MRI measures of local functional connectivity that jointly provide qualitatively different information relating to the functional structure of the cerebral cortex. To investigate the adolescent transition into adulthood, we comparatively assessed 169 preadolescents aged 8-12 years and 121 healthy adults. Read More

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Outbreak investigation of symptomatic SARS-COV-2 VOC 202012/01-lineage B.1.1.7 infection in healthcare workers, Italy.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology-Hygiene Section, University of Bari, Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: In December 2020, Italy began a national immunization campaign using the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, prioritizing healthcare workers (HCWs). Immune serum from vaccinated subjects seems to (largely) retain titres of neutralizing antibodies, even against SARS-CoV-2 VOC 202012/01-lineage B.1. Read More

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Pseudo heparin resistance after pulmonary endarterectomy: Role of thrombus production of Factor VIII.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; Latner Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratories, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the main treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Postoperative unfractionated heparin dosing can be monitored by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or by anti-factor Xa activity (anti-Xa). In pseudo heparin resistance, APTT response to heparin is blunted due to elevated Factor VIII (FVIII) which can underestimate anticoagulation. Read More

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Establishment of lncRNA-mRNA network in bovine oocyte between germinal vesicle and metaphase II stage.

Gene 2021 May 10:145716. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement in Universities of Shandong, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China. Electronic address:

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), a type of non-protein coding transcripts with lengths exceeding 200 nucleotides, is reported to be widely involved in many cellular and developmental processes. However, few roles of lncRNA in oocyte development have been defined. In this study, to uncover the effect of lncRNA during oocyte maturation, bovine germinal vesicle (GV) and in vitro matured metaphase II (MII) oocytes underwent RNA sequencing. Read More

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Ethnopharmacology, biological activities and chemical compounds of Canarium strictum: An important resin-yielding medicinal tree in India.

Fitoterapia 2021 May 10:104920. Epub 2021 May 10.

Section for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

The resin of Canarium strictum Roxb. is used for rheumatism and asthma; the bark is used as a mosquito repellent. The major compounds in the resin are triterpenoids, but as no studies have been performed on the bark, this study investigated this economically important resource. Read More

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CSPGs Promote the Migration of Meningeal Fibroblasts via p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway Under OGD Conditions.

Brain Res Bull 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Usually glial scar that occurs after central nervous system injury has significantly affected the local neural microenvironment. Meningeal fibroblasts play an essential role in the formation of the glial scar. However, how and why meningeal fibroblasts migrate to lesion sites is still unclear. Read More

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The cognitive development of food taste perception in a food tourism destination: A gastrophysics approach.

Appetite 2021 May 10:105310. Epub 2021 May 10.

, Department of Archaeology, Cultural Heritage and Museology Floor 5, West Building 1, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310028 China. Electronic address:

This study aims to explore the nature and processes involved in the cognitive development of food tourist's taste perception and identify cognitive factors influencing their food taste experience in the context of a food tourism destination. Adopting a gastrophysics approach, this exploratory qualitative research analyses food taste perceptions of Chinese domestic tourists during their visit to the Hangzhou Cuisine Museum and its associated restaurants. The findings suggest that prior knowledge formation as a manifestation of cognitive signs relating to Hangzhou cuisine and interpretive cognitive information acquired at the museum exhibition, greatly affect the tourists' local food taste experiences: these comprise menu selection and appetitive responses in textual, visual and gustatory senses. Read More

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Phytochemical composition, antisnake venom and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract of Aegiphila integrifolia (Jacq) Moldenke leaves.

Toxicon 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Chemical Engineering Section, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Snakebites are considered a major neglected tropical disease, resulting in around 100,000 deaths per year. The recommended treatment by the WHO is serotherapy, which has limited effectiveness against the toxins involved in local tissue damage. In some countries, patients use plants from folk medicines as antivenoms. Read More

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PTTG1 knockdown enhances radiation-induced antitumour immunity in lung adenocarcinoma.

Life Sci 2021 May 10:119594. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University/Yunnan Cancer Hospital, PR China. Electronic address:

Aim: Ionizing radiation (IR) can induce local and systemic antitumour immune responses to some degree and augment immunotherapeutic efficacy. IR may also increase residual tumour cell invasion and elicit immunosuppression in the tumour microenvironment (TME). It remains poorly understand, whether IR leads to immune negative response or invasive capacity increases in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). Read More

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