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[Effects of dexmedetomidine doses on postoperative cognitive dysfunction and serum β- amyloid and cytokine levels in elderly patients after spine surgery: a randomized controlled trial].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Apr;41(4):600-606

Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510000, China.

Objective: To explore the immunomodulatory mechanism and optimal dose of dexmedetomidine (DEX) for preventing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in elderly patients undergoing spinal surgery.

Objective: A total of 120 elderly patients undergoing elective spinal surgery with general anesthesia were randomized into 4 groups to receive a loading dose of 0.3 μg/kg DEX for 10 min before anesthesia induction followed by maintenance doses of 0. Read More

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The effect of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative blood glucose homeostasis: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Anesthesiol 2021 May 7;21(1):139. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative blood glucose hemostasis in elderly patients undergoing non-cardiac major surgery.

Methods: This was secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Patients in dexmedetomidine group received a loading dose dexmedetomidine (0. Read More

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Internal loading of phosphate in rivers reduces at higher flow velocity and is reduced by iron rich sand application: an experimental study in flumes.

Water Res 2021 Apr 18;198:117160. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Division of Soil and Water Management, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Many lowland regions are afflicted with high phosphorus (P) peaks in rivers during the summer months. Static incubations of sediments have shown that reductive dissolution of ferric iron (Fe(III)) minerals in the sediment explain these P peaks. This study was set up to identify if that mechanism also dominates in a dynamic system, thereby testing the roles of water flow velocity and sediment Fe/P ratio. Read More

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GLPG1205, a GPR84 Modulator: Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics in Healthy Subjects.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Galapagos, Mechelen, Belgium.

GLPG1205 is a modulator of GPR84, a G-protein-coupled receptor reported to be associated with several diseases. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of GLPG1205 in healthy subjects were evaluated in 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-site, phase 1 studies. In study 1, 16 (aged 21-48 years) and 24 (24-50 years) healthy men received single doses of GLPG1205 10 to 800 mg, and GLPG1205 50, 100, or 200 mg once daily for 14 days, respectively, or placebo. Read More

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The effects of secondary iron overload and iron chelation on a radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia mouse model.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 6;21(1):509. Epub 2021 May 6.

Biological Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) require chronic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion due to anemia. Multiple RBC transfusions cause secondary iron overload and subsequent excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to mutations, cell death, organ failure, and inferior disease outcomes. We hypothesize that iron loading promotes AML development by increasing oxidative stress and disrupting important signaling pathways in the bone marrow cells (BMCs). Read More

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A rabies virus vectored severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) bivalent candidate vaccine confers protective immune responses in mice.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Apr 21;257:109076. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China. Electronic address:

The Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne hemorrhagic zoonotic disease, which is potentially fatal in human with mortality rates ranging from 16.2%-32%. The rabies virus (RABV) LBNSE vector expressing foreign antigens have shown considerable promise as vaccines against viral diseases, which is effective and safe. Read More

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The impact of hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin combination on Tpeak-to-end and Tpeak-to-end/QT ratio during a short treatment course.

Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2021 May 6:e12846. Epub 2021 May 6.

Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Since there was no proven treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin (HCQ-AZM) combination is being used in different countries as a treatment option. Many controversies exist related to the safety and effectiveness of this combination, and questions about how HCQ-AZM combination affects the ventricular repolarization are still unknown.

Objective: The aim of the study was to show whether the hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin (HCQ-AZM) combination prolonged Tpeak-to-end (TpTe) duration and TpTe/QT interval ratio or not. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of drug interactions at the P2Y receptor between selatogrel and oral P2Y antagonists.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Clinical Pharmacology, Allschwil, Switzerland.

Selatogrel is a potent and reversible P2Y receptor antagonist developed for subcutaneous self-administration by patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. After single-dose emergency treatment with selatogrel, patients are switched to long-term treatment with oral P2Y receptor antagonists. Selatogrel shows rapid onset and offset of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) to overcome the critical initial time after acute myocardial infarction. Read More

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Clinical Features, Prognosis, and Long-Term Response to Ranibizumab of Macular CNVs in Pattern Dystrophies Spectrum: A Pilot Study.

J Ophthalmol 2021 16;2021:6698522. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

UOC Ophthalmology, Ospedale A. Fiorini Terracina, Sapienza University of Rome, Terracina 04120, Italy.

Introduction: To analyze the morphological and functional features of choroidal neovascularizations (CNVs) in eyes affected by pattern dystrophies (PD), evaluating their long-term response to intravitreal ranibizumab, and comparing them with CNVs in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The mean goal is to identify possible disease biomarkers and to evaluate the long-term prognosis of CNVs in PD.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study of 42 patients with naïve CNV (26 PD and 16 AMD), for a total of 47 eyes (29 eyes in the PD group and 18 eyes in the AMD group). Read More

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Pharmacokinetic and Adsorptive Analyses of Administration of Oral Voriconazole Suspension via Enteral Feeding Tube in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

Biol Pharm Bull 2021 ;44(5):737-741

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Oita University Hospital.

For intensive care unit (ICU) patients, injectable voriconazole (VRCZ) is difficult to use because the patients often develop acute kidney injury. Since many ICU patients have consciousness disturbance, oral ingestion of tablet formulation is also difficult, and administration of a suspension via enteral feeding tube is required when using VRCZ. In this study, we investigated the in vitro adsorption property of oral VRCZ to feeding tube and performed pharmacokinetic analysis of VRCZ prepared by powdering and simple suspension for ICU patients. Read More

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January 2021

Clopidogrel with aspirin in High-risk patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events II (CHANCE-2): rationale and design of a multicentre randomised trial.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: In patients with a minor ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), separate trials have shown that dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin (clopidogrel-aspirin) or ticagrelor plus aspirin (ticagrelor-aspirin) are more effective than aspirin alone in stroke secondary prevention. However, these two sets of combination have not been directly compared. Since clopidogrel was less effective in stroke patients who were loss-of-function (LOF) allele carriers, whether ticagrelor-aspirin is clinically superior to clopidogrel-aspirin in this subgroup of patients with stroke is unclear. Read More

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Constant Rate Infusion of Lidocaine, Tumescent Anesthesia and Their Combination in Dogs Undergoing Unilateral Mastectomy.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy.

Tumescent anesthesia (TUM) is a technique that was initially used to perform liposuction under local anesthesia, which consists of the injection of such large volumes of local anesthetic until to produce swelling and firmness (tumescence) of the surgical area. The aim of this study was to compare the intraoperative analgesic efficacy of lidocaine (LID) constant rate infusion (CRI), of TUM, or their combination (LID/TUM) and the postoperative pain and analgesic requirement in dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy. Twenty-four dogs were premedicated with dexmedetomidine (3 μg/kg) and methadone (0. Read More

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Galcanezumab for the prevention of high frequency episodic and chronic migraine in real life in Italy: a multicenter prospective cohort study (the GARLIT study).

J Headache Pain 2021 May 3;22(1):35. Epub 2021 May 3.

Headache and Pain Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy.

Background: The clinical benefit of galcanezumab, demonstrated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), remains to be quantified in real life. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of galcanezumab in the prevention of high-frequency episodic migraine (HFEM) and chronic migraine (CM) in a real-life setting.

Methods: This multicenter prospective observational cohort study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2021 at 13 Italian headache centers. Read More

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Comparing Effectiveness of Three Different Anti-VEGF Treatment Regimens for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Two Years' Real-World Clinical Outcomes.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 23;15:1703-1713. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Birmingham & Midland Eye Centre, Birmingham, UK.

Purpose: To compare and report the 2-year treatment outcomes from 3 different anti-VEGF treatment regimens in treating neovascular aged-related macular degeneration (nAMD): Ranibizumab pro re nata (Ranibizumab-PRN); Ranibizumab treat and extend (Ranibizumab-T&E); Aflibercept fixed first year dosing (7 injections) with treat and extend in subsequent year (Aflibercept-Fixed).

Methods: All treatment-naïve nAMD patients who completed 24 months of monitoring from a single treatment center were included. Patients received the initial loading dose of three injections (4-weekly interval), followed by one of the 3 treatment regimens. Read More

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Hyaluronic acid- Graphene Quantum Dot Nanocomposite: Potential Target Drug Delivery and Cancer Cell Imaging.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran.

Nowadays, the use of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems has received much more attention. In this regard, here, Graphene quantum dots (GQD) were used as drug carriers as well as imaging agents for cancer cells. In order to optimize the dose of the drug and reduce its side effects for healthy cells, Hyaluronic acid was decorated on the surface of GQD to target cancer cells. Read More

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Tranexamic acid to reduce head injury death in people with traumatic brain injury: the CRASH-3 international RCT.

Health Technol Assess 2021 Apr;25(26):1-76

Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Tranexamic acid safely reduces mortality in traumatic extracranial bleeding. Intracranial bleeding is common after traumatic brain injury and can cause brain herniation and death. We assessed the effects of tranexamic acid in traumatic brain injury patients. Read More

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Drug delivery of amoxicillin molecule as a suggested treatment for covid-19 implementing functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 with aminopropyl groups.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):856-864

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that was isolated and identified for the first time in Wuhan, China in 2019. Nowadays, it is a worldwide danger and the WHO named it a pandemic. In this investigation, a functionalization post-synthesis method was used to assess the ability of an adapted SBA-15 surface as a sorbent to load the drug from an aqueous medium. Read More

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December 2021

Nemonoxacin Dosage Adjustment in Patients with Severe Renal Impairment Based on Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Antibiotics, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Aims: To optimize the dosing regimen in patients with severe renal impairment based on population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PPK/PD) analysis.

Methods: The pharmacokinetics and safety of nemonoxacin was evaluated in a single-dose, open-label, nonrandomized, parallel-group study after single oral dose of 0.5 g nemonoxacin capsule in 10 patients with severe renal impairment and 10 healthy controls. Read More

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A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Two Doses of Caffeine for Apnoea in Prematurity.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 23;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Paediatrics, Health Campus, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Caffeine is the most commonly used methyl xanthine for the prevention of apnoea in prematurity, but the ideal dose was uncertain, until now. This study compared two doses of caffeine for the prevention of apnoea in prematurity. A clinical trial was conducted on 78 preterm infants ≤32 weeks in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Read More

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Antimicrobial Stewardship and Its Impact on the Changing Epidemiology of Polymyxin Use in a South Indian Healthcare Setting.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi 682041, Kerala, India.

Polymyxins being last resort drugs to treat infections triggered by multidrug-resistant pathogens necessitates the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) initiatives to support its rational prescription across healthcare settings. Our study aims to describe the change in the epidemiology of polymyxins and patient outcomes following the implementation of ASP at our institution. The antimicrobial stewardship program initiated in February 2016 at our 1300 bed tertiary care center involved post-prescriptive audits tracking polymyxin consumption and evaluating prescription appropriateness in terms of the right indication, right frequency, right drug, right duration of therapy and administration of the right loading dose (LD) and maintenance dose (MD). Read More

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Impact of Platelet Reactivity in ACS Patients on Clinical Outcomes with Triple Antithrombotic Therapy.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 8;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Cardiology, ARCHANTEC, School of Medicine, Aix Marseille University, 13007 Marseille, France.

Optimal antithrombotic therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients on oral anticoagulants (OAC) remains a clinical conundrum. In fact, combining an OAC with dual antiplatelet therapy (triple antithrombotic therapy, TAT) increases the risk of bleeding. Clopidogrel is the only thienopyridine recommended in TAT patients. Read More

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The Effect of Tranexamic Acid Administration on Early Endothelial Damage Following Posterior Lumbar Fusion Surgery.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 1;10(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Tranexamic acid (TXA) protects against endothelial glycocalyx injury in vitro. We aimed to evaluate whether TXA could protect against endothelial glycocalyx degradation in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion surgery. Patients aged 30-80 years were enrolled. Read More

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A Mathematical Treatment of Multiple Intermittent Intravenous Infusions in a One-Compartment Model.

Michalakis Savva

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 20;205:106103. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at South University, Savannah, GA 31406, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Compartment models in pharmacokinetics are generally described for a single dose and can only simulate drug concentration as a function of the first dosing interval. Our objective was to create a one-compartment model for constant rate repetitive intravenous intermittent infusions where drug concentration can be simulated as a function of real time.

Methods: The analytical solutions to differential equations that were set for the time periods of drug infusion and elimination after an intermittent intravenous infusion were used to derive sequences patterns and determine the partial sums of mathematical series for multiple intermittent infusion doses. Read More

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Serum Free Triiodothyronine and the Responsiveness to Clopidogrel in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Adv Ther 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100029, China.

Introduction: Both thyroid dysfunction and low responsiveness to clopidogrel have been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Our study aims at determining the relationship between free triiodothyronine (FT3) and low responsiveness to clopidogrel in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing elective PCI were enrolled. Read More

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Outcomes of Mandibular Overdentures Supported by Four Short Implants Combined with Photobiomodulation Therapy.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2021 Mar-Apr;36(2):379-387

Purpose: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate mandibular overdentures supported by four short implants combined with two different doses of photobiomodulation (PBM).

Materials And Methods: A split-mouth design was applied; six completely edentulous male subjects received four short implants in the canine and second premolar area. Short implants were inserted via a digital fully guided approach with a stereolithographic surgical guide. Read More

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β-Cyclodextrin-poly (β-Amino Ester) Nanoparticles Are a Generalizable Strategy for High Loading and Sustained Release of HDAC Inhibitors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, United States.

Therapeutic development of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) has been hampered by a number of barriers to drug delivery, including poor solubility and inadequate tissue penetration. Nanoparticle encapsulation could be one approach to improve the delivery of HDACi to target tissues; however, effective and generalizable loading of HDACi within nanoparticle systems remains a long-term challenge. We hypothesized that the common terminally ionizable moiety on many HDACi molecules could be capitalized upon for loading in polymeric nanoparticles. Read More

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A randomised controlled masked clinical trial of two treatments for osteoarthritis in dogs.

Aust Vet J 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Translational Research and Animal Clinical Trials (TRACTs) group, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

The product 4CYTE™ Canine (Interpath Pty Ltd., Ballarat, Victoria, Australia) contains four active ingredients: three marine-derived ingredients and Epiitalis®, which is extracted from the seed of the plant Biota orientalis. Carprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) licensed for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs and is the active ingredient in several licensed products. Read More

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Safety and efficacy study of oral metronomic vinorelbine combined with trastuzumab (mNH) in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: a phase II trial.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No.17, Panjiayuan Nanli, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100021, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: We conducted a single-arm prospective phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral metronomic vinorelbine combined with trastuzumab (mNH) in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2-positive) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients.

Methods: HER2-positive MBC patients received oral vinorelbine 40 mg thrice a week and trastuzumab (loading dose of 8 mg/kg, followed by 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks) until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. The primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR; CR + PR + SD for ≥ 24 weeks). Read More

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Efficacy of galcanezumab in patients with migraine who did not benefit from commonly prescribed preventive treatments.

BMC Neurol 2021 Apr 23;21(1):175. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA.

Background: Galcanezumab is a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) monoclonal antibody (mAb) indicated for the preventive treatment of migraine. While galcanezumab has demonstrated efficacy in patients who did not respond to prior preventive medications in general, its efficacy in patients who did not benefit from individual, commonly prescribed preventive treatments due to inadequate efficacy or safety/tolerability remains unknown.

Methods: CONQUER was a 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3b study that enrolled patients with episodic or chronic migraine who had 2 to 4 migraine preventive medication category failures in the past 10 years. Read More

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