119,591 results match your criteria liver specific

Hydroxysafflor yellows alleviate thrombosis and acetaminophen-induced toxicity in vivo by enhancing blood circulation and poison excretion.

Phytomedicine 2021 Apr 24;87:153579. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation & Breeding of Grassland Livestock, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010070, China; Key Laboratory of Herbage & Endemic Crop Biology of Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010070, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) from the flower of Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) has been reported to have various pharmacological effects. However, little is known about the bioactivities of other chemical constituents in Safflower and the relationship between enhancement of blood circulation and hepatoprotection by HSYA.

Purpose: The present research was to evaluate the antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities of HSYA and C, examine their mechanisms of actions, including influence on the excretion velocity of acetaminophen, and the relationship between the antithrombotic, hepatoprotective, and other bioactivities. Read More

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Early-phase migration dynamics of Echinococcus multilocularis in two mouse strains showing different infection susceptibilities.

Int J Parasitol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Parasitology, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N 18 W 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818, Japan. Electronic address:

The early-phase migration dynamics of Echinococcus multilocularis in the intermediate hosts remain largely unknown. We compared the parasite burden in the intestine, liver and faeces of DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mouse strains using parasite-specific quantitative PCR. Our results indicated that the parasites invaded mainly from the middle segments of the small intestine and completed migration to the liver within 24 h p. Read More

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Speciation analysis of organoarsenic species in marine samples: method optimization using fractional factorial design and method validation.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870, 5817, Bergen, Norway.

Organoarsenic species in marine matrices have been studied for many years but knowledge gaps still exist. Most literature focuses on monitoring of arsenic (As) species using previously published methods based on anion- and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). These studies are often limited to few As species and/or only specific method performance characteristics are described. Read More

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Genetic potential for residual feed intake and diet fed during early- to mid-gestation influences post-natal DNA methylation of imprinted genes in muscle and liver tissues in beef cattle.

J Anim Sci 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Edmonton, Canada.

Discovery of epigenetic modifications associated with feed efficiency or other economically important traits would increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits. In combination with known genetic markers, this would provide opportunity to improve genomic selection accuracy in cattle breeding programs. It would also allow cattle to be managed to improve favorable gene expression. Read More

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Ischemia reperfusion injury induces pyroptosis and mediates injury in steatotic liver thorough Caspase 1 activation.

Apoptosis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 1760 Haygood Drive, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

A steatotic liver is increasingly vulnerable to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. Caspases are endo-proteases, which provide critical regulatory connections between cell death and inflammation. Caspase 1 is driven by inflammasomes which are key signaling platforms, that detect sterile stressors (DAMPs), releasing the highly pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin IL-8 and IL-1β. Read More

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A preliminary single-center investigation of percutaneous biliary stenting in malignant hilar biliary obstruction: what impacts the clinical success and the long-term outcomes?

Support Care Cancer 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Huaxiang Road 39, Shenyang City, 110004, Liaoning Province, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the influencing factors that may impact the clinical success, jaundice-free time, and overall survival in patients of malignant hilar biliary obstruction (MHBO) treated with a self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS).

Materials And Methods: Patients diagnosed with MHBO and treated with SEMS through percutaneous access from 1 Jul. 2013 to 1 Jul. Read More

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Tissue context determines the penetrance of regulatory DNA variation.

Nat Commun 2021 May 14;12(1):2850. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Functional assessment of disease-associated sequence variation at non-coding regulatory elements is complicated by their high degree of context sensitivity to both the local chromatin and nuclear environments. Allelic profiling of DNA accessibility across individuals has shown that only a select minority of sequence variation affects transcription factor (TF) occupancy, yet low sequence diversity in human populations means that no experimental assessment is available for the majority of disease-associated variants. Here we describe high-resolution in vivo maps of allelic DNA accessibility in liver, kidney, lung and B cells from 5 increasingly diverged strains of F1 hybrid mice. Read More

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Targeting human Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase as a dual viral and T cell metabolic checkpoint.

Nat Commun 2021 May 14;12(1):2814. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Infection & Immunity, Institute of Immunity & Transplantation, University College London, London, UK.

Determining divergent metabolic requirements of T cells, and the viruses and tumours they fail to combat, could provide new therapeutic checkpoints. Inhibition of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) has direct anti-carcinogenic activity. Here, we show that ACAT inhibition has antiviral activity against hepatitis B (HBV), as well as boosting protective anti-HBV and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) T cells. Read More

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Improving pollutants environmental risk assessment using a multi model toxicity determination with in vitro, bacterial, animal and plant model systems: The case of the herbicide alachlor.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 27;286:117239. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal; CNC - Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, CIBB - Centre for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology, University of Coimbra, IIIUC - Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Several environmental pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides and persistent organic pollutants play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. However, most studies have examined environmental pollutants toxicity in target organisms or using a specific toxicological test, losing the real effect throughout the ecosystem. In this sense an integrative environmental risk of pollutants assessment, using different model organisms is necessary to predict the real impact in the ecosystem and implications for target and non-target organisms. Read More

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Quantitative Characterization of Population-Wide Tissue- and Metabolite-Specific Variability in Perchloroethylene Toxicokinetics in Male Mice.

Toxicol Sci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Interdisciplinary Faculty of Toxicology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Quantification of inter-individual variability is a continuing challenge in risk assessment, particularly for compounds with complex metabolism and multi-organ toxicity. Toxicokinetic variability for perchloroethylene (perc) was previously characterized across three mouse strains and in one mouse strain with various degrees of liver steatosis. To further characterize the role of genetic variability in toxicokinetics of perc, we applied Bayesian population physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to the data on perc and metabolites in blood/plasma and tissues of male mice from 45 inbred strains from the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse population. Read More

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The Impact of Alcohol in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Several environmental factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); however, the evidence for alcohol is sparse, as is its implications on disease activity and overall management. Here, we examine the available evidence for the effect of alcohol on IBD, including its association with the development of IBD, role in exacerbations, and potential medication interactions. Several mechanisms have been demonstrated to mediate the effects of ethanol in the gastrointestinal tract. Read More

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Validity of a Modified Food and Nutrition Literacy (M-FNLIT) Questionnaire in Primary School Children in Iran.

Br J Nutr 2021 May 14:1-28. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

The present study aimed to assess the relative validity and reliability of a modified Food and Nutrition Literacy (M-FNLIT) questionnaire in primary school children in the city of Mashhad. The study was conducted in four phases. In the first step, the content and face validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by Delphi consensus as well as interviewing the students. Read More

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A scoping review to identify and map the multidimensional domains of pain in adults with advanced liver disease.

Can J Pain 2020 Sep 15;4(1):210-224. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

: Pain is a significant problem in adults living with advanced liver disease, having limited guidance available for its clinical management. While pain is considered a multidimensional experience, there have been limited reviews of the pain literature in advanced liver disease conducted with a multidimensional framework. The goal of this scoping review was to identify and map the multidimensional domains of pain in adults with advanced liver disease using the biopsychosocial model. Read More

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September 2020

The role of bile acids in cholestatic liver injury.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):737

Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Clinical disorders that impair bile flow result in retention of bile acids and cholestatic liver injury, characterized by parenchymal cell death, bile duct proliferation, liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the pathogenic role of bile acids in the development of cholestatic liver injury remains incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of this process focusing on the experimental and clinical evidence for direct effects of bile acids on each major cellular component of the liver: hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, stellate cells and immune cells. Read More

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Diagnostic management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a transformational period in the development of diagnostic and predictive tools-a narrative review.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):727

Fondazione Italiana Fegato, ONLUS Area Science Park Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.

NAFLD is an emerging healthcare epidemic that is causing predictable adverse consequences for healthcare systems, societies and individuals. Whilst NAFLD is recognized as a multi-system disease with compound pathways that are both benign and pernicious in their unfolding; NASH is generally understood as a deleterious follow-on condition with path-specific tendencies that progress to cirrhosis, HCC and liver transplantation. Recent evidence is beginning to challenge this interpretation demanding more attention to the personalized nature of the disease and its pathogenesis across multiple different cohorts. Read More

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Immune checkpoint inhibitor plus tyrosine kinase inhibitor for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in the real world.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):652

Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, and Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion (Ministry of Education), Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate safety and efficacy of programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor sintilimab plus tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in a real-word cohort of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC).

Methods: A total of 60 patients treated with sintilimab plus TKI between February 2019 and December 2019 were enrolled. Radiological response was recorded by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and every 6-12 weeks after treatment initiation. Read More

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Perinatal DEHP exposure induces sex- and tissue-specific DNA methylation changes in both juvenile and adult mice.

Environ Epigenet 2021 10;7(1):dvab004. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, 500 S State St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a type of phthalate plasticizer found in a variety of consumer products and poses a public health concern due to its metabolic and endocrine disruption activities. Dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, has been shown to be an important mechanism for the pathogenic effects of prenatal exposures, including phthalates. In this study, we used an established mouse model to study the effect of perinatal DEHP exposure on the DNA methylation profile in liver (a primary target tissue of DEHP) and blood (a common surrogate tissue) of both juvenile and adult mice. Read More

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Characteristics of the intestinal microbiome in ankylosing spondylitis.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 24;22(1):676. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, 700115 Iasi, Romania.

The importance of intestinal microbiota in the development of various systemic diseases has been highlighted over time. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a systemic disease with a complex pathogenesis involving a particular genetic marker and distinctive environmental triggers such as a specific gut dysbiosis. We conducted a prospective case-control study which included 60 subjects from Iasi Rehabilitation Hospital: 28 AS cases and 32 healthy controls. Read More

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A Full-Length mRNA Transcriptome Generated From Hybrid-Corrected PacBio Long-Reads Improves the Transcript Annotation and Identifies Thousands of Novel Splice Variants in Atlantic Salmon.

Front Genet 2021 27;12:656334. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Life Sciences and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.

Atlantic salmon () is a major species produced in world aquaculture and an important vertebrate model organism for studying the process of rediploidization following whole genome duplication events (Ss4R, 80 mya). The current transcriptome is largely generated from genome sequence based predictions supported by ESTs and short-read sequencing data. However, recent progress in long-read sequencing technologies now allows for full-length transcript sequencing from single RNA-molecules. Read More

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Diagnostic Performance of 2-D Shear-Wave Elastography with Propagation Maps and Attenuation Imaging in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Dubrava, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of new 2-D shear-wave elastography (SWE) with propagation maps and attenuation imaging (ATI) for quantification of fibrosis and steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Consecutive patients with NAFLD and healthy volunteers underwent liver stiffness measurement and steatosis quantification by means of vibration-controlled transient elastography coupled with the controlled attenuation parameter as the reference and by 2-D shear-wave elastography (2-D-SWE) with propagation maps and ATI as the investigational methods. We included 232 participants (164 in the NAFLD group and 68 in the healthy control group): 51. Read More

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Multi-omic profiling of lung and liver tumor microenvironments of metastatic pancreatic cancer reveals site-specific immune regulatory pathways.

Genome Biol 2021 May 13;22(1):154. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 550 N Broadway Suite 1101E, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA.

Background: The majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) are diagnosed at the metastatic stage, and standard therapies have limited activity with a dismal 5-year survival rate of only 8%. The liver and lung are the most common sites of PDAC metastasis, and each have been differentially associated with prognoses and responses to systemic therapies. A deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular landscape within the tumor microenvironment (TME) metastasis at these different sites is critical to informing future therapeutic strategies against metastatic PDAC. Read More

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Lethal infection caused by Tetratrichomonas gallinarum in black swans (Cygnus atratus).

BMC Vet Res 2021 May 13;17(1):191. Epub 2021 May 13.

National Research Center for Wildlife Borne Diseases, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1-5 Beichenxilu, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, PR China.

Background: Tetratrichomonas gallinarum is parasitic protozoa with a wide host range. However, its lethal infection is rare reported.

Case Presentation: Here, we described the first lethal cases of T. Read More

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Organ and tissue-specific distribution of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ApoE-KO mouse.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 24;286:117219. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875, China. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most prevalent classes of environmental pollutants resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Exposure to PAHs is implicated in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and even cancer. However, little is known about organ- and tissue-specific distribution patterns of PAHs in animals at macro-tissue and microscopic levels. Read More

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Fuzheng Jiedu Xiaoji formulation inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma progression in patients by targeting the AKT/CyclinD1/p21/p27 pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 Apr 18;87:153575. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Center of Integrative Medicine, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with limited treatment options. Conventional antitumor therapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to limit tumor progression has gradually become the focus of complementary and alternative therapies for HCC treatment. The Fuzheng Jiedu Xiaoji formulation (FZJDXJ) alleviates the clinical symptoms of patients and inhibits tumor progression, but its curative effect still requires extensive clinical research and mechanistic analysis. Read More

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Evaluation and comparison of in vitro intrinsic clearance rates measured using cryopreserved hepatocytes from humans, rats, and rainbow trout.

Toxicology 2021 May 10:152819. Epub 2021 May 10.

US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science Coordination and Policy (OSCP), William Jefferson Clinton Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20460 USA. Electronic address:

In vitro and in silico methods that can reduce the need for animal testing are being used with increasing frequency to assess chemical risks to human health and the environment. The rate of hepatic biotransformation is an important species-specific parameter for determining bioaccumulation potential and extrapolating in vitro bioactivity to in vivo effects. One approach to estimating hepatic biotransformation is to employ in vitro systems derived from liver tissue to measure chemical (substrate) depletion over time which can then be translated to a rate of intrinsic clearance (CL). Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 and Nervous System - Neurological Manifestations in Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review.

J Neurol Res 2020 Aug 30;10(4):113-121. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Neuroscience Post-Graduate Program, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Coronavirus (CoV) is a virus infectious disease with a considerable spectrum of clinical presentations. Symptoms ranged from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia that may lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and several clinical complications. Neurologic symptoms related to CoV have been described recently in the literature. Read More

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Evaluation of high-resolution melt curve analysis for rapid differentiation of Campylobacter hepaticus from other species in birds.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251328. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia.

Spotty liver disease (SLD) is a bacterial disease of chicken, causing mortalities and reduction in egg production, hence, contributing to economic loss in the poultry industry. The causative agent of SLD has only recently been identified as a novel Campylobacter species, Campylobacter hepaticus. Specific primers were designed from the hsp60 gene of Campylobacter hepaticus and PCR followed by high-resolution melt curve analysis was optimised to detect and differentiate three species of Campylobacter (Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter hepaticus). Read More

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Outcomes of Pediatric Liver Transplantation in Japan: A Report from the Registry of the Japanese Liver Transplantation Society (JLTS).

Transplantation 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

1. Transplantation Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan 2. Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan 3. Department of Surgery, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan 4. Department of Surgery, Institute of Gastroenterology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan 5. Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 6. Department of Surgery, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan 7. Department of Gastroenterology and Medicine, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan 8. Department of Hepato-Pancreatic-Biliary and Breast Surgery, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan 9. Department for the Promotion of Regional Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan 10. Shiga Medical University, Shiga, Japan 11. Department of Gastroenterological and Transplant Surgery, Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Background: The Japanese Liver Transplantation Society (JLTS), a cooperative research consortium, was established in 1980 in order to characterize and follow trends in patient characteristics and graft survival among all liver transplant patients in Japan. This study analyzed factors that may affect the current outcomes of pediatric patients who undergo LT by evaluating one of the largest pediatric LT cohorts in the world.

Methods: Between November 1989 and December 2018, 3347 pediatric patients underwent LT in Japan. Read More

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January 2021

The role of skeletal muscle in the pathogenesis of altered concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) in liver cirrhosis, diabetes, and other diseases.

M Holeček

Physiol Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Milan Holeček, Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

The article shows that skeletal muscle plays a dominant role in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and the pathogenesis of their decreased concentrations in liver cirrhosis, increased concentrations in diabetes, and nonspecific alterations in disorders with signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), such as burn injury and sepsis. The main role of skeletal muscle in BCAA catabolism is due to its mass and high activity of BCAA aminotransferase, which is absent in the liver. Decreased BCAA levels in liver cirrhosis are due to increased use of the BCAA as a donor of amino group to alpha-ketoglutarate for synthesis of glutamate, which in muscles acts as a substrate for ammonia detoxification to glutamine. Read More

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3D Cell Culture Models: Drug Pharmacokinetics, Safety Assessment, and Regulatory Consideration.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, FDA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Nonclinical testing has served as a foundation for evaluating potential risks and effectiveness of investigational new drugs in humans. However, the current two-dimensional (2D) in vitro cell culture systems cannot accurately depict and simulate the rich environment and complex processes observed in vivo, while animal studies present significant drawbacks with inherited species-specific differences and low throughput for increased demands. To improve the nonclinical prediction of drug safety and efficacy, researchers continue to develop novel models to evaluate and promote the use of improved cell- and organ-based assays for more accurate representation of human susceptibility to drug response. Read More

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