112,850 results match your criteria literature role


Moderated mediation analyses to assess intervention mechanisms for impacts on victimisation, psycho-social problems and mental wellbeing: Evidence from the INCLUSIVE realist randomized trial.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 3;279:113984. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. Electronic address:

Realist evaluations aim to evaluate interventions by understanding the mechanisms they trigger, assessing not merely what works but what works for whom, under what conditions, and how. Significant disagreement in the literature exists as to whether randomized trials can be used as a tool for realist evaluation. INCLUSIVE, which was the first realist randomized trial explicitly designed as such, evaluated the impact of Learning Together, a school-based intervention for students aged 12-15 that included restorative practice, on bullying victimisation, mental wellbeing and psychological problems. Read More

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Patient and public involvement in care home research: Reflections on the how and why of involving patient and public involvement partners in qualitative data analysis and interpretation.

Health Expect 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: There is limited evidence for the impact of involving patients and the public (PPI) in health research. Descriptions of the PPI process are seldom included in publications, particularly data analysis, yet an understanding of processes and impacts of PPI is essential if its contribution to research is to be evaluated.

Objective: To describe the 'how' of PPI in qualitative data analysis and critically reflect on potential impact. Read More

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Cognitive changes after breast cancer: a scoping review to identify problems encountered by women when returning to work.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 May 11:1-19. Epub 2021 May 11.

Discipline of Occupational, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Purpose: A scoping review of international literature was conducted to identify the various problems encountered by women with breast cancer associated with cognitive deficits, and the relationship to work roles and tasks.

Method: This scoping review was conducted using the structure recommended by Arksey & O'Malley in consideration of the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews checklist and reviewed for quality, inclusion criteria and key findings related to cognitive changes after breast and impact on work. Searches were conducted in five databases from January 2000 to December 2020. Read More

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A bibliometric study about energy, environment, and climate change.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 211106, China.

Using the extended science citation index database (SCI) and social science citation index (SSCI) databases, this paper analyzed the characteristics of publications, research foundations, research hotspots, and the evolutionary tracks of studies in the field of energy, environment, and climate change from 1990 to 2019 using a bibliometric method. This method is useful because it involves the quantitative analysis of large amounts of literature, using mathematical and statistical method. The results showed that the United States (US), the United Kingdom (UK), and China were the countries with the most published papers in the field. Read More

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Encapsulation Nanotechnology in Sperm Cryopreservation: Systems Preparation Methods and Antioxidants Enhanced Delivery.

Cryo Letters 2021 Jan-Feb;42(1):1-12

Associated Laboratory in Marine Ecosystems and Aquaculture, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, Université de Bejaia, Bejaia, Algeria.

Sperm cryopreservation promotes the storage and transport of germplasm for its use in artificial insemination (AI) and other advanced reproductive technologies. However, sperm cryopreservation causes several stresses including thermal shock, osmotic damage, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing sperm quality. Supplementing cryoprotectant media with antioxidants has been reported to be positive in different species. Read More

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Monitoring muscle mass using ultrasound: a key role in critical care.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Adult Intensive Care Medicine Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, VU University, Amsterdam Division of Dietetics, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Sports and Nutrition, Center of Expertise Urban Vitality, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University, Rotterdam Amsterdam Nutritional Assessment Center, Faculty of Sports and Nutrition, Center of Expertise Urban Vitality, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: The loss of muscle mass in critically ill patients contributes to morbidity and mortality, and results in impaired recovery of physical functioning. The number of publications on the topic is increasing. However, there is a lack of consistent methodology and the most optimal methodology remains unclear, hampering its broad use in clinical practice. Read More

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Evidence of Human-Level Bonds Established With a Digital Conversational Agent: Cross-sectional, Retrospective Observational Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 May 11;5(5):e27868. Epub 2021 May 11.

Woebot Health, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Background: There are far more patients in mental distress than there is time available for mental health professionals to support them. Although digital tools may help mitigate this issue, critics have suggested that technological solutions that lack human empathy will prevent a bond or therapeutic alliance from being formed, thereby narrowing these solutions' efficacy.

Objective: We aimed to investigate whether users of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based conversational agent would report therapeutic bond levels that are similar to those in literature about other CBT modalities, including face-to-face therapy, group CBT, and other digital interventions that do not use a conversational agent. Read More

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Primary Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma of Breast: 2 Further Cases with Review of the Literature.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 May 11:10668969211017317. Epub 2021 May 11.

Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a tumor derived from antigen-presenting cells and can occur within lymphoid tissue or at extranodal sites. FDCS of the breast is remarkably rare, with only 4 cases previously reported in literature. FDCS appears grossly as a well-circumscribed, firm mass with a grey-yellow surface, areas of necrosis, and histologically comprises of spindled, oval, or epithelioid cells with intensely eosinophilic cytoplasm. Read More

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Assessment of COVID-19 control strategies in a steel industry using SWOT matrix.

Toxicol Ind Health 2021 May 11:7482337211013319. Epub 2021 May 11.

Social Determinants of Health (SDH) Research Center, and Department of Environment Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

According to the health regulations, industrial environments due to the gathering of people are considered as one of the highest-risk places during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, planning with regard to health concerns can decisively help in infection control and continuity of businesses during the pandemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the COVID-19 control management measures in the Sepid-farab Kavir Steel Complex (SKS complex) located in Isfahan province (Iran) using strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) matrix. Read More

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Efficacy of sacral neuromodulation and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of chronic nonobstructive urinary retention: A systematic review.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Urology, Western Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to provide an updated report on the efficacy and complications of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) in the treatment of chronic nonobstructive urinary retention (CNOUR), with a focus on the contemporary technique of SNM utilizing the percutaneous placement of tined leads.

Methods: This systematic review was conducted with the use of PRISMA guidelines and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020208052). A systematic literature search was conducted in Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases. Read More

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Women's knowledge and awareness on menopause symptoms and its treatment options remains inadequate: a report from the United Arab Emirates.

Menopause 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Public Health, Dubai Medical College, Dubai, United Arab Emirates University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, FL MGH Institute for Health Professions, Boston, MA Centre for Mental Health Research in association with University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Health Informatics and Smart Health Department, Health Regulation Sector, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, and perception of middle-aged women regarding menopause and hormone therapy (HT).

Methods: This observational study was conducted on pre-, peri-, post-, and surgically menopausal women (n = 591) from January 2020 until June 2020 in Dubai. A structured questionnaire was developed based on previous literature to assess participants' knowledge and awareness of menopause and HT. Read More

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Evaluation of systemic estrogen for preventing urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.

Menopause 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Medical School, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA Department of Global Health, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX.

Importance: Current guidelines for postmenopausal recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) prevention recommend the use of vaginal topical estrogen products but not systemic estrogens. Studies show that vaginal estrogen decreases the risk of rUTI, but evidence against use of systemic estrogen is less convincing.

Objective: We performed a comprehensive literature review to evaluate the effect of systemic estrogen on UTI occurrence among postmenopausal women. Read More

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Hybrid Coronary Revascularization: Perspective Current State After 25 Years of Start.

Heart Surg Forum 2021 Apr 27;24(2):E392-E401. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Benha University, Department of Cardiology, Benha, Egypt.

Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) represents a minimally invasive revascularization strategy in which the durability of the internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery graft is combined with percutaneous coronary intervention to treat remaining lesions. It first was introduced in the mid-1990s and aspired to bring together the "best of both worlds" - the excellent patency rates and survival benefits associated with the durable left internal mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending artery alongside the good patency rates of drug-eluting stents, which outlive saphenous vein grafts to non-left anterior descending vessels. Although in theory this is a very attractive revascularization strategy, several years later, only small randomized controlled trials comparing HCR with coronary artery bypass grafting has recently emerged in the medical literature, raising concerns regarding HCR's role. Read More

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Potential Antiviral Immune Response Against COVID-19: Lessons Learned from SARS-CoV.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:149-167

Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran.

Virus and host innate immune system interaction plays a significant role in forming the outcome of viral diseases. Host innate immunity initially recognizes the viral invasion and induces a rapid inflammatory response, and this recognition activates signaling cascades that trigger the release of antiviral mediators. This chapter aims to explore the mechanisms by which newly emerged coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) activates the host immune system. Read More

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January 2021

Research progress on FASN and MGLL in the regulation of abnormal lipid metabolism and the relationship between tumor invasion and metastasis.

Front Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China.

Tumorigenesis involves metabolic reprogramming and abnormal lipid metabolism, which is manifested by increased endogenous fat mobilization, hypertriglyceridemia, and increased fatty acid synthesis. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, and monoacylglycerol esterase (MGLL) is an important metabolic enzyme that converts triglycerides into free fatty acids. Both enzymes play an important role in lipid metabolism and are associated with tumor-related signaling pathways, the most common of which is the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. Read More

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The search for a sustainable alternative to slash-and-burn agriculture in the World's rain forests: the Guama Model and its implementation.

Authors:
Michael Hands

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 17;8(2):201204. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge CB2 3EN, UK.

This account describes the context, history and outcomes of a series of studies into the ecology of slash-and-burn (S-B) agriculture in the world's humid tropics. These studies, which began in the mid-1980s, identified promising lines of research and continued to field trials, in Central America, of candidate agricultural systems as possible sustainable alternatives to the practice. The only system to emerge from 7 years' comparative trial with any promise of sustainability, in this context, was the agroforestry technique known as alley-cropping; but only with trees of the genus . Read More

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February 2021

Interventions and strategies involving primary healthcare professionals to manage emergency department overcrowding: a scoping review.

BMJ Open 2021 May 10;11(5):e048613. Epub 2021 May 10.

George and Fay Yee Center for Healthcare Innovation, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Objectives: To conduct a scoping review to identify and summarise the existing literature on interventions involving primary healthcare professionals to manage emergency department (ED) overcrowding.

Design: A scoping review.

Data Sources: A comprehensive database search of Medline (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library (Wiley) and CINAHL (EBSCO) databases was conducted (inception until January 2020) using peer-reviewed search strategies, complemented by a search of grey literature sources. Read More

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Virtual reality simulation in plastic surgery training. Literature review.

Authors:
V Fuertes Bielsa

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Plastic Surgery Department - University Hospital Miguel Servet, Roger de Tur 10, 2-2, 50002 Zaragoza, Spain. Electronic address:

Major changes have occurred in the medical environment leading to an evolution from the traditional residency programmes to competency-based ones. Virtual reality (VR) represents a promising simulation resource for surgical training. Several types of VR simulators can be considered, depending on the level of immersion they offer. Read More

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The experiences, attitudes and understanding of research amongst medical students at an Australian medical school.

BMC Med Educ 2021 May 10;21(1):267. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Research engagement plays an integral role in developing clinicians that practice effective, evidence-based medicine. Research participation by clinicians, however, is declining. Given the link between research during medical school and future research output, promotion of medical student research is one avenue by which this shortage can be addressed. Read More

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Simultaneous learning of individual microRNA-gene interactions and regulatory comodules.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 May 10;22(1):237. Epub 2021 May 10.

Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Because of the key part that miRNAs play, understanding the correct regulatory role of miRNAs in diverse patho-physiological conditions is of great interest. Although it is known that miRNAs act combinatorially to regulate genes, precise identification of miRNA-gene interactions and their specific functional roles in regulatory comodules remains a challenge. Read More

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The furosemide stress test: current use and future potential.

Ren Fail 2021 Dec;43(1):830-839

Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA.

Loop diuretics are among the most widely used drugs worldwide and are commonly employed in the management of complications associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), namely volume overload and electrolyte management. The use of loop diuretics in critically ill patients with AKI is paramount to preventing or treating pulmonary edema. The naturetic response to a loop diuretic is based on its unique renal pharmacology. Read More

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December 2021

A state-of-the-art review of the current role of cardioprotective techniques in cardiac transplantation.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May;32(5):683-694

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland.

:

Objectives: The use of 'extended criteria' donor hearts and reconditioned hearts from donation after circulatory death has corresponded with an increase in primary graft dysfunction, with ischaemia-reperfusion injury being a major contributing factor in its pathogenesis. Limiting ischaemia-reperfusion injury through optimising donor heart preservation may significantly improve outcomes. We sought to review the literature to evaluate the evidence for this. Read More

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Hygiene hypothesis and autoimmune diseases: A narrative review of clinical evidences and mechanisms.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 May 7:102845. Epub 2021 May 7.

School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy.

Since the start of the "modern era", characterized by the increase in urbanization, a progressive attention to hygiene and autoimmune conditions has considerably grown. Although these diseases are often multifactorial, it was demonstrated that environment factors such as pollution, diet and lifestyles may play a crucial role together with genetic signature. Our research, based on the newest and most significant literature of this topic, highlights that the progressive depletion of microbes and parasites due to increased socioeconomic improvement, may lead to a derangement of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Read More

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A model of dopamine and serotonin-kynurenine metabolism in cortisolemia: Implications for depression.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 10;17(5):e1008956. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

A major factor contributing to the etiology of depression is a neurochemical imbalance of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, which is caused by persistently high levels of circulating stress hormones. Here, a computational model is proposed to investigate the interplay between dopaminergic and serotonergic-kynurenine metabolism under cortisolemia and its consequences for the onset of depression. The model was formulated as a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations represented with power-law functions. Read More

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Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors: a recent update on inhibitor design and clinical trials (2016-2020).

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

DSC 362, Department of Chemistry, The University of Nebraska at Omaha, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68182, USA.

Introduction: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway plays a central role in regulating cell growth and proliferation and thus have been considered as effective anticancer drug targets. Many PI3K inhibitors have been developed and progressed to various stages of clinical trials and some even have been approved in recent years by the regulatory agency as anticancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the drug design and clinical development of PI3K inhibitors in the past four years. Read More

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Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of No Adjuvant Therapy Versus Partial Breast Irradiation Alone Versus Combined Treatment for Treatment of Low-Risk DCIS: A Microsimulation.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May 10:OP2000992. Epub 2021 May 10.

Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Purpose: Adjuvant therapy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ who undergo partial mastectomy remains controversial, particularly for low-risk patients (60 years or older, estrogen-positive, tumor extent < 2.5 cm, grade 1 or 2, and margins ≥ 3 mm). We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing three strategies: no adjuvant treatment after surgery, a five-fraction course of accelerated partial breast irradiation using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (accelerated partial breast irradiation [APBI]-alone), or APBI plus an aromatase inhibitor for 5 years. Read More

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Correction to Scarpina et al. (2020).

Authors:

Neuropsychology 2021 Mar;35(3):334

Reports an error in "Is bimanual interference affected in the case of a central proprioceptive loss? New insight from a left-brain-damaged single-case study" by Federica Scarpina, Sofia Tagini, Marco Rabuffetti, Giovanni Albani, Francesca Garbarini and Alessandro Mauro (, 2020[May], Vol 34[4], 479-492). In the article "Is Bimanual Interference Affected in the Case of a Central Proprioceptive Loss? New Insight From a Left-Brain-Damaged Single-Case Study," by Federica Scarpina, Sofia Tagini, Marco Rabuffetti, Giovanni Albani, Francesca Garbarini, and Alessandro Mauro (Neuropsychology, 2020, Vol. 34, No. Read More

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Socioeconomic and psychosocial mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic disparities in cognition among older adults.

Neuropsychology 2021 Mar;35(3):265-275

Department of Neurology, Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, Columbia University.

Racial/ethnic disparities in cognitive aging are only partly attributable to socioeconomic indicators. Psychosocial factors, such as discrimination and perceived control, also differ across racial/ethnic groups, and emerging literature highlights their potential role in contributing to cognitive disparities in addition to socioeconomic status. 1,463 older adults (51% Hispanic, 27% non-Hispanic Black, and 22% non-Hispanic White) in the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project completed cognitive and psychosocial measures, including a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, Everyday and Major Experiences of Lifetime Discrimination scales, and the Perceived Control scale. Read More

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Concentration-Dependent Solvation Structure and Dynamics of Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Using Multinuclear NMR and DFT.

J Phys Chem B 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States.

Sulfuric acid is a ubiquitous compound for industrial processes, and aqueous sulfate solutions also play a critical role as electrolytes for many prominent battery chemistries. While the thermodynamic literature on it is quite well-developed, comprehensive studies of the solvation structure, particularly molecular-scale dynamical and transport properties, are less available. This study applies a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach to the elucidation of the solvation structure and dynamics over wide temperature (-10 to 50 °C) and concentration (0-18 M) ranges, combining the O shift, line width, and relaxation measurements, S shift and line width measurements, and H pulsed-field gradient NMR measurements of proton self-diffusivity. Read More

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Surfactant therapy via thin catheter in preterm infants with or at risk of respiratory distress syndrome.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 10;5:CD011672. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Paediatrics, Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, Australia.

Background: Non-invasive respiratory support is increasingly used for the management of respiratory dysfunction in preterm infants. This approach runs the risk of under-treating those with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), for whom surfactant administration is of paramount importance. Several techniques of minimally invasive surfactant therapy have been described. Read More

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