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The Miracles of Surfactant: Less Invasive Surfactant Administration, Nebulization, and Carrier of Topical Drugs.

Neonatology 2021 May 10:1-10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) has long become the standard of care in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), significantly decreasing acute pulmonary morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. For decades, this beneficial replacement therapy has been administered via endotracheal tube. Despite significantly improving the outcome of RDS, however, the burden of bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains, in particular, in very immature preterm infants. Read More

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Targeting Poison Exons to Treat Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy.

Dev Neurosci 2021 May 10:1-6. Epub 2021 May 10.

Ken and Ruth Davee Department of Neurology, Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) describe a subset of neurodevelopmental disorders categorized by refractory epilepsy that is often associated with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. The majority of DEEs are now known to have a genetic basis with de novo coding variants accounting for the majority of cases. More recently, a small number of individuals have been identified with intronic SCN1A variants that result in alternative splicing events that lead to ectopic inclusion of poison exons (PEs). Read More

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Neonatal Withdrawal Syndrome following Late in utero Exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

Psychother Psychosom 2021 May 10:1-9. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Introduction: A clear picture of neonatal withdrawal signs due to in utero selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure and its consequences is still missing.

Objective: A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed to provide an overview of neonatal withdrawal signs following late in utero exposure to SSRIs and to quantify the corresponding risks.

Methods: MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase were searched from inception to January 2021. Read More

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Species, fractions, and characterization of phosphorus in sewage sludge: A critical review from the perspective of recovery.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147437. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aza, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan.

Phosphorus recovery from municipal sewage sludge is a promising way to alleviate the shortage of phosphorus resources. However, the recovery efficiency and cost depend greatly on phosphorus species and fractions in different sewage sludges, i.e. Read More

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Quantifying opportunities for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation using big data from smallholder crop and livestock farmers across Bangladesh.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 29;786:147344. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Climate change is and will continue to have significant implications for agricultural systems. While adaptation to climate change should be the priority for smallholder production systems, adoption of cost-effective mitigation options in agriculture not only contributes to food security but also reduces the extent of climate change and future adaptation needs. Utilizing management data from 16,413 and 12,548 crop and livestock farmers and associated soil and climatic data, we estimated GHG emissions generated from crop and livestock production using crop and livestock models, respectively. Read More

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Discovery and application of dietary compounds to optimize human health, a focus on skeletal muscle regeneration.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2021 May 7;70:131-135. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.

Worldwide, the number of persons over the age of 65 years and those at risk of malnutrition (over and under) is growing, and the prevalence of diet-related chronic disease is at a record high. Pathologies that are linked to poor nutrition underlie the leading causes of death. Safe and effective strategies to improve human health outcomes are urgently required. Read More

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Statin use for the prevention of seizure and epilepsy in the patients at risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Epilepsy Res 2021 May 4;174:106652. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital, Xining, Qinghai, 810007, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: Statin use for the prevention of seizure and epilepsy had been suggested but remained controversial. We sought to search existing literature to determine whether prophylactic use of statin reduced the incidence of seizure and epilepsy in the patients at risk.

Methods: Three electronic databases were thoroughly searched to identify clinical studies investigating the effects of statin use on patients at the risk of seizure or epilepsy. Read More

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Adverse childhood experiences and risk of cancer during adulthood: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 May 7;117:105088. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Background: Research findings on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the risk of cancer were inconsistent.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to perform a quantitative synthesis of the preceding research findings.

Participants And Setting: System review and meta-analysis. Read More

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Mixed pancreatic hepatoid carcinoma: A surgical case report and literature review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 30;83:105951. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Gastrointestinal and Hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Background: Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) is a rare type of malignant tumor that shared similar features of morphology and immunohistochemistry with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pancreatic HC exists as either pure or mixed type. Mixed pancreatic HC is extremely rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature to date. Read More

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Role and mechanism of action of circular RNA and laryngeal cancer.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 30;223:153460. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Clinical Laboratory, Linyi Central Hospital, Linyi, 276400 Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), is the second most common malignant cancer of the head and neck after oral cavity cancer. Laryngeal cancer is associated with huge socio-economic burden worldwide. Studies have widely explored the role of non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer. Read More

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Non-conventional water reuse in agriculture: A circular water economy.

Water Res 2021 Apr 26;199:117193. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Applied Material Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439, United States.

Due to the growing and diverse demands on water supply, exploitation of non-conventional sources of water has received much attention. Since water consumption for irrigation is the major contributor to total water withdrawal, the utilization of non-conventional sources of water for the purpose of irrigation is critical to assuring the sustainability of water resources. Although numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate and manage non-conventional water sources, little research has reviewed the suitability of available water technologies for improving water quality, so that water reclaimed from non-conventional supplies could be an alternative water resource for irrigation. Read More

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Strain sensors fabricated by surface assembly of nanoparticles.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 May 1;186:113268. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 13902, USA. Electronic address:

Harnessing interparticle spatial properties of surface assembly of nanoparticles (SAN) on flexible substrates is a rapidly emerging front of research in the design and fabrication of highly-sensitive strain sensors. It has recently shown promising potentials for applications in wearable sensors and skin electronics. SANs feature 3D structural tunability of the interparticle spatial properties at both molecular and nanoscale levels, which is transformative for the design of intriguing strain sensors. Read More

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The impact of food insecurity on mental health in Africa: A systematic review.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 20;278:113953. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Geography, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada; Environment Health and Hazards Lab, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada.

In 2018, 676.1 million people in Africa (52.5% of the population) were moderately or severely food insecure. Read More

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Ticks infesting dogs and cats in North America: Biology, geographic distribution, and pathogen transmission.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Feb 19;294:109392. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 74078, United States.

A diverse array of ixodid and argasid ticks infest dogs and cats in North America, resulting in skin lesions, blood loss, and disease. The ticks most commonly found on pets in this region are hard ticks of the genera Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Ixodes, and Rhipicephalus, as well as the more recently established Haemaphysalis longicornis. Soft tick genera, especially Otobius and Ornithodoros, are also reported from pets in some regions. Read More

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February 2021

Pituicytoma: Report of three cases and a systematic literature review.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 24;205:106650. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan hospital, Capital Medical University, 119 South Fourth Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing 100070, China. Electronic address:

Pituicytoma is a rare subtype of WHO grade I glioma that originates in the neurohypophysis or infundibulum. Here we presented 3 cases of histopathologically diagnosed pituicytoma and subsequently performed a corresponding systematic literature review. A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed database was conducted. Read More

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Circulating extracellular vesicles are effective biomarkers for predicting response to cancer therapy.

EBioMedicine 2021 May 7;67:103365. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, NHC Key Laboratory of Pulmonary Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, Hubei 430022, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Cancer remains one of the most challenging diseases, as many patients show limited therapeutic response to treatment. Liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive method that has the advantage of providing real-time disease information with the least damage to cancer patients. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by the parental cells and protected by lipid bilayer membrane structure represent an emerging liquid biopsy modality. Read More

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Use of extended-release and immediate-release anti-seizure medications with a long half-life to improve adherence in epilepsy: A guide for clinicians.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 7;120:107993. Epub 2021 May 7.

The Children's Hospital at TriStar Centennial, Nashville, TN, USA.

Poor adherence to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) is associated with breakthrough seizures and potentially increased toxicity in patients with epilepsy. Extended-release (ER) drugs and immediate-release (IR) drugs with a long half-life (t) that permit once-daily dosing (such as, perampanel, zonisamide, lamotrigine [IR, ER] and topiramate [ER]) have a number of advantages over short t ASMs that require multiple daily dosing. These advantages include simplification of dosing regimens, reduction in pill burden, and a decrease in the peak-to-trough fluctuations in serum drug concentration that may be associated with a decreased risk of adverse effects and seizures. Read More

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Face masks against COVID-19: Standards, efficacy, testing and decontamination methods.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 29;292:102435. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, United States; Department of Pediatrics, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96826, United States. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused a global pandemic on a scale not seen for over a century. Increasing evidence suggests that respiratory droplets and aerosols are likely the most common route of transmission for SARS-CoV-2. Since the virus can be spread by presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, universal face masking has been recommended as a straightforward and low-cost strategy to mitigate virus transmission. Read More

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Accelerated treatment with rtPA for pulmonary embolism induced circulatory arrest.

Thromb Res 2021 May 1;203:74-80. Epub 2021 May 1.

Amsterdam UMC, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Patients with circulatory arrest due to pulmonary embolism (PE) should be treated with fibrinolytics. Current guidelines do not specify which regimen to apply, and it has been suggested that the regimen of 100 mg rtPA/2 h should be used, because this is recommended for hemodynamic instable PE in the ESC/ERS Guideline. This two hour regimen, however, is incompatible with key principles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), such as employment of interventions that allow fast evaluation of effectiveness, and limitation of the total duration of CPR to avoid poor neurological outcomes. Read More

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Nitrous oxide for pain management of first-trimester instrumental termination of pregnancy under local anaesthesia and/or minimal sedation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 25;261:193-199. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Division of Gynecology, Obstetrics, and Reproduction, Gynepôle, Hôpital de la Conception, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Background: Inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen (NO/O) is used to reduce pain that is spontaneous or induced by procedures. NO/O could be useful in the treatment of the pain in first-trimester termination of pregnancy performed under local anaesthesia and/or minimal sedation (FTOPL).

Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of NO/O to reduce pain in FTOPL. Read More

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Gene regulation in climacteric fruit ripening.

Authors:
Javier Brumos

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 May 7;63:102042. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology of Plants, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Seed dispersion and consequent plant propagation depend on the success of fruit ripening. Thus, ripening is a highly regulated developmental process aiming to maximize fruit organoleptic traits to attract herbivores. During ripening, the developing fruit experiences dramatic modifications, including color change, flavor improvement, and loss of firmness that are remarkably coordinated. Read More

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Application of an evidence-based, out-patient treatment strategy for COVID-19: Multidisciplinary medical practice principles to prevent severe disease.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 20;426:117463. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, Professor Lawrence Steinman, Stanford University School of Medicine, United States of America. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated individuals, families, and institutions throughout the world. Despite the breakneck speed of vaccine development, the human population remains at risk of further devastation. The decision to not become vaccinated, the protracted rollout of available vaccine, vaccine failure, mutational forms of the SARS virus, which may exhibit mounting resistance to our molecular strike at only one form of the viral family, and the rapid ability of the virus(es) to hitch a ride on our global transportation systems, means that we are will likely continue to confront an invisible, yet devastating foe. Read More

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One march, many paths: Insights into allergic march trajectories.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Allergy and Immunology and Center for Pediatric Eosinophilic Disorders, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Institute for Immunology and Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The classical allergic march model posits that atopy begins in infancy with atopic dermatitis and progresses to asthma and allergic rhinitis in a subset of individuals. The growing prevalence and severity of allergic diseases has prompted renewed interest in refining this model. This review outlines epidemiologic evidence for the existence of allergic march trajectories (distinct paths of atopy development in individuals), reviews the roles that genetics, environment, and disease endotypes play in determining trajectory outcomes, and discusses the clinical utility of the trajectory model. Read More

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Insights into Allergic Risk Factors from Birth Cohort Studies.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada; Allergy Research Unit, Kingston Health Sciences Center - KGH Site, Kingston, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To present an update of birth cohort study designs and their contributions to allergic risk.

Data Sources: The PubMed database was used to search for relevant articles.

Study: Selections Peer-reviewed prospective and retrospective studies involving the assessment of allergy using human birth cohorts between 2014-2021 were examined. Read More

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A scoping review of the caregiver burden of pediatric food allergy.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

The Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; Centre for Allergy Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; George and Fay Yee Centre for Healthcare Innovation, Winnipeg, Canada; Department of Foods and Human Nutritional Sciences, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: While a number of papers have described the psychosocial impact of raising a child with a food allergy, recent attempts at synthesizing this literature have been narrow in focus and/or methodologically limited. Consequently, the current study aimed to synthesize both the quantitative and qualitative literature in order to achieve a better understanding of the psychosocial and financial burdens faced by families raising children with food allergy.

Data Sources: Searches were performed on PubMed, Scopus, PsycInfo and CINAHL for articles related to the psychosocial and financial burden experienced by individuals caring for a child with food allergy. Read More

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