51,272 results match your criteria literature mechanisms


Exercise during Pregnancy: Developmental Programming Effects and Future Directions in Humans.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, United States.

Epidemiological studies show that low birth weight is associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease in adulthood, indicating that chronic diseases could be influenced by hormonal or metabolic insults encountered . This concept, now known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis, postulates that the intrauterine environment may alter the structure and function of the organs of the fetus as well as the expression of genes that impart an increased vulnerability to chronic diseases later in life. Lifestyle interventions initiated during the prenatal period are crucial as there is the potential to attenuate progression towards chronic diseases. Read More

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Immune Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorder: A Translational Framework.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

While the immune system is essential for survival, an excessive or prolonged inflammatory response, such as that resulting from sustained heavy alcohol use, can damage the host and contribute to psychiatric disorders. A growing body of literature indicates that the immune system plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). As such, there is enthusiasm for treatments that can restore healthy levels of inflammation as a mechanism to reduce drinking and promote recovery. Read More

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TSPO: an emerging role in appetite for a therapeutically promising biomarker.

Open Biol 2021 Aug 4;11(8):210173. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Addiction Neuroscience and Obesity Laboratory, School of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Translational Research Institute, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

There is accumulating evidence that an obesogenic Western diet causes neuroinflammatory damage to the brain, which then promotes further appetitive behaviour. Neuroinflammation has been extensively studied by analysing the translocator protein of 18 kDa (TSPO), a protein that is upregulated in the inflamed brain following a damaging stimulus. As a result, there is a rich supply of TSPO-specific agonists, antagonists and positron emission tomography ligands. Read More

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Clinically depressed and typically developing mother-infant dyads: Domain base rates and correspondences, relationship contingencies and attunement.

Infancy 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Maternal depression is associated with adverse outcomes in infants. Unfavorable parenting practices likely constitute one pathway of risk transmission from mother to infant, but definitional and methodological variation in the extant literature precludes a comprehensive or conclusive understanding of potential underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to illuminate the role of maternal clinical depression in mother-infant interaction by turning a microanalytic lens on four substantive relationship issues: base rates, correspondences, contingencies, and attunement. Read More

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Can I Buy My Health? A Genetically Informed Study of Socioeconomic Status and Health.

Ann Behav Med 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Psychology Department, Chapman University, Orange, CA, USA.

Background: A large literature demonstrates associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health, including physiological health and well-being. Moreover, gender differences are often observed among measures of both SES and health. However, relationships between SES and health are sometimes questioned given the lack of true experiments, and the potential biological and SES mechanisms explaining gender differences in health are rarely examined simultaneously. Read More

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[Cognitive control in the research domain criteria system: clinical implications for auditory verbal hallucinations].

Nervenarzt 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Zentrum für Psychosoziale Medizin, Klinik für Allgemeine Psychiatrie, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Deutschland.

Cognitive control (CC) represents one of six constructs within the research domain criteria (RDoC) domain of cognitive systems, which can be examined using different units of analyses (from genetic and molecular mechanisms to neural circuits and self-reports). The CC is defined as the ability to execute top-down control over task-specific processes and to coordinate thought and actions to achieve a specific goal. Within the field of cognitive neuroscience, recent studies provided important findings about central neuronal components of the CC network and the interactions with other relevant functional systems. Read More

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Social decision-making in severe alcohol use disorder: Scoping review and experimental perspectives.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Louvain Experimental Psychopathology research group (LEP), Psychological Science Research Institute, UCLouvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Background: Patients with severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) demonstrate multifaceted impairments in social cognition abilities like emotional decoding or Theory of Mind. Such impairments are related to real-life interpersonal difficulties, which in turn might be involved in the persistence of SAUD. However, far less is known regarding how patients with SAUD make decisions in social context, and this literature has not yet been gathered in a comprehensive review. Read More

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tRNA-derived fragments as New Hallmarks of Aging and Age-related Diseases.

Aging Dis 2021 Aug 1;12(5):1304-1322. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

1Institute of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China.

tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs), which are non-coding RNAs produced via tRNA cleavage with lengths of 14 to 50 nucleotides, originate from precursor tRNAs or mature tRNAs and exist in a wide range of organisms. tRFs are produced not by random fracture of tRNAs but by specific mechanisms. Considerable evidence shows that tRFs are detectable in model organisms of different ages and are associated with age-related diseases in humans, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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The Music of Silence. Part I: Responses to Musical Imagery Encode Melodic Expectations and Acoustics.

J Neurosci 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Laboratoire des Systèmes Perceptifs, Département d'Étude Cognitive, École Normale Supérieure, PSL, Paris, France.

Musical imagery is the voluntary internal hearing of music in the mind without the need for physical action or external stimulation. Numerous studies have already revealed brain areas activated during imagery. However, it remains unclear to what extent imagined music responses preserve the detailed temporal dynamics of the acoustic stimulus envelope and, crucially, whether play any role in modulating responses to imagined music, as they prominently do during listening. Read More

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Hormetic dose responses induced by antibiotics in bacteria: A phantom menace to be thoroughly evaluated to address the environmental risk and tackle the antibiotic resistance phenomenon.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 27;798:149255. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

The environmental contamination of antibiotics caused by their over or inappropriate use is a major issue for environmental and human health since it can adversely impact the ecosystems and promote the antimicrobial resistance. Indeed, considering that in the environmental matrices these drugs are present at low levels, the possibility that bacteria exhibit a hormetic response to increase their resilience when exposed to antibiotic subinhibitory concentrations might represent a serious threat. Information reported in this review showed that exposure to different types of antibiotics, either administered individually or in mixtures, is capable of exerting hormetic effects on bacteria at environmentally relevant concentrations. Read More

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Neuropathological findings from COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms argue against a direct brain invasion of SARS-CoV-2: a critical systematic review.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Neuropathological studies can elucidate the mechanisms of nervous system damage associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite literature on this topic is rapidly expanding, correlations between neurological symptoms and brain pathology findings in COVID-19 patients remain largely unknown.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature review on neuropathological studies in COVID-19, including 438 patients from 45 papers published by April 22, 2021. Read More

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Captive great apes tend to innovate simple tool behaviors quickly.

Am J Primatol 2021 Aug 2:e23311. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Recent studies have highlighted the important role that individual learning mechanisms and different forms of enhancenment play in the acquisition of novel behaviors by naïve individuals. A considerable subset of these studies has focused on tool innovation by our closest living relatives, the great apes, to better undestand the evolution of technology in our own lineage. To be able to isolate the role that individual learning plays in great ape tool innovation, researchers usually employ what are known as baseline tests. Read More

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The Gut-Lung Axis in Cystic Fibrosis.

J Bacteriol 2021 Aug 2:JB0031121. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover NH 03755, USA.

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a heritable, multi-organ disease that impacts all tissues that normally express CFTR protein. While importance of the airway microbiota has long been recognized, the intestinal microbiota has only recently been recognized as an important player in both intestinal and lung health outcomes for persons with CF (pwCF). Here, we summarize current literature related to the gut-lung axis in CF, with a particular focus on three key ideas: Mechanisms through which microbes influence the gut-lung axis, drivers of microbiota alterations, and the potential for intestinal microbiota remediation. Read More

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Genetic etiology of hereditary hearing loss in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

Hum Genet 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Applied Biology, College of Sciences, University of Sharjah, Building W8-Room 107, 27272, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

The past 30 years have seen an exponential growth concerning the identification of genes and variants responsible for hereditary hearing loss (HL) worldwide. This has led to a huge gain in our understanding of molecular mechanisms of hearing and deafness, which improved diagnosis for populations with hereditary HL. Many communities around the world, especially in the Middle East and North Africa, have a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. Read More

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Ecological adaptations of Amazonian fishes acquired during evolution under environmental variations in dissolved oxygen: A review of responses to hypoxia in fishes, featuring the hypoxia-tolerant Astronotus spp.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

The Amazon Basin presents a dynamic regime of dissolved oxygen (DO) oscillations, which varies among habitats within the basin, including spatially, daily, and seasonally. Fish species inhabiting these environments have developed many physiological adaptations to deal with the frequent and periodic events of low (hypoxia), or no (anoxia) DO in the water. Cichlid fishes, especially the genus Astronotus (A. Read More

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Development of measurable criteria to identify and prioritize patients for inclusion in comprehensive medication management programs within primary care settings.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2021 Aug;27(8):1009-1018

Department of Pharmacy, The Johns Hopkins Health System, Baltimore, MD.

Pharmacists optimize medication use and ensure the safe and effective delivery of pharmacotherapy to patients using comprehensive medication management (CMM). Identifying and prioritizing individual patients who will most likely benefit from CMM can be challenging. Health systems have far more candidates for CMM than there are clinical pharmacists to provide this service. Read More

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Blockchain technologies to mitigate COVID-19 challenges: A scoping review.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed Update 2021 14;1:100001. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Division of Information and Computing Technology, College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

As public health strategists and policymakers explore different approaches to lessen the devastating effects of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), blockchain technology has emerged as a resource that can be utilized in numerous ways. Many blockchain technologies have been proposed or implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive reviews have been conducted to uncover and summarise the main feature of these technologies. This study aims to explore proposed or implemented blockchain technologies used to mitigate the COVID-19 challenges as reported in the literature. Read More

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December 2020

Do inflammasome impact COVID-19 severity?

Virusdisease 2021 Jul 26:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Laboratory of Immunopathology Keizo Asami, Recife, Brazil.

COVID-19 pandemic has proven to be a dramatic challenge, introducing huge clinical differences that demand extensive investigations. Severe and critical patients may present coagulopathies and microthrombi, which results in varied complications, or acute respiratory distress syndrome that leads to fatality. Although the lung to be the major site of clinical manifestations, COVID-19 has shown extrapulmonary manifestations, especially on the heart and kidney, directly linked to worse disease outcomes. Read More

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Therapeutic Potential of Neoechinulins and Their Derivatives: An Overview of the Molecular Mechanisms Behind Pharmacological Activities.

Front Nutr 2021 16;8:664197. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania.

Neoechinulins are diketopiperazine type indole alkaloids that demonstrate radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-neurodegenerative, neurotrophic factor-like, anticancer, pro-apoptotic, and anti-apoptotic properties. An array of neoechinulins such as neoechinulins A-E, isoechinulins A-C, cryptoechunilin have been isolated from various fungal sources like sp., sp. Read More

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SUMO and SUMOylation Pathway at the Forefront of Host Immune Response.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 14;9:681057. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Nups and SUMO Biology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, IISER Bhopal, Bhopal, India.

Pathogens pose a continuous challenge for the survival of the host species. In response to the pathogens, the host immune system mounts orchestrated defense responses initiating various mechanisms both at the cellular and molecular levels, including multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) leading to the initiation of signaling pathways. The network of such pathways results in the recruitment of various innate immune components and cells at the site of infection and activation of the adaptive immune cells, which work in synergy to combat the pathogens. Read More

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Evaluation and Validation of Thorax Model Responses: A Hierarchical Approach to Achieve High Biofidelity for Thoracic Musculoskeletal System.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 16;9:712656. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Center for Applied Biomechanics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

As one of the most frequently occurring injuries, thoracic trauma is a significant public health burden occurring in road traffic crashes, sports accidents, and military events. The biomechanics of the human thorax under impact loading can be investigated by computational finite element (FE) models, which are capable of predicting complex thoracic responses and injury outcomes quantitatively. One of the key challenges for developing a biofidelic FE model involves model evaluation and validation. Read More

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Systematic Review on the Impact of Conditional Cash Transfers on Child Health Service Utilisation and Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Front Public Health 2021 14;9:643621. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) are interventions which provide assistance in the form of cash to specific vulnerable groups on the condition that they meet pre-defined requirements. The impact of conditional cash transfers on children's access to health services and on their overall health has not been established in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a systematic review aimed at summarising the available information on the impact of conditional cash transfers on health service utilisation and child health in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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Effectiveness of Nutrient Management on Water Quality Improvement: A Synthesis on Nitrate-Nitrogen Loss from Subsurface Drainage.

Trans ASABE 2021 Mar;64(2):675-689

USEPA Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Nutrient management, as described in NRCS Code 590, has been intensively investigated, with research largely focused on crop yields and water quality. Yet, due to complex processes and mechanisms in nutrient cycling (especially the nitrogen (N) cycle), there are many challenges in evaluating the effectiveness of nutrient management practices across site conditions. We therefore synthesized data from peer-reviewed publications on subsurface-drained agricultural fields in the Midwest U. Read More

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Loxapine-Induced Priapism: A Case Report and Review of the Literature on Antipsychotic-Induced Priapism.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2021 16;2021:5589967. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW Rochester, MN 55902, USA.

In this case report, a patient with schizophrenia experienced recurrent priapism while undergoing treatment of acute psychosis. This necessitated a review of the emergent treatment of priapism and discussion of the difficulties in treating priapism in a patient with acute psychosis. Therefore, this case report explores multiple possible etiologies of priapism within the realm of psychiatric care, reviews the proposed mechanisms of medication-induced priapism, and considers the psychopharmacological concepts that pertain to antipsychotic selection in the context of antipsychotic-induced priapism. Read More

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An Insight into the Current Understanding of Status Epilepticus: From Concept to Management.

Neurol Res Int 2021 13;2021:9976754. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Pediatric, Pediatric Intensive Critical Care Unit, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Status epilepticus (SE), a subset of epilepsy, represents a debilitating neurological disorder often associated with alarming mortality and morbidity numbers. Even though SE is one of the extensively researched topics with conspicuous data available in the literature, a scientific gap exists in understanding the heterogeneous facets of the disorder like occurrence, definition, classification, causes, molecular mechanisms, etc., thereby providing a defined management program. Read More

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Intraoperative parathormone increase after focused parathyroidectomy in a patient with sarcoidosis - Case report.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Aug 17;68:102577. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska Cesta 2, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Introduction: Hypercalcaemia is most commonly a sign of primary hyperparathyroidism but can also be a sign of an active granulomatous disease. Standard treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a solitary parathyroid gland adenoma identified by localisation studies is minimally invasive focused parathyroidectomy. If unsuccessful, bilateral neck exploration is recommended. Read More

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Genistein: An Integrative Overview of Its Mode of Action, Pharmacological Properties, and Health Benefits.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:3268136. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

Genistein is an isoflavone first isolated from the brooming plant Dyer's L. and is widely distributed in the Fabaceae family. As an isoflavone, mammalian genistein exerts estrogen-like functions. Read More

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Riboregulation in the Major Gastric Pathogen .

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:712804. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Unité Pathogenèse de Helicobacter, CNRS UMR 2001, Département de Microbiologie, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that colonizes the stomach of about half of the human population worldwide. Infection by is generally acquired during childhood and this bacterium rapidly establishes a persistent colonization. causes chronic gastritis that, in some cases, progresses into peptic ulcer disease or adenocarcinoma that is responsible for about 800,000 deaths in the world every year. Read More

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Emotional Contagion: A Brief Overview and Future Directions.

Front Psychol 2021 16;12:712606. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Faculty of Behavioral, Management and Social Sciences (BMS), Department High-Tech Business and Entrepreneurship (HBE/ETM), University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.

Social interactions can trigger emotional contagion between individuals resulting in behavioral synchrony. Emotional contagion can be a very effective and attractive strategy in communication and advertising, and understanding the mechanisms underlying emotional contagion can help marketers to improve their commercial approaches or develop better ones. The purpose of this study is to review and classify the various methodologies and theoretical approaches on emotional contagion, identify the best practices in this domain, and identify ways of gaging and measuring emotional contagion. Read More

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How Do Different Types of Entrepreneurial Networks and Decision-Making Influence the Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunities?

Front Psychol 2021 16;12:683285. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Business, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou, China.

Entrepreneurial networks are important for the identification of entrepreneurial opportunities and development in the context of social media. This exploratory research investigates the relationships in entrepreneurial networks, by considering decision-making, and entrepreneurial opportunities, and focusing on the role of decision-making in the relationship between entrepreneurial networks and entrepreneurial opportunities. Using data from 512 Chinese entrepreneurial firms, hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation modeling are employed to create a mediation model that links entrepreneurial networks to entrepreneurial opportunities through decision-making. Read More

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