15,466 results match your criteria literature examining

Context matters: Examining the factors impacting the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control guidelines in health settings in seven high tuberculosis burden countries.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Feb 8;14(5):588-597. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Room 212, Samuels Building, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries are at increased risk of TB infection due to increased exposures to TB patients and inadequate implementation of TB infection prevention and control (TB IPC) measures in health settings. While various guidelines on TB IPC exist, there is little understanding of the content of these guidelines, whether they are relevant to the context and are being appropriately implemented in low-and middle-income high TB burden countries. This study aimed to critically examine the implementation of TB IPC guidelines, along with factors impacting TB IPC implementation in health settings in seven high TB burden countries. Read More

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February 2021

Depression mediates the relationship between smoking and pain: Evidence from a nationally representative study in a low- and middle-income country.

Addict Behav 2021 Mar 30;119:106937. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, China. Electronic address:

Evidence from high-income countries suggests that depressive symptoms may mediate the relationship between smoking and pain. However, the relationship remains poorly understood for the population in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), who account for 80% of the current tobacco consumers. Using cross-sectional data from a nationally representative longitudinal survey in China, this study conducted the mediation analysis within the structural equation model (SEM) framework. Read More

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Various wound closure ways after impacted lower wisdom teeth removal: A review.

Stomatologija 2020 ;22(4):107-115

Department of Maxillofacial, Faculty of Dentistry, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eivenių g. 2, LT-50161 Kaunas Lithuania.

Objective: Evaluate the influence of different wound closure methods in terms of pain, swelling, trismus, infection and healing time after third molar extraction.

Material And Methods: A literature analysis was performed according to PRISMA guidelines in search of clinical trials published between 2015 and 2020. Databases were searched using different combinations of the following keywords: mandibular impacted OR retained wisdom teeth OR third molar removal OR extraction AND surgical removal AND discomfort OR pain OR trismus OR swelling AND drain OR drainage. Read More

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January 2020

Using Patient-Reported Measures to Improve Outcomes in Kidney Disease.

Blood Purif 2021 Apr 12:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Patients with CKD and ESRD are vulnerable to increased mortality rates and other poor outcomes. Among those with ESRD, their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is shown little to no improvement as they undergo treatments such as dialysis and providers concurrently manage other health issues that complicate their already vulnerable state. This review synthesizes evidence demonstrating that a focus on measuring and monitoring patient-reported outcomes (PRO) such as pain and depression can improve HRQOL. Read More

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Cognitive Impairment and Length of Stay in Acute Care Hospitals: A Scoping Review of the Literature.

Can J Aging 2021 Apr 12:1-19. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Geriatric Medicine Research, Nova Scotia Health Authority/Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Older persons experiencing a longer length of stay (LOS) or delayed discharge (DD) may see a decline in their health and well-being, generating significant costs. This review aimed to identify evidence on the impact of cognitive impairment (CI) on acute care hospital LOS/DD. A scoping review of studies examining the association between CI and LOS/DD was performed. Read More

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Measurement of trunk muscle strength after stroke: An integrative review.

Richard Bohannon

Top Stroke Rehabil 2021 Apr 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Physical Therapy Consultants, Fuquay-Varina, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Research examining the measurement of trunk muscle strength after stroke is limited and diverse. This review, therefore, was undertaken to summarize research addressing what is known about measurements of trunk muscle strength after stroke.

Methods: Potentially relevant research was identified via 3 electronic database searches and a hand search. Read More

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Sport-Related and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Motives and Consequences Of Alcohol and Cannabis Use Among NCAA Athletes: A Systematic Review.

Alcohol Alcohol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Psychology, Harpur College of Arts & Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA.

Aims: To review differences in alcohol- and cannabis-related motives and consequences among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes as a function of athlete characteristics (e.g. gender and competition season status). Read More

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Efficacy of Ginger in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Cureus 2021 Mar 6;13(3):e13743. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Rishikesh, Rishikesh, IND.

It has been evidenced that very few systematic reviews have examined the effectiveness of ginger for pain duration and its severity among women with primary dysmenorrhea. This meta-analysis was therefore performed to methodically incorporate and significantly evaluate randomized controlled ginger studies for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. The literature was searched using PubMed, Embase, Ovid, ClinicalKey, Medline, and electronic database. Read More

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Ethics of primate use.

M J Prescott

Adv Sci Res 2010 Nov 12;5(1):11-22. Epub 2010 Nov 12.

National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), 20 Park Crescent, London, W1B 1AL, UK.

This article provides an overview of the ethical issues raised by the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research involving scientific procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. It is not an exhaustive review of the literature and views on this subject, and it does not present any conclusions about the moral acceptability or otherwise of NHP research. Rather the aim has been to identify the ethical issues involved and to provide guidance on how these might be addressed, in particular by carefully examining the scientific rationale for NHP use, implementing fully the 3Rs principle of Russell and Burch (1959) and applying a robust "harm-benefit assessment" to research proposals involving NHPs. Read More

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November 2010

Take a "Selfie": Examining How Leaders Emerge From Leader Self-Awareness, Self-Leadership, and Self-Efficacy.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:635085. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Business, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

It is important to understand the processes behind how and why individuals emerge as leaders, so that the best and most capable individuals may occupy leadership positions. So far, most literature in this area has focused on individual characteristics, such as personality or cognitive ability. While interactions between individuals and context do get research attention, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how the social context at work may help individuals to emerge as leaders. Read More

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How Negative Experience Influences the Brain: A Comprehensive Review of the Neurobiological Underpinnings of Nocebo Hyperalgesia.

Front Neurosci 2021 24;15:652552. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Health, Medical & Neuropsychology Unit, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

This comprehensive review summarizes and interprets the neurobiological correlates of nocebo hyperalgesia in healthy humans. Nocebo hyperalgesia refers to increased pain sensitivity resulting from negative experiences and is thought to be an important variable influencing the experience of pain in healthy and patient populations. The young nocebo field has employed various methods to unravel the complex neurobiology of this phenomenon and has yielded diverse results. Read More

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Fecal microbiota transplantation in hepatic encephalopathy: a systematic review.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 10:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Gastro Unit, Medical Division, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible neurocognitive dysfunction that ranges in severity from subclinical alterations to coma. Patients with chronic liver disease are predisposed to HE due to metabolic failure and portosystemic shunting of toxins, of which ammonia is believed to be the main toxic chemical. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may reduce ammonia synthesis by altering the gut microbiota composition to a taxon low in urease, diminish uptake of ammonia by reestablishing the integrity of the intestinal barrier and increase ammonia clearance by improving liver function. Read More

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Perceptions of Psychotherapy Waiting Rooms: Design Recommendations.

HERD 2021 Apr 12:19375867211001885. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

5766Connecticut College, New London, CT, USA.

Objective: This study fills the gap in literature by examining the design elements preferred in psychotherapy waiting rooms.

Background: Studies have examined waiting rooms in hospitals and doctors' offices, but there is little published literature on waiting rooms in psychotherapy offices. Waiting rooms in psychotherapy offices may affect clients' perceived quality of care and their comfort level. Read More

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Neurogenic appendicopathy: an underestimated disease-systematic review of the literature.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Surgery, HFR Fribourg - Cantonal Hospital, Chemin des Pensionnats 2-6, 1752, Villars-sur-Glâne, Switzerland.

Purpose: Appendectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgeries worldwide, but neurogenic appendicopathy (NA) remains a poorly understood disease with controversial clinical management. The aim of this review was to obtain a clear definition of the disease and summarize its management.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on NA in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases from inception to 19/01/2021 according to PRISMA statement standards. Read More

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A case report of a rare nasopharyngeal myoepithelial dominant pleomorphic adenoma.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 1;82:105859. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland neoplasm. The majority of cases occur in the major salivary glands; however, they can also originate from the minor salivary glands. The nasopharynx is an uncommon site, but it has been reported in the literature. Read More

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Association between autonomic function and obstructive sleep apnea: A systematic review.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Mar 11;57:101470. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Sleep Research Group, Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Australia; Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Australia; Centre for Sleep Health & Research, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, Australia.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Effects of OSA on the autonomic nervous system may mediate this association. We performed a systematic literature review to determine the profile of autonomic function associated with OSA. Read More

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Sunlamp use is a risk factor for uveal melanoma: a meta-analysis.

Can J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alb.

Objective: Advancements in the treatment of uveal melanoma have not improved survival; therefore, identifying modifiable risk factors is critical to improving outcomes. This study aims to investigate the association between sunlamp use and the development of uveal melanoma.

Design: This study is designed as a meta-analysis. Read More

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Visual Analysis of Swallowing Efficiency and Safety (VASES): A Standardized Approach to Rating Pharyngeal Residue, Penetration, and Aspiration During FEES.

Dysphagia 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratory for the Study of Upper Airway Dysfunction, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City, NY, USA.

The primary aim of this study was to describe the development of the Visual Analysis of Swallowing Efficiency and Safety (VASES)-a standardized method to rate pharyngeal residue, penetration, and aspiration during FEES. As a secondary aim, we explored the feasibility of training novices to interpret FEES using VASES. Literature review and consensus panel discussions were used to develop standardized rules for VASES. Read More

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How safe is it to use ultrasound in prenatal medicine? Facts and contradictions - Part 2 - Laboratory experiments regarding non-thermal effects and epidemiological studies.

Ultraschall Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Centre for Ultrasound and Prenatal Medicine Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

The first part of this CME article (issue 5/20) provided a detailed examination of the biophysical effects of ultrasound waves, the exposure values, and in particular the thermal effect. In vivo and in vitro measurements have shown that the temperature increase in tissue associated with B-mode ultrasound is far too low to pose a potential risk. Even experiments with exposure values in the range of pulsed Doppler have shown that temperature increases of over 1. Read More

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Neural Representations of Task Context and Temporal Order During Action Sequence Execution.

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University.

Routine action sequences can share a great deal of similarity in terms of their stimulus response mappings. As a consequence, their correct execution relies crucially on the ability to preserve contextual and temporal information. However, there are few empirical studies on the neural mechanism and the brain areas maintaining such information. Read More

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Bio-indicators in cadmium toxicity: Role of HSP27 and HSP70.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Medical Toxicology Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of proteins that are expressed by cells in reply to stressors. The changes in concentration of HSPs could be utilized as a bio-indicator of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal. Exposure to the different heavy metals may induce or reduce the expression of different HSPs. Read More

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Planning for Chaos: Developing the Concept of Emergency Preparedness through the Experience of the Paramedic.

J Emerg Nurs 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Objective: Emergency preparedness is a developing specialty with a limited evidence base. Published literature primarily offers a retrospective view of experience, with few studies examining and understanding the individual lived experience of practitioners prospectively. This study explores paramedics' lived experience of emergency preparedness and applies that learning. Read More

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Treating Knee Osteoarthritis With Platelet-Rich Plasma and Hyaluronic Acid Combination Therapy: A Systematic Review.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Apr 8:363546521998010. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Orthopaedics, Sports Medicine Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) are injectable treatments for knee osteoarthritis. The focus of previous studies has compared their efficacy against each other as monotherapy. However, a new trend of combining these 2 injections has emerged in an attempt to have a synergistic effect. Read More

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Pediatric Emergency Department Return Visits Within 72 Hours: Caregivers' Motives and Analysis of Ethnic and Primary Language Disparities.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

From the Division of Emergency Medicine, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ.

Objectives: In the United States, approximately 2.2% to 5% of children discharged from the emergency department (ED) return within 72 hours. There is limited literature examining caregivers' reasons for return to the ED, and none among Hispanics and Spanish-speaking caregivers. Read More

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Molecular regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis following blood flow-restricted aerobic exercise: a call to action.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada.

Blood flow-restricted (BFR) exercise can induce training adaptations comparable to those observed following training in free flow conditions. However, little is known about the acute responses within skeletal muscle following BFR aerobic exercise (AE). Moreover, although preliminary evidence suggests chronic BFR AE may augment certain training adaptations in skeletal muscle mitochondria more than non-BFR AE, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Read More

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Vascular endothelial injury assessed with functional techniques in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension versus systemic sclerosis patients without pulmonary arterial hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Rheumatol Int 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, G. Papanikolaou Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Microvascular dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of systemic sclerosis (SSc). The presence of pulmonary-arterial-hypertension (PAH) in SSc-patients is associated with poor prognosis. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing microvascular and endothelial injury with functional techniques in SSc-patients with PAH (SSc-PAH) compared to those without PAH (SSc-non-PAH) (PROSPERO: CRD42021236212). Read More

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