19,389 results match your criteria limiting membrane


Membrane trafficking: Retrofusion as an escape route out of the endosome.

Curr Biol 2021 Sep;31(17):R1037-R1040

UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK. Electronic address:

Intraluminal vesicles accumulate within the endosomal lumen before lysosomal delivery or extracellular release. A new study reports the development of an elegant assay showing that these vesicles can escape from the endosomal lumen by 'back-fusion' or 'retrofusion' with the endosomal limiting membrane. Read More

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September 2021

Experimental perspectives on direct visualization of endosomal rupture.

Chembiochem 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

UCLA, Chemistry and Biochemistry, 607 Charles E Young Dr, MSB 4505A, 90095, Los Angeles, UNITED STATES.

Endosomal escape continues to be a limiting factor in the therapeutic use of nanomaterials. Assays to visualize endosomal escape often do not decouple the endosomal/lysosomal disruption from the release of payload into the cytosol. Here, we discuss three approaches to directly probe endosomal/lysosomal rupture: calcein dye dilution, lysosome size quantification and endosome/lysosome membrane integrity visualized with a genetically engineered cell line. Read More

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September 2021

Development of Inspired Therapeutics Pediatric VAD: Benchtop Evaluation of Impeller Performance and Torques for MagLev Motor Design.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Inspired Therapeutics LLC, 125 E. Merritt Island Cswy, #107-341, Merritt Island, FL, 32925, USA.

Purpose: Despite the availability of first-generation extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support (MCS) systems that are widely used throughout the world, there is a need for the next generation of smaller, more portable devices (designed without cables and a minimal number of connectors) that can be used in all in-hospital and transport settings to support patients in heart failure. Moreover, a system that can be universally used for all indications for use including cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), uni- or biventricular support (VAD), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and respiratory assist that is suitable for use for adult, neonate, and pediatric patients is desirable. Providing a single, well designed, universal technology could reduce the incidence of human errors by limiting the need for training of hospital staff on a single system for a variety of indications throughout the hospital rather than having to train on multiple complex systems. Read More

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September 2021

Two years outcomes of treating full-thickness macula hole associated with idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 by internal limiting membrane inverted flap technique: Case reports.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(36):e27078

Department of Ophthalmology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.

Rational: Macular telangiectasia (MacTel) is an uncommon ocular disorder that can lead to legal blindness. MacTel type 2 is characterized by a bilateral loss of macular transparency, the presence of white crystals on the retina, aberrant blood vessel growth, and neurodegeneration of the macula. Full-thickness macular holes (FTMHs) are a prominent cause of vision reduction in MacTel type 2, and the standard care for an FTMH is pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) to restore the FTMH and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Read More

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September 2021

Mitochondrial A-kinase anchoring proteins in cardiac ventricular myocytes.

Physiol Rep 2021 Sep;9(17):e15015

Department of Pharmacology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA.

Compartmentation of cAMP signaling is a critical factor for maintaining the integrity of receptor-specific responses in cardiac myocytes. This phenomenon relies on various factors limiting cAMP diffusion. Our previous work in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs) indicates that PKA regulatory subunits anchored to the outer membrane of mitochondria play a key role in buffering the movement of cytosolic cAMP. Read More

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September 2021

Surgical Treatment of Epiretinal Membrane.

Acta Med Okayama 2021 Aug;75(4):403-413

Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a common retinal disease characterized by cellular proliferation and metaplasia that lead to the formation of a pathological fibrocellular membrane immediately superjacent to the inner retinal surface. The vast majority of ERMs are considered idiopathic. However, ERM formation can result from various primary intraocular diseases, including retinal breaks and detachment, retinal vascular diseases, and vitreoretinal inflammatory conditions. Read More

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Pulmonary arterial hypertension in adults with congenital heart disease: markers of disease severity, management of advanced heart failure and transplantation.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Adult Congenital Heart Centre and Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK.

Introduction: Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) is a progressive, life-limiting disease.

Areas Covered: In this paper, we review the classification and pathophysiology of PAH-CHD, including the mechanisms of disease progression and multisystem effects of disease. We evaluate current strategies of risk stratification and the use of biological markers of disease severity, and review principles of management of PAH-CHD. Read More

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September 2021

Single-layer Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Versus Conventional Peel for Small- or Medium-sized Full-thickness Macular Holes.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center, Taiwan; College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of using an internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap and the conventional ILM peel technique for small- or medium-sized full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) repair.

Design: Retrospective, interventional case series.

Methods: Eyes with an FTMH ≤ 400 µm that underwent vitrectomy with either a single-layer inverted ILM flap (flap group, 55 eyes) or an ILM peel (peel group, 62 eyes) were enrolled. Read More

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September 2021

Long-term Visual Outcomes and Morphologic Biomarkers of Vision Loss in Eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema treated with Anti-VEGF Therapy.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Vita-Salute San Raffaele University Milan, Italy; IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Purpose: To analyze the morphological characteristics and long-term visual outcomes in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy.

Design: Retrospective clinical cohort study.

Methods: Subjects with a long-term follow-up and evidence of resolved DME in at least one visit (study visit) after 5 years of follow-up following the initiation of anti-VEGF therapy were included. Read More

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September 2021

Risk factors for failure of resolving optic disc pit maculopathy after primary vitrectomy without laser photocoagulation.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8611, Japan.

Purpose: To determine factors significantly correlated with the failure of macular reattachment by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) without laser photocoagulation of the optic disc margin to treat optic disc pit (ODP) maculopathy.

Design: Retrospective, interventional case series.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 35 consecutive patients with ODP maculopathy who underwent PPV without laser photocoagulation. Read More

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September 2021

Synthesis of a Compound Phosphorus-Nitrogen Intumescent Flame Retardant for Applications to Raw Lacquer.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Aug 25;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Fujian Engineering Research Center of New Chinese lacquer Material, College of Material and Chemical Engineering, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350108, China.

Raw lacquer (RL) is a natural polymer compound with highly promising applications; however, its inflammable attribute restricts the industrial applications. In this study, melamine is used to formulate tri (1-melamine-2-propanol) phosphate (FR-1), after which it is synthesized with ammonium phosphate (FR-2) and diatomite to form a compound phosphorus-nitrogen intumescent flame retardant (IFR). Next, IFR is used as the filling agent that then cross-links with RL, and as such RL/IFR membranes are formed after the curing. Read More

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Inhibitors of L-Type Calcium Channels Show Therapeutic Potential for Treating SARS-CoV-2 Infections by Preventing Virus Entry and Spread.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, United States.

COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV)-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus is responsible for an ongoing pandemic and concomitant public health crisis around the world. While vaccine development is proving to be highly successful, parallel drug development approaches are also critical in the response to SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viruses. Read More

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September 2021

Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling versus Nonpeeling to Prevent Epiretinal Membrane Formation following Vitrectomy for Posterior Segment Open-Globe Injury.

J Ophthalmol 2021 28;2021:3152728. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

The Eye Hospital, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Purpose: Approximately 30% of patients with an open-globe injury (OGI) develop a secondary epiretinal membrane (ERM). This study was performed to assess whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in the treatment of posterior segment OGI prevents ERM formation.

Methods: The medical records of 33 patients who underwent vitrectomy for posterior segment OGI from 2016 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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Surgical Management of Recurrent and Persistent Macular Holes: A Practical Approach.

Ophthalmol Ther 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave, i-32, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Primary surgery for macular hole (MH) closure has a high success rate with current methods of pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. When primary surgery fails, there are several options available for secondary repair, including extension of the ILM peel, creation of an ILM flap, pedunculated ILM flap, lens capsule flap transplantation, autologous retinal transplantation, use of a human amniotic membrane plug, adjuvant autologous platelet concentrate, induction of macular detachments with subretinal blebs, and creation of retinal incisions. In this review, we discuss the practical approach to each of these surgical techniques for the management of recurrent or persistent MHs. Read More

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September 2021

The ITGB6 gene: its role in experimental and clinical biology.

Gene 2020 Dec 6;763S:100023. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Centre for Tumour Biology, Barts Cancer Institute, Cancer Research UK Centre of Excellence, Queen Mary University of London, John Vane Science Centre, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. Electronic address:

Integrin αvβ6 is a membrane-spanning heterodimeric glycoprotein involved in wound healing and the pathogenesis of diseases including fibrosis and cancer. Therefore, it is of great clinical interest for us to understand the molecular mechanisms of its biology. As the limiting binding partner in the heterodimer, the β6 subunit controls αvβ6 expression and availability. Read More

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December 2020

Adoptive immunotherapy with double-bright (CD56 /CD16 ) expanded natural killer cells in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia: a proof-of-concept study.

Br J Haematol 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.

Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) have a five-year survival rate of 28·7%. Natural killer (NK)-cell have anti-leukaemic activity. Here, we report on a series of 13 patients with high-risk R/R AML, treated with repeated infusions of double-bright (CD56 /CD16 ) expanded NK cells at an academic centre in Brazil. Read More

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September 2021

Melatonin Enhances Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Under Salinity a Putative Melatonin Receptor .

Front Plant Sci 2021 17;12:702875. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Key Laboratory of Forage and Endemic Crop Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China.

Alfalfa ( L.) is an important forage crop, and salt stress is a major limiting factor in its yield. Melatonin (MT) is a multi-regulatory molecule in plants. Read More

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Overproducing the BAM complex improves secretion of difficult-to-secrete recombinant autotransporter chimeras.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Sep 6;20(1):176. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Amsterdam Institute of Molecular and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Monomeric autotransporters have been used extensively to transport recombinant proteins or protein domains to the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria amongst others for antigen display. Genetic fusion of such antigens into autotransporters has yielded chimeras that can be used for vaccination purposes. However, not every fusion construct is transported efficiently across the cell envelope. Read More

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September 2021

Flap technique-assisted surgeries for advanced retinitis pigmentosa complicated with macular hole: a case report and literature review.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 6;21(1):322. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Medical College, National Taiwan University, 7 Chung-Shan S. Road, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) is a rare complication in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients and may increase intraoperative challenges. Furthermore, lens capsular flap transplantation and inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap were reported to close complicated FTMH successfully. Here, we present a case of bilateral advanced RP complicated by a FTMH treated with a novel lens capsular flap transplantation and inverted internal limiting membrane flap. Read More

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September 2021

Topological analyses of the L-lysine exporter LysO reveal a critical role for a conserved pair of intramembrane solvent-exposed acidic residues.

J Biol Chem 2021 Sep 3:101168. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Laboratory of Bacterial Genetics, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, India. Electronic address:

LysO, a prototypical member of the LysO family, mediates export of L-lysine (Lys) and resistance to the toxic Lys antimetabolite, L-thialysine (Thl) in E. coli. Here, we have addressed unknown aspects of LysO function pertaining to its membrane topology and the mechanism by which it mediates Lys / Thl export. Read More

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September 2021

Membrane architecture and adherens junctions contribute to strong Notch pathway activation.

Development 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cam- bridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK.

The Notch pathway mediates cell-to-cell communication in a variety of tissues, developmental stages and organisms. Pathway activation relies on the interaction between transmembrane ligands and receptors on adjacent cells. As such, pathway activity could be influenced by the size, composition or dynamics of contacts between membranes. Read More

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September 2021

The Spectrum of Internal Limiting Membrane Disease in Alport Syndrome: a Multimodal Imaging Study.

Retina 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy Department of Ophthalmology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Institute of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Centre for Nephrology and Metabolic Medicine, Weisswasser, Germany.

Purpose: To characterize the spectrum of internal limiting membrane (ILM) disease in Alport syndrome (AS) using multimodal imaging, including widefield (WF) and ultra-widefield (UWF) modalities, and to report their relative prevalence according to the genetic pattern of inheritance.

Methods: Cross-sectional clinical study of patients diagnosed with AS. All patients underwent UWF color photography and autofluorescence, WF-optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT). Read More

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September 2021

In vivo roles of Rab27 and its effectors in exocytosis.

Authors:
Tetsuro Izumi

Cell Struct Funct 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University.

The monomeric GTPase Rab27 regulates exocytosis of a broad range of vesicles in multicellular organisms. Several effectors bind GTP-bound Rab27a and/or Rab27b on secretory vesicles to execute a series of exocytic steps, such as vesicle maturation, movement along microtubules, anchoring within the peripheral F-actin network, and tethering to the plasma membrane, via interactions with specific proteins and membrane lipids in a local milieu. Although Rab27 effectors generally promote exocytosis, they can also temporarily restrict it when they are involved in the rate-limiting step. Read More

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September 2021

Migration of glutamate decarboxylase by cold treatment on whole-cell biocatalyst triggered activity for 4-aminobutyric acid production in engineering Escherichia coli.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 1;190:113-119. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Glutamate decarboxylase B (GadB) from Escherichia coli, an intrinsic pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme has been employed for 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) biosynthesis, which involves the glutamate import and GABA export via a transporter located in the inner membrane as rate determined step of whole-cell (WC) biotransformation. Herein, GadB was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli under a constitutive promoter in a high copy number plasmid, and 46. Read More

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September 2021

Internal limiting membrane detachment in acute central retinal artery occlusion: a novel prognostic sign seen on OCT.

Int J Retina Vitreous 2021 Sep 3;7(1):51. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Medical Retina and Vitreoretinal Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 203 Lothrop Street, Suite 800, Pittsburg, PA, 15213, USA.

Background: To present a series of acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) cases showing internal limiting membrane detachment (ILMD) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to describe the possible etiopathogenesis and outcomes associated with it.

Methods: Demographic and OCT features of patients with acute CRAO were analysed retrospectively. OCT parameters noted were posterior vitreous opacities, ILMD, inner retinal layer stratification, hyperreflectivity and thickening, cystoid macular edema, neurosensory detachment. Read More

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September 2021

The pH-sensitive action of cholesterol-conjugated peptide inhibitors of influenza virus.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Sep 1;1863(12):183762. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

Influenza viruses are major human pathogens, responsible for respiratory diseases affecting millions of people worldwide, with high morbidity and significant mortality. Infections by influenza can be controlled by vaccines and antiviral drugs. However, this virus is constantly under mutations, limiting the effectiveness of these clinical antiviral strategies. Read More

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September 2021

The effect of latency on surgical performance and usability in a three-dimensional heads-up display visualization system for vitreoretinal surgery.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: Although latency has been cited as a disadvantage of the three-dimensional heads-up display (3D HUD) visualization system for vitreoretinal surgery, there have been no publications evaluating the effect of latency on surgical performance.

Methods: Thirty participants conducted two tasks (external suturing and inner limiting membrane peeling) on a 3D HUD at 4 levels of latency: 50 ms (ms), 68 ms, 92 ms, and 122 ms. The task completion time was measured and patients answered a subjective questionnaire on usability. Read More

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September 2021

Combined fovea-sparing internal limiting membrane peeling with internal limiting membrane flap technique for progressive myopic traction maculopathy.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: To present the anatomical and functional outcomes of combined fovea-sparing internal limiting membrane peeling (FSIP) with internal limiting membrane flap (ILMF) for myopic traction maculopathy (MTM).

Methods: This is a retrospective, observational study. Included were 66 eyes of 62 patients who underwent vitrectomy with combined FSIP and ILMF (or modified ILMF) for MTM with a minimal follow-up of 6 months. Read More

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September 2021

Optical Coherence Tomography based indices in predicting functional outcome of macular hole surgery: A retrospective chart review.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Sep-Oct;37(5):1504-1508

Dr. Shiraz Hashmi, MBBS, M.Sc Section of Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the utility of novel macular hole indices of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and predicting the functional outcome of surgery.

Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of 28 eyes who underwent surgery for idiopathic Full Thickness Macular Hole (FTMH) at The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi from January 2016 to March 2020. Data of preoperative OCTs were recovered from data server of OCT machine. Read More

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January 2021

Polymyxins, the last-resort antibiotics: Mode of action, resistance emergence, and potential solutions.

J Biosci 2021 ;46

Molecular Microbiology Lab, Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Khallikote University, Konisi, Berhampur 761 008, Odisha, India.

Infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the world. Indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has seriously affected this situation. With the diminishing discovery of novel antibiotics, new treatment methods are urgently required to combat MDR pathogens. Read More

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January 2021