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The End of the Profession as a Sociological Category? Systems-theoretical Remarks on the Relationship between Profession and Society.

Authors:
Thomas Kurtz

Am Sociol 2021 Apr 30:1-18. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

DHGE, University of Cooperative Education, Campus Gera, Weg der Freundschaft 4, 07546 Gera, Germany.

Following reflections by Talcott Parsons and Niklas Luhmann, this paper is concerned with the changing meaning of the profession as a sociological category for analyzing modern society. Professions are practical academic occupational groups oriented to certain social values, to which a special significance for society was attributed in the social sciences for a long time, thus marking a connection between professions' research and theory of society. This paper now describes that the causal relationship between profession and society is limited to a historically relatively early period. Read More

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Roadmap for Motor Evoked Potential (MEP) Monitoring for Patients Undergoing Lumbar and Lumbosacral Spinal Fusion Procedures.

Neurodiagn J 2021 Mar;61(1):27-36

Medical Department, SpecialtyCare, Brentwood, Tennessee.

MEPs are recommended for patients undergoing lumbar and lumbosacral procedures in which intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) is being utilized. While electromyography (EMG) provides critical nerve root proximity information, spontaneous EMG discharges are relatively poor at reliably diagnosing spinal nerve root dysfunction. In contrast, research indicates that MEPs are both sensitive and specific in diagnosing evolving spinal nerve root dysfunction. Read More

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Brass instruments as a cascade of two-port networks: Transfer functions, chain parameters, and power efficiency in theory and practice.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Apr;149(4):2698

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, School of Music, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801, USA.

This paper investigates how two-port network theory as a means for system identification can be applied to the analysis of brass instruments. A special focus is placed on the energy conversion efficiency as this is limited by inner damping, which receives much attention by expert players and makers of brasses. Theory suggests that a reconstruction of the 2 × 2 matrix representing the network requires input impedance and transfer function for two different boundary conditions. Read More

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Analyzing Description, User Understanding and Expectations of AI in Mobile Health Applications.

AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2020 25;2020:1170-1179. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Previous research has studied medical professionals' perception of artificial intelligence (AI). However, there has been a limited understanding of how healthcare consumers perceive and use AI-powered technologies such as mobile health apps. We collected 40 popular mobile health apps that claim to have adopted AI, to study how AI is explained in these apps' descriptions, and how users react to it through app reviews. Read More

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January 2021

Diagnosis and treatment of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

Authors:
Jihyun Kwon

Blood Res 2021 Apr;56(S1):S5-S16

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea.

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal disorder of hematopoietic cells and is a complex of heterogeneous conditions with both myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic features. The diagnosis of CMML is made using morphologic criteria including monocyte-dominant leukocytosis, dysplastic changes, and increased blasts in the bone marrow. Recently, the identification of monocyte subtypes in peripheral blood using multiparameter flow cytometry has been actively studied. Read More

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Artificial intelligence (AI) real-time detection vs. routine colonoscopy for colorectal neoplasia: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Internal Medicine - Division of Gastroenterology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Goals And Background: Studies analyzing artificial intelligence (AI) in colonoscopies have reported improvements in detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) lesions, however its utility in the realworld remains limited. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluate the efficacy of AI-assisted colonoscopies against routine colonoscopy (RC).

Study: We performed an extensive search of major databases (through January 2021) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting adenoma and polyp detection rates. Read More

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Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase (CD73) Regulates the Survival of CD8+ T Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:647058. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is an enzyme present on the surface of tumor cells whose primary described function is the production of extracellular adenosine. Due to the immunosuppressive properties of adenosine, CD73 is being investigated as a target for new antitumor therapies. We and others have described that CD73 is present at the surface of different CD8+ T cell subsets. Read More

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What Judges Want to Know From Forensic Evaluators in Child Custody and Child Protection Cases: Analyzing Forensic Assignments With Latent Dirichlet Allocation.

Front Psychol 2021 13;12:603597. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Psychologische Hochschule Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

This study analyzes the questions on aspects of child custody, visitation rights, or child endangerment that judges pose to forensic psychologists in family law proceedings. Before conducting a psychological evaluation, the legal question in the referral has to be translated into case-specific, forensically relevant issues. The only overarching principle guiding this process is the "best interests of the child" criterion. Read More

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Diabesity Associated with Poor COVID-19 Outcomes among Hospitalized Patients.

J Obes Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Although numerous studies have investigated obesity's negative effect on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, only a limited number focused on this association in diabetic patients. In this study, we analyzed the association between obesity and COVID-19 outcome (death, intensive care unit [ICU] admission, mechanical ventilation needs, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [qSOFA] score, and confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure [CURB-65] scores) for hospitalized diabetic patients.

Methods: In this prospective hospital-based registry of patients with COVID-19 in East Azerbaijan, Iran, 368 consecutive diabetic patients with COVID-19 were followed from admission until discharge or death. Read More

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Ethical considerations and patient safety concerns for cancelling non-urgent surgeries during the COVID-19 pandemic: a review.

Patient Saf Surg 2021 Apr 29;15(1):19. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

At the time of writing of this article, there have been over 110 million cases and 2.4 million deaths worldwide since the start of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, postponing millions of non-urgent surgeries. Existing literature explores the complexities of rationing medical care. Read More

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Thermal Analysis of Stomatal Response under Salinity and High Light.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland.

A non-destructive thermal imaging method was used to study the stomatal response of salt-treated plants to excessive light. The plants were exposed to different levels of salt concentrations (0, 75, 150, and 220 mM NaCl). Time-dependent thermograms showed the changes in the temperature distribution over the lamina and provided new insights into the acute light-induced temporary response of under short-term salinity. Read More

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Deep Learning versus Spectral Techniques for Frequency Estimation of Single Tones: Reduced Complexity for Software-Defined Radio and IoT Sensor Communications.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Computer Science and Mathematics, University of Kufa, Najaf 54001, Iraq.

Despite the increasing role of machine learning in various fields, very few works considered artificial intelligence for frequency estimation (FE). This work presents comprehensive analysis of a deep-learning (DL) approach for frequency estimation of single tones. A DL network with two layers having a few nodes can estimate frequency more accurately than well-known classical techniques can. Read More

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Venous Malformations and Blood Coagulation in Children.

Children (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;8(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of Helsinki, Yliopistonkatu 4, 00100 Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: Venous malformations (VMs) are congenital low-flow lesions with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. An increasing number of studies link VMs to coagulation abnormalities, especially to elevated D-dimer and decreased fibrinogen. This condition, termed localized intravascular coagulopathy (LIC), may pose a risk for hemostatic complications. Read More

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Apoferritin/Vandetanib Association Is Long-Term Stable But Does Not Improve Pharmacological Properties of Vandetanib.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 20;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic.

A tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vandetanib (Van), is an anticancer drug affecting the signaling of VEGFR, EGFR and RET protooncogenes. Van is primarily used for the treatment of advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer; however, its usage is significantly limited by side effects, particularly cardiotoxicity. One approach to minimize them is the encapsulation or binding of Van in- or onto a suitable carrier, allowing targeted delivery to tumor tissue. Read More

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Deep Active Learning for Automatic Segmentation of Maxillary Sinus Lesions Using a Convolutional Neural Network.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 12;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul 02841, Korea.

The aim of this study was to segment the maxillary sinus into the maxillary bone, air, and lesion, and to evaluate its accuracy by comparing and analyzing the results performed by the experts. We randomly selected 83 cases of deep active learning. Our active learning framework consists of three steps. Read More

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Selective Extraction of Nonfullerene Acceptors from Bulk-Heterojunction Layer in Organic Solar Cells for Detailed Analysis of Microstructure.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan.

Detailed analyses of the microstructures of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) layers are important for the development of high-performance photovoltaic organic solar cells (OSCs). However, analytical methods for BHJ layer microstructures are limited because BHJ films are composed of a complex mixture of donor and acceptor materials. In our previous study on the microstructure of a BHJ film composed of donor polymers and fullerene-based acceptors, we analyzed donor polymer-only films after selectively extracting fullerene-based acceptors from the film by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Read More

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A Wearable Sensor-Based Platform for Surgeon Posture Monitoring: A Tool to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 2;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Information Engineering, University of Pisa, 56122 Pisa, Italy.

Surgeons are workers that are particularly prone to the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Recent advances in surgical interventions, such as laparoscopic procedures, have caused a worsening of the scenario, given the harmful static postures that have to be kept for long periods. In this paper, we present a sensor-based platform specifically aimed at monitoring the posture during actual surgical operations. Read More

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Genomic Imprinting at the Porcine Locus and the Orthologous Locus in the Human.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Functional Genomics Laboratory, Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Implementation of genomic imprinting in mammals often results in -acting silencing of a gene cluster and monoallelic expression, which are important for mammalian growth and function. Compared with widely documented imprinting status in humans and mice, current understanding of genomic imprinting in pigs is relatively limited. The objectives of this study were to identify DNA methylation status and allelic expression of alternative spliced isoforms at the porcine locus and assess the conservation of the locus compared to the orthologous human locus. Read More

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Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in high-risk metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients: Quality of life and neurocognitive analysis of a randomized phase II study.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Thoracic Oncology Unit, National Cancer Institute (INCan), México City, México. Electronic address:

Background: To this date, studies regarding the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) vs. standard of care (SoC) for NSCLC patients have shown limited benefit in survival outcomes, in addition to the potential effects in quality of life (QoL) and neurocognitive function (NCF). This randomized, phase II study evaluated the role of PCI in QoL and NCF, in a population comprised of subjects at a high-risk for development of BM. Read More

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Multidimensional Analyses Reveal Unequal Resource, Economic, and Environmental Gains and Losses among the Global Aluminum Trade Leaders.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Disputes around trade inequality have been growing over the last 2 decades, with different countries claiming inequality in different terms including monetary deficits, resource appropriation and degradation, and environmental emission transfer. Despite prior input-output-based studies analyzing multidimensional trade consequences at the sector level, there is a lack of bottom-up studies that uncover the complexity of trade imbalances at the product level. This paper quantifies four types of flows, monetary, resource, embodied energy use, and embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, resulting from aluminum trade for the four economies with the highest aluminum trade, that is, the United States, China, Japan, and Australia. Read More

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Nebula: A Coordinating Grammar of Graphics.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Apr 28;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

In multiple coordinated views (MCVs), visualizations across views update their content in response to users interactions in other views. Interactive systems provide direct manipulation to create coordination between views, but are restricted to limited types of predefined templates. By contrast, textual specification languages enable flexible coordination but expose technical burden. Read More

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High sensitivity sanger sequencing detection of BRAF mutations in metastatic melanoma FFPE tissue specimens.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 27;11(1):9043. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 65000 Main St, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Mutations in the BRAF gene at or near the p. V600 locus are informative for therapy selection, but current methods for analyzing FFPE tissue DNA generally have a limit of detection of 5% variant allele frequency (VAF), or are limited to the single variant (V600E). These can result in false negatives for samples with low VAFs due to low tumor content or subclonal heterogeneity, or harbor non-V600 mutations. Read More

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Application of Bayesian Multilevel Modeling in the Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship Studies of Heterogeneous Compounds.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gen. J. Hallera 107, 80-416 Gdańsk, Poland.

Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) are used in the field of chromatography to model the relationship between an analyte structure and chromatographic retention. Such models are typically difficult to build and validate for heterogeneous compounds because of their many descriptors and relatively limited analyte-specific data. In this study, a Bayesian multilevel model is proposed to characterize the isocratic retention time data collected for 1026 heterogeneous analytes. Read More

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Analyzing efforts to synergize the global health agenda of universal health coverage, health security and health promotion: a case-study from Ethiopia.

Global Health 2021 Apr 26;17(1):53. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Evidence exists about synergies among universal health coverage, health security and health promotion. Uniting these three global agendas has brought success to the country's health sector. This study aimed to document the efforts Ethiopia has made to apply nationally synergistic approaches uniting these three global health agendas. Read More

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Semantic standards of external exposome data.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 24;197:111185. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Health Outcomes and Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Cancer Informatics Shared Resource, University of Florida Health Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

An individual's health and conditions are associated with a complex interplay between the individual's genetics and his or her exposures to both internal and external environments. Much attention has been placed on characterizing of the genome in the past; nevertheless, genetics only account for about 10% of an individual's health conditions, while the remaining appears to be determined by environmental factors and gene-environment interactions. To comprehensively understand the causes of diseases and prevent them, environmental exposures, especially the external exposome, need to be systematically explored. Read More

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Effectiveness of wound site infiltration for parturients undergoing elective cesarean section in an Ethiopian hospital: A prospective cohort study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Apr 29;64:102255. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Anesthesia, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Debre Tabor University, Debre Tabor, Ethiopia.

Background: Cesarean delivery (CD) is a commonly performed obstetric surgical procedure and causes moderate to severe postoperative pain. Wound site infiltration (WSI) is becoming a technique to provide postoperative analgesia in a limited-resource setting in regardless of controversy on its effectiveness. The current study is to assess its effectiveness as a part of postoperative analgesia for parturients undergoing elective Cesarean section. Read More

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Uncertainty quantification in reconstruction of sparse water quality time series: Implications for watershed health and risk-based TMDL assessment.

Environ Model Softw 2020 Sep;131

Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Despite the plethora of methods available for uncertainty quantification, their use has been limited in the practice of water quality (WQ) modeling. In this paper, a decision support tool (DST) that yields a continuous time series of WQ loads from sparse data using streamflows as predictor variables is presented. The DST estimates uncertainty by analyzing residual errors using a relevance vector machine. Read More

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September 2020

The situation and well-being of custodial grandparents in Myanmar: Impacts of adult children's cross-border and internal migration.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 20;277:113914. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Custodial care for grandchildren left behind by migrant parents is an important contribution made by grandparents for their families and societies, given rising migration flows and increasing prominence of skipped-generation households in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, little is known about the scope and consequences of custodial grandparenting in developing settings. Analyzing unique data from the 2017 Myanmar Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren Survey, this study examines the extent to which the middle generation's cross-border and internal migration are associated with caregiving intensity, perception towards grandchild care, and psychological well-being among grandparents. Read More

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Practical Considerations for Implementation of SARS-CoV-2 Serological Testing in the Clinical Laboratory: Experience at an Academic Medical Center.

Acad Pathol 2021 Jan-Dec;8:23742895211002802. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Molecular techniques, especially reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Serological tests for SARS-CoV-2 have been widely used for serosurveys, epidemiology, and identification of potential convalescent plasma donors. However, the clinical role of serologic testing is still limited and evolving. Read More

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Minimally invasive treatment of forearm double fracture in adult using Acumed forearm intramedullary nail: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(11):2595-2601

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, Jilin Province, China.

Background: Currently, open reduction internal fixation is the conventional surgical method for treatment of double ulna and radius fracture. However, open reduction is associated with a high risk of complications. This case of forearm double fracture involved a patient treated using an Acumed intramedullary nail. Read More

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