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Understanding Holism in the light of principle underlying practice of Unani Medicine.

Rev Environ Health 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi, India.

The holistic Unani medicine is fundamentally different from the reductionist conventional medicine. It asserts the self-integration amongst its basic disciplines, without considering them underlying principles of Unani system of medicine cannot be understood. The diagnosis, selection of drugs, and plan of treatment is also overlooked. Read More

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Mosquitoes buzz and fruit flies don't - a comparative aeroacoustic analysis of wing-tone generation.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles St, Baltimore, Maryland, 21218, UNITED STATES.

Crepuscular mosquitoes, which swarm in low light conditions, exhibit a range of adaptations including large aspect-ratio wings, high flapping frequencies and small stroke amplitudes that taken together, facilitate the generation of wing-tones that are well-suited for acoustic communication. In the current study, we employ computational aeroacoustic modeling to conduct a comparative study of wing-tone and flight efficiency in a mosquito (male Culex) and a similar sized flying insect: a fruit fly (Drosophila). Based on this analysis, we show that pound-for-pound, a mosquito generates wing-tones that are a factor of about 3. Read More

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Cr Cation-Anchored Carbon Nanosheets: Synthesis, Paramagnetism and Ferromagnetism.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials - Ministry of Education, Lanzhou, CHINA.

Herein, a strategy of Cr cations solely anchored on two dimensional carbon nanosheets by Cr-N bond is developed. The atomically dispersed Cr cations and Cr-N3 coordination are demonstrated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure characterization. Furthermore, the Cr-N3 anchoredcarbon nanosheets exhibits ferromagnetism, wherein the magnetization varies directly with the Cr content and the maximum magnetization is approximately 0. Read More

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Quantum-confinement effect on the linewidth broadening of metal halide perovskite-based quantum dots.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Seoul, 08826, Korea (the Republic of).

The linewidth broadening caused by various physicochemical effects does limit the well-known advantage of ultrahigh color purity of metal halide perovskites (MHPs) for use in next-generation light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We have theoretically examined the quantum- and dielectric-confinement effects of a quantum dot (QD) on the degree of photoluminescence (PL) linewidth broadening (〖∆λ〗_QC). It is predicted that Δλ_QC is mainly contributed by the two competing effects: (i) the linewidth broadening due to the repulsive kinetic energy of confined excitons (∆λ_QC^((KE) )) and (ii) the overall linewidth narrowing caused by the attractive Coulomb interaction (∆λ_QC^((Coul) )). Read More

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Structural insight into transmissive mutant huntingtin species by correlative light and electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 10;560:99-104. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA; Institute for Quantitative Biomedicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA. Electronic address:

Aggregates of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) containing an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract are hallmarks of Huntington's Disease (HD). Studies have shown that mHTT can spread between cells, leading to the propagation of misfolded protein pathology. However, the structure of transmissive mHTT species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying their transmission remain unknown. Read More

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In situ fabrication of BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction photocatalyst for simultaneous photocatalytic phenol degradation and Cr(VI) reduction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 28;599:741-751. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Reaction Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yan'an University, Yan'an 716000, PR China; Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, School of Xingfa Mining Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073, PR China. Electronic address:

In this work, we designed a novel BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction photocatalyst and successfully fabricated by a facile solvothermal-calcination approach. Experimental characterizations indicated that the formation of BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction was caused by controlling oxygen vacancies formation. Such BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction exhibits about 240 times higher photocatalytic activity towards phenol degradation as compared with pure BiMoO under visible light irradiation. Read More

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AgI/CuWO Z-scheme photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants: Experimental and molecular dynamics studies.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 28;599:717-729. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:

While the knowledge of the adsorption properties of components of a composite heterogeneous photocatalyst is critical to its applicability to a particular reaction, there has been little research in this direction. The present research is on the development of AgI/CuWO nanocomposites that photocatalytically degraded ciprofloxacin and rhodamine B in an aqueous medium under visible light irradiation. The nanocomposites were prepared by a step-wise precipitation protocol. Read More

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Peeling back the layers: Investigating the effects of polyelectrolyte layering on surface structure and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 24;599:706-716. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, United States. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes is a useful technique for modifying surface functionalities. For drug delivery systems, alternating layers of biopolymers coat nanoemulsions, which house and protect the cargo until the time and destination of delivery. Here, we investigate molecular factors contributing to the stability and interfacial properties of nanoemulsions prepared by a co-adsorption of polymers poly(styrene sulfonate) and polyethylenimine (PEI), and surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide. Read More

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Photoluminescence and optical temperature measurement of Mn/Er co-activated double perovskite phosphor through site-advantageous occupation.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 9;259:119797. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Chemistry, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, PR China.

Because traditional methods based on thermal coupling energy level temperature measurement have large errors, a new temperature sensing strategy is proposed to attain strong sensitivity and excellent signal resolution ability. The rare-earth and also transition metal ions with poles apart thermal quenching channels are used as dual emission centers to find a suitable host to achieve high-efficiency dual-mode emission. In this work, a string of phosphors with NaLaMgWO (NLMW) as the host, the single-doped and double-doped Mn and Er phosphors were adopted by the traditional high temperature solid-state reaction method. Read More

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Rapid determination of folic acid and riboflavin in urine by polypyrrole magnetic solid-phase extractant combined ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Apr 27;1648:462192. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

Determination of folic acid and riboflavin in biological samples is difficult due to their high polarity, low concentration, chemical instability, and complex matrix. In this study, the polypyrrole-coated magnetic nanocomposite (FeO@PPy) was synthesized innovatively with the assistance of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. To evaluate the adsorption mechanism and the feasibility of synthesized FeO@PPy as an adsorbent, the adsorption capacities, kinetics and thermodynamics of folic acid and riboflavin were investigated systemically. Read More

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Additive grain-size: An innovative perspective to investigate the transformation among heavy metal and phosphorus fractions during aerobic composting.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 10;292:112768. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130102, China; Jilin Provincial Engineering Center of CWs Design in Cold Region & Beautiful Country Construction, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130102, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Considerable researches have been devoted to ascertain the transformation among heavy metal (HM) or phosphorus (P) fractions during aerobic composting. However, available information that additives with different grain-sizes regulate the activation mechanism on P through influencing the passivation effect on HMs remains limited. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in HM-fractions and P-fractions, and ascertain the interaction pathway between HMs and P during aerobic composting amended with medical stone (Coarse medical stone, 3-5 mm; Fine medical stone, < 0. Read More

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Functional brain networks underlying automatic and controlled handwriting in Chinese.

Brain Lang 2021 May 10;219:104962. Epub 2021 May 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Center for Brain Science and Learning Difficulties, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to identify the functional brain networks underlying the distinctions between automatic and controlled handwriting in Chinese. Network-based analysis was applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected while adult participants performed a copying task under automatic and speed-controlled conditions. We found significant differences between automatic and speed-controlled handwriting in functional connectivity within and between the frontoparietal network, default mode network, dorsal attention network, somatomotor network and visual network; these differences reflect the variations in general attentional control and task-relevant visuomotor operations. Read More

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Microstructural changes of the wall of uterine horn in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) during postnatal development.

Theriogenology 2021 May 3;170:23-35. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71C, PL-60-625, Poznań, Poland.

The study describes the details of histological changes occurring during the postnatal development of the wall of the uterine horn in the European shorthair domestic cat. Light microscope observations and morphometric analysis were carried out to investigate the rate of development of the wall of the uterine horns in order to estimate the maturing time. Uterine horns of newborn and 1week-old cats are fetal-like and showing smooth, nonfolded endometrium lined with pseudostratified epithelium, deprived of uterine glands, and poorly developed two-layered myometrium. Read More

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Fabrication of bioactive binary composite film based on gelatin/chitosan incorporated with cinnamon essential oil and rutin.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 May 6;204:111830. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Food and Nutrition, BioNanocomposite Research Center, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Chitosan/gelatin-based functional films were fabricated by incorporating cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and rutin for active packaging application. The functional fillers were evenly distributed in the polymer matrix and formed a film compatible with the chitosan/gelatin polymer matrix. However, the functional material did not affect the physical properties such as mechanical, thermal, and water vapor barrier properties of the film but exhibited high light transmittance with enhanced UV blocking properties. Read More

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Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles decorated polydopamine coated hexagonal boron nitride and its effect on wound healing.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 May 7;67:126774. Epub 2021 May 7.

Genetics and Bioengineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yeditepe University, Ataşehir, Istanbul, 34755, Turkey; Oregon Health and Science University, The Knight Cancer Research Institute, Cancer Early Detection Advanced Research (CEDAR) Center, Portland, OR, 97239, USA; Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center (SUNUM), Tuzla, Istanbul, 34956, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: Wound healing is an essential physiological process involving many cell types and their products acting in a marvellous harmony to repair damaged tissues. During the healing process, cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix remodelling stages could be interrupted by undesired factors including microorganisms and altered metabolic activities. In such a case, the process requires some external stimulants to accelerate or remediate the healing stages. Read More

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Health beneficial and pharmacological properties of p-cymene.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 May 10:112259. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratory of Human Pathologies Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, and Genomic Center of Human Pathologies, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco. Electronic address:

p-cymene also known as p-cymol or p-isopropyltoluene is an alkyl-substituted aromatic compound naturally occurring in essential oils (EOs) of various aromatic plants, including the genus of Artemisia, Protium, Origanum, and Thymus. It is related to the family of terpenes, especially monocyclic monoterpenes. p-cymene is also present in several food-based plants such as carrots, orange juice, grapefruit, tangerine, raspberries and several spices. Read More

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The cognitive development of food taste perception in a food tourism destination: A gastrophysics approach.

Appetite 2021 May 10:105310. Epub 2021 May 10.

, Department of Archaeology, Cultural Heritage and Museology Floor 5, West Building 1, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310028 China. Electronic address:

This study aims to explore the nature and processes involved in the cognitive development of food tourist's taste perception and identify cognitive factors influencing their food taste experience in the context of a food tourism destination. Adopting a gastrophysics approach, this exploratory qualitative research analyses food taste perceptions of Chinese domestic tourists during their visit to the Hangzhou Cuisine Museum and its associated restaurants. The findings suggest that prior knowledge formation as a manifestation of cognitive signs relating to Hangzhou cuisine and interpretive cognitive information acquired at the museum exhibition, greatly affect the tourists' local food taste experiences: these comprise menu selection and appetitive responses in textual, visual and gustatory senses. Read More

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Performance study of a sterilization box using a combination of heat and ultraviolet light irradiation for the prevention of COVID-19.

Environ Res 2021 May 10:111309. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 virus and other pathogenic microbes are transmitted to the environment through contacting surfaces, which need to be sterilized for the prevention of COVID-19 and related diseases. In this study, a prototype of a cost-effective sterilization box is developed to disinfect small items. The box utilizes ultra violet (UV) radiation with heat. Read More

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Two newly identified Haematococcus strains efficiently accumulated radioactive cesium over higher astaxanthin production.

Environ Res 2021 May 10:111301. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sogang University, Baekbeom-ro 35, Mapo-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Baekbeom-ro 35, Mapo-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, we investigated the morphological, genomic and bioaccumulation characteristics of two isolated Haematococcus strains (namely Goyang and Sogang), which were newly discovered in South Korea. Morphological analysis revealed that the isolated strains were unicellular and bi-flagellated green microalgae that formed thickened walls at the palmelloid or red-cyst phase. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL gDNA sequences demonstrated that both strains were taxonomically related to the genus Haematococcus. Read More

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Hair of the mouse: A skin bacteria "cocktail" gets follicles back on their feet.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 May;29(5):742-744

Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Microbes can boost cutaneous immune defense and skin reparative capacity. However, mechanistic understanding, especially of the latter, remains sparse. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Wang et al. Read More

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Golden Vaterite as a Mesoscopic Metamaterial for Biophotonic Applications.

Adv Mater 2021 May 13:e2008484. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel.

Mesoscopic photonic systems with tailored optical responses have great potential to open new frontiers in implantable biomedical devices. However, biocompatibility is typically a problem, as engineering of optical properties often calls for using toxic compounds and chemicals, unsuitable for in vivo applications. Here, a unique approach to biofriendly delivery of optical resonances is demonstrated. Read More

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The effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in light versus heavier smokers.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Toronto, ON.

Purpose: The prevalence of light smoking has increased in North America; however, research on the effectiveness of current treatments in this sub-population of smokers is limited. We compared quit outcomes between light (1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD)) versus heavier smokers (>10 CPD) enrolled in a treatment program at their primary care clinic.

Methods: This secondary analysis analyzed 45,087 participants (light smokers (n=9,861); heavier smokers (n=35,226)) enrolled in a smoking cessation program between April 2016 and March 2020. Read More

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Controlling the fractal dimension in self-assembly of terpyridine modified insulin by Fe and Eu to direct in vivo effects.

Nanoscale 2021 May 1;13(18):8467-8473. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center for Biopharmaceuticals and Biobarriers in Drug Delivery and Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Metal ion-induced self-assembly (SA) of proteins into higher-order structures can provide new, dynamic nano-assemblies. Here, the synthesis and characterization of a human insulin (HI) analog modified at Lys with the tridentate chelator 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (Tpy) is described. SA of this new insulin analog (LysTpy-HI) in the presence of the metal ions Fe and Eu at different concentrations was studied in solution by fluorescence luminescence and CD spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering, while surface assembly was probed by AFM. Read More

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Does blood type affect the COVID-19 infection pattern?

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251535. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Physics, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Among the many aspects that characterize the COVID-19 pandemic, two seem particularly challenging to understand: i) the great geographical differences in the degree of virus contagiousness and lethality that were found in the different phases of the epidemic progression, and, ii) the potential role of the infected people's blood type in both the virus infectivity and the progression of the disease. A recent hypothesis could shed some light on both aspects. Specifically, it has been proposed that, in the subject-to-subject transfer, SARS-CoV-2 conserves on its capsid the erythrocytes' antigens of the source subject. Read More

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Effect of illumination level [18F]FDG-PET brain uptake in free moving mice.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251454. Epub 2021 May 13.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

In both clinical and preclinical scenarios, 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) is the radiotracer most widely used to study brain glucose metabolism with positron emission tomography (PET). In clinical practice, there is a worldwide standardized protocol for preparing patients for [18F]FDG-PET studies, which specifies the room lighting. However, this standard is typically not observed in the preclinical field, although it is well known that animal handling affects the biodistribution of [18F]FDG. Read More

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Crinet: A computational tool to infer genome-wide competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) interactions.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251399. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, United States of America.

To understand driving biological factors for complex diseases like cancer, regulatory circuity of genes needs to be discovered. Recently, a new gene regulation mechanism called competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) interactions has been discovered. Certain genes targeted by common microRNAs (miRNAs) "compete" for these miRNAs, thereby regulate each other by making others free from miRNA regulation. Read More

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Compartmentalization of cerebrospinal fluid inflammation across the spectrum of untreated HIV-1 infection, central nervous system injury and viral suppression.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250987. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States of America.

Objective: To characterize the evolution of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in HIV-1 infection applying a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory biomarkers to grouped subjects representing a broad spectrum of systemic HIV-1 immune suppression, CNS injury and viral control.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of archived CSF and blood samples, assessing concentrations of 10 functionally diverse soluble inflammatory biomarkers by immunoassays in 143 HIV-1-infected subjects divided into 8 groups: untreated primary HIV-1 infection (PHI); four untreated groups defined by their blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts; untreated patients presenting with subacute HIV-associated dementia (HAD); antiretroviral-treated subjects with ≥1 years of plasma viral suppression; and untreated elite controllers. Twenty HIV-1-uninfected controls were included for comparison. Read More

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Whole genome sequencing of a snailfish from the Yap Trench (~7,000 m) clarifies the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to the deep sea.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 13;17(5):e1009530. Epub 2021 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology of Fujian Province, Institute of Oceanology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Hadal environments (depths below 6,000 m) are characterized by extremely high hydrostatic pressures, low temperatures, a scarce food supply, and little light. The evolutionary adaptations that allow vertebrates to survive in this extreme environment are poorly understood. Here, we constructed a high-quality reference genome for Yap hadal snailfish (YHS), which was captured at a depth of ~7,000 m in the Yap Trench. Read More

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Evaluating the Impact of Summer Drought on Vegetation Growth Using Space-Based Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Across Extensive Spatial Measures.

Big Data 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Process Control for Light Industry, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Drought is the primary and dominant natural cause of stress on vegetation, and thus, it needs our full attention. Current understanding of drought across extensive spatial measures, around the world, is considerably limited. As case studies to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing space-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) across extensive spatial measures, here, we have used data from 2007 to 2017 in Heilongjiang and Jiangsu provinces of China. Read More

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Exogenous HS Protects Colon Cells in Ulcerative Colitis by Inhibiting and Activating Autophagy.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin City, P.R. China.

Hydrogen sulfide (HS) has been reported to participate in intestinal mucosal defense and repair. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms of HS in ulcerative colitis (UC) remain unclear. We explored the effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of HS, in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Read More

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