5,917 results match your criteria ligand triggered


Transcriptomic analysis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells exposed to laminin binding protein (adhesion lipoprotein) and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7970. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratory of Biomedical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice, Komenskeho 73, Kosice, 04181, Slovak Republic.

Streptococcus pneumoniae invades the CNS and triggers a strong cellular response. To date, signaling events that occur in the human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs), in response to pneumococci or its surface adhesins are not mapped comprehensively. We evaluated the response of hBMECs to the adhesion lipoprotein (a laminin binding protein-Lbp) or live pneumococci. Read More

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Bacterial detection by NAIP/NLRC4 elicits prompt contractions of intestinal epithelial cell layers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden;

The gut epithelium serves to maximize the surface for nutrient and fluid uptake, but at the same time must provide a tight barrier to pathogens and remove damaged intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) without jeopardizing barrier integrity. How the epithelium coordinates these tasks remains a question of significant interest. We used imaging and an optical flow analysis pipeline to study the dynamicity of untransformed murine and human intestinal epithelia, cultured atop flexible hydrogel supports. Read More

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β-Arrestin1 and GRK2 play permissive roles in Src-mediated endocytosis of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwang-Ju, 61186, Republic of Korea.

Background And Purpose: α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), a subtype of the ligand-gated ion channel, is abundantly expressed in the brain and implicated in several neurological disorders. The endocytosis of nAChR plays important roles in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, but its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood.

Experimental Approach: Loss-of-function approaches and mutants of α4β2 nAChR that display different endocytic properties were used to identify the cellular components and processes responsible for endocytosis. Read More

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Photothermometric analysis of bismuth ions using aggregation-induced nanozyme system with a target-triggered surface cleaning effect.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, China.

The development of nanozyme-based photothermometric sensing for point-of-care testing (POCT) heavy metal ions is of great significance for disease diagnosis and health management. Considering the low catalytic activity of most nanozymes at physiological pH, we found bismuth ions (Bi) could effectively enhance the peroxidase (POX)-like activity of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and citrate-capped octahedral gold nanoparticle (CTAB/Cit-AuNP) nanozymes. It is mainly based on Biions being able to trigger the surface cleaning effect of CTAB/Cit-AuNPs. Read More

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Square planar Au(III), Pt(II) and Cu(II) complexes with quinoline-substituted 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine ligands: From in vitro to in vivo biological properties.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Mar 26;218:113404. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

UCIBIO, Departamento de Ciências da Vida, NOVA School of Science and Technology, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516, Caparica, Portugal. Electronic address:

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Cisplatin has challenged cancer treatment; however, resistance and side effects hamper its use. New agents displaying improved activity and more reduced side effects relative to cisplatin are needed. Read More

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Autophagy in normal pituitary and pituitary tumor cells and its potential role in the actions of somatostatin receptor ligands in acromegaly.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, Division of Endocrinology IRCCS, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved process for the self-degradation and recycling of cellular components in the cytoplasm. It is involved in both physiological and pathological conditions. In detail, the term "autophagy" refers to intracellular degradative pathways that lead to packaging and deliver of cellular components to lysosomes or to plant and yeast vacuoles. Read More

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Long non-coding RNA receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand promotes cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 May 22;21(5):518. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Radiotherapy, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei 061000, P.R. China.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a common malignancy associated with poor clinical outcomes and high mortality rate. The association between NSCLC development and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression remains to be elucidated. The current study investigated the role of a novel lncRNA, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL), in the resistance of NSCLC to chemotherapy. Read More

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New Pathways for the Skin's Stress Response: The Cholinergic Neuropeptide SLURP-1 Can Activate Mast Cells and Alter Cytokine Production in Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:631881. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Psychoneuroimmunology Laboratory, Clinic for Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Chrna7) plays an essential anti-inflammatory role in immune homeostasis and was recently found on mast cells (MC). Psychosocial stress can trigger MC hyperactivation and increases pro-inflammatory cytokines in target tissues such as the skin. If the cholinergic system (CS) and Chrna7 ligands play a role in these cascades is largely unknown. Read More

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Obesity-Associated Inflammation: Does Curcumin Exert a Beneficial Role?

Nutrients 2021 Mar 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Center for Gender-Specific Medicine, Gender Specific Prevention and Health Unit, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Curcumin is a lipophilic polyphenol, isolated from the plant turmeric of Curcuma longa. Curcuma longa has always been used in traditional medicine in Asian countries because it is believed to have numerous health benefits. Nowadays it is widely used as spice component and in emerging nutraceutical food worldwide. Read More

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Differential Involvement of ACKR3 C-Tail in β-Arrestin Recruitment, Trafficking and Internalization.

Cells 2021 Mar 11;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Amsterdam Institute for Molecular and Life Sciences (AIMMS), Division of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

: The atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Unlike classical GPCRs, this receptor does not activate G proteins in most cell types but recruits β-arrestins upon activation. ACKR3 plays an important role in cancer and vascular diseases. Read More

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Triggered Drug Release From Liposomes: Exploiting the Outer and Inner Tumor Environment.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:623760. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Since more than 40 years liposomes have being extensively studied for their potential as carriers of anticancer drugs. The basic principle behind their use for cancer treatment consists on the idea that they can take advantage of the leaky vasculature and poor lymphatic drainage present at the tumor tissue, passively accumulating in this region. Aiming to further improve their efficacy, different strategies have been employed such as PEGlation, which enables longer circulation times, or the attachment of ligands to liposomal surface for active targeting of cancer cells. Read More

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Effectors with chitinase activity (EWCAs), a family of conserved, secreted fungal chitinases that suppress chitin-triggered immunity.

Plant Cell 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga 29071, Spain.

In plants, chitin-triggered immunity is one of the first lines of defense against fungi, but phytopathogenic fungi have developed different strategies to prevent the recognition of chitin. Obligate biotrophs such as powdery mildew fungi suppress the activation of host responses; however, little is known about how these fungi subvert the immunity elicited by chitin. During epiphytic growth, the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera xanthii expresses a family of candidate effector genes comprising nine members with an unknown function. Read More

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January 2021

Novel Compounds Targeting Neuropilin Receptor 1 with Potential To Interfere with SARS-CoV-2 Virus Entry.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, United States.

Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a multifunctional transmembrane receptor for ligands that affect developmental axonal growth and angiogenesis. In addition to a role in cancer, NRP-1 is a reported entry point for several viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The furin cleavage product of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein takes advantage of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binding site on NRP-1 which accommodates a polybasic stretch ending in a C-terminal arginine. Read More

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Case study of a critically ill person with COVID-19 on ECMO successfully treated with leronlimab.

J Transl Autoimmun 2021 23;4:100097. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

CytoDyn, 1111 Main Street, Suite 660, Vancouver, WA, 98660, USA.

The number of confirmed cases of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), continues to increase and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in virtually every country in the world. Although in the long-term mass vaccinations remains the most promising approach to control the pandemic, evidence suggests that new variants of the virus have emerged that may be able to evade the immune responses triggered by current vaccines. Therefore despite the recent approval of a number of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines there remains considerable urgency for effective treatments for COVID-19. Read More

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Transformation of Formazanate at Nickel(II) Centers to Give a Singly Reduced Nickel Complex with Azoiminate Radical Ligands and Its Reactivity toward Dioxygen.

Inorg Chem 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institut für Chemie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Strasse 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany.

The heteroleptic (formazanato)nickel bromide complex LNi(μ-Br)NiL [LH = Mes-NH-N═C(-tol)-N═N-Mes] has been prepared by deprotonation of LH with NaH followed by reaction with NiBr(dme). Treatment of this complex with KC led to transformation of the formazanate into azoiminate ligands via N-N bond cleavage and the simultaneous release of aniline. At the same time, the potentially resulting intermediate complex L'Ni [L' = HN═C(-tol)-N═N-Mes] was reduced by one additional electron, which is delocalized across the π system and the metal center. Read More

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NASH limits anti-tumour surveillance in immunotherapy-treated HCC.

Authors:
Dominik Pfister Nicolás Gonzalo Núñez Roser Pinyol Olivier Govaere Matthias Pinter Marta Szydlowska Revant Gupta Mengjie Qiu Aleksandra Deczkowska Assaf Weiner Florian Müller Ankit Sinha Ekaterina Friebel Thomas Engleitner Daniela Lenggenhager Anja Moncsek Danijela Heide Kristin Stirm Jan Kosla Eleni Kotsiliti Valentina Leone Michael Dudek Suhail Yousuf Donato Inverso Indrabahadur Singh Ana Teijeiro Florian Castet Carla Montironi Philipp K Haber Dina Tiniakos Pierre Bedossa Simon Cockell Ramy Younes Michele Vacca Fabio Marra Jörn M Schattenberg Michael Allison Elisabetta Bugianesi Vlad Ratziu Tiziana Pressiani Antonio D'Alessio Nicola Personeni Lorenza Rimassa Ann K Daly Bernhard Scheiner Katharina Pomej Martha M Kirstein Arndt Vogel Markus Peck-Radosavljevic Florian Hucke Fabian Finkelmeier Oliver Waidmann Jörg Trojan Kornelius Schulze Henning Wege Sandra Koch Arndt Weinmann Marco Bueter Fabian Rössler Alexander Siebenhüner Sara De Dosso Jan-Philipp Mallm Viktor Umansky Manfred Jugold Tom Luedde Andrea Schietinger Peter Schirmacher Brinda Emu Hellmut G Augustin Adrian Billeter Beat Müller-Stich Hiroto Kikuchi Dan G Duda Fabian Kütting Dirk-Thomas Waldschmidt Matthias Philip Ebert Nuh Rahbari Henrik E Mei Axel Ronald Schulz Marc Ringelhan Nisar Malek Stephan Spahn Michael Bitzer Marina Ruiz de Galarreta Amaia Lujambio Jean-Francois Dufour Thomas U Marron Ahmed Kaseb Masatoshi Kudo Yi-Hsiang Huang Nabil Djouder Katharina Wolter Lars Zender Parice N Marche Thomas Decaens David J Pinato Roland Rad Joachim C Mertens Achim Weber Kristian Unger Felix Meissner Susanne Roth Zuzana Macek Jilkova Manfred Claassen Quentin M Anstee Ido Amit Percy Knolle Burkhard Becher Josep M Llovet Mathias Heikenwalder

Nature 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Chronic Inflammation and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can have viral or non-viral causes. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an important driver of HCC. Immunotherapy has been approved for treating HCC, but biomarker-based stratification of patients for optimal response to therapy is an unmet need. Read More

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Mechanisms underlying the hormetic effect of conjugated linoleic acid: Focus on Nrf2, mitochondria and NADPH oxidases.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Mar 19;167:276-286. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council (CNR-ISA), 83100, Avellino, Italy. Electronic address:

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor. Its activation by low dietary intake of ligands leads to antioxidant effects (eustress), while pro-oxidant effects (oxidative distress) may be associated with high doses. NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and the mitochondrial electron transport chain are the main sources of intracellular ROS, but their involvement in the biphasic/hormetic activity elicited by Nrf2 ligands is not fully understood. Read More

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Synchronous RNA conformational changes trigger ordered phase transitions in crystals.

Nat Commun 2021 03 19;12(1):1762. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Structural Biophysics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, USA.

Time-resolved studies of biomacromolecular crystals have been limited to systems involving only minute conformational changes within the same lattice. Ligand-induced changes greater than several angstroms, however, are likely to result in solid-solid phase transitions, which require a detailed understanding of the mechanistic interplay between conformational and lattice transitions. Here we report the synchronous behavior of the adenine riboswitch aptamer RNA in crystal during ligand-triggered isothermal phase transitions. Read More

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The transcriptional landscape of Arabidopsis thaliana pattern-triggered immunity.

Nat Plants 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

The Sainsbury Laboratory, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK.

Plants tailor their metabolism to environmental conditions, in part through the recognition of a wide array of self and non-self molecules. In particular, the perception of microbial or plant-derived molecular patterns by cell-surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) induces pattern-triggered immunity, which includes massive transcriptional reprogramming. An increasing number of plant PRRs and corresponding ligands are known, but whether plants tune their immune outputs to patterns of different biological origins or of different biochemical natures remains mostly unclear. Read More

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Macrophage cytokine responses to commensal Gram-positive Lactobacillus salivarius strains are TLR2-independent and Myd88-dependent.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 15;11(1):5896. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

The mechanisms through which cells of the host innate immune system distinguish commensal bacteria from pathogens are currently unclear. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed by host cells which recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) common to both commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Of the different TLRs, TLR2/6 recognize bacterial lipopeptides and trigger cytokines responses, especially to Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Read More

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The Crucial Role of PPARγ-Egr-1-Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Axis in IgG Immune Complex-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:634889. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Acute Abdomen Disease Associated Organ Injury and Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine (ITCWM) Repair, Institute of Integrative Medicine for Acute Abdominal Diseases, Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Background: The ligand-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ plays crucial roles in diverse biological processes including cellular metabolism, differentiation, development, and immune response. However, during IgG immune complex (IgG-IC)-induced acute lung inflammation, its expression and function in the pulmonary tissue remains unknown.

Objectives: The study is designed to determine the effect of PPARγ on IgG-IC-triggered acute lung inflammation, and the underlying mechanisms, which might provide theoretical basis for therapy of acute lung inflammation. Read More

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February 2021

Possible role of small secreted peptides (SSPs) in immune signaling in bryophytes.

Plant Mol Biol 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Plants utilize a plethora of peptide signals to regulate their immune response. Peptide ligands and their cognate receptors involved in immune signaling share common motifs among many species of vascular plants. However, the origin and evolution of immune peptides is still poorly understood. Read More

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Diastereoselective self-assembly of a triple-stranded europium helicate with light modulated chiroptical properties.

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr 12;50(13):4604-4612. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education; School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, China.

Chiroptical photoswitches are of increasing interest for their potential in advanced information technologies. Herein, an achiral bis-β-diketonate ligand (o-L) with a photoresponsive diarylethene moiety as a linker was designed, which co-assembled with Eu ions and R- and S-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)-1,10-binaphthyl (R/S-BINAPO) as chiral ancillaries to form dinuclear triple-stranded helicates, [Eu(o-L)(R/S-BINAPO)]. The helicates in the enantiopure form were confirmed by H, F, P NMR and DOSY NMR analyses. Read More

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Radiation induces primary osteocyte senescence phenotype and affects osteoclastogenesis .

Int J Mol Med 2021 May 11;47(5). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Radiation Protection, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, P.R. China.

Irradiation‑induced bone remodeling imbalances arise as a consequence of the dysregulation of bone formation and resorption. Due to the abundance of osteocytes, their long life and their dual‑regulatory effects on both osteoblast and osteoclast function, they serve as critical coordinators of bone remolding. In the present study, femur and tibia‑derived primary osteocytes were cultured and irradiated to observe the functional changes and the cellular senescence phenotype . Read More

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Modular immune-homeostatic microparticles promote immune tolerance in mouse autoimmune models.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Mar;13(584)

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and Shaanxi International Joint Research Center for Oral Diseases, Center for Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China.

The therapeutic goal for autoimmune diseases is disease antigen-specific immune tolerance without nonspecific immune suppression. However, it is a challenge to induce antigen-specific immune tolerance in a dysregulated immune system. In this study, we developed immune-homeostatic microparticles (IHMs) that treat multiple mouse models of autoimmunity via induction of apoptosis in activated T cells and reestablishment of regulatory T cells. Read More

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Designer Anticancer Nanoprodrugs with Self-Toxification Activity Realized by Acid-triggered Biodegradation and In Situ Fragment Complexation.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Prodrugs that allow in situ chemical conversion of less toxic precursors into active drugs in response to certain stimuli are promising anticancer candidates. Herein, we present a novel design of nanoprodrugs with a "degradation-mediated self-toxification" strategy, which realizes intracellular synthesis of anticancer agents using the nanoparticles' own degradation fragments as the precursors. To fulfill this concept, a metal complexing dicyclohexylphosphine (DCP) organosilane is carefully screened out from various ligands to conjugate onto Pd(OH) nanodots confined hollow silica nanospheres (PD-HSN). Read More

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Biomaterials in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 5;145:105008. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (Formulations), National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER-Guwahati), Sila Katamur (Halugurisuk), Changsari, Kamrup, 781101, Guwahati, Assam, India. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a non-recoverable progressive neurodegenerative disorder most prevalent but not limited to the old age population. After all the scientific efforts, there are still many unmet criteria and loopholes in available treatment and diagnostic strategies, limiting their efficacy. The poor drug efficacy is attributed to various biological hurdles, including blood-brain barrier (BBB) and peripheral side effects as most prominent ones and the lack of promising carriers to precisely deliver the drug to the brain by conserving its therapeutic potency. Read More

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