269 results match your criteria lh-beta cdna


Recombinant rabbit beta nerve growth factor production and its biological effects on sperm and ovulation in rabbits.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(7):e0219780. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

In some induced-ovulating species, beta nerve growth factor (β-NGF) has important roles in ovulation, though data for rabbits are still inconclusive. In this study we first synthesized functional recombinant β-NGF from rabbit tissue (rrβ-NGF) to address the following objectives: 1) to compare rabbit β-NGF amino acid sequence with those of other induced- or spontaneous-ovulating species; 2) to assess the effects of rrβ-NGF on rabbit sperm viability and motility, and 3) to examine the in vivo ovulation inducing effect of rrβ-NGF added to the seminal dose in rabbit does. The NGF gene in rabbit prostate tissue was sequenced by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and annotated in GenBank (KX528686). Read More

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Molecular cloning, characterization, and mRNA expression of gonadotropins during larval development in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2019 Oct 16;45(5):1697-1707. Epub 2019 May 16.

Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No. 106 Nanjing Road, Qingdao, 266071, People's Republic of China.

Gonadotropins (GtHs) play a pivotal role in regulating the reproductive axis and puberty. In this study, full-length sequences coding for common glycoprotein α subunit (CGα) and luteinizing hormone β (LHβ) were isolated from female turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) pituitary by homology cloning and a strategy based on rapid amplification of cDNA end-polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that the two cDNAs consisted of 669 and 660 nucleotides encoding 129 and 139 amino acids, respectively. Read More

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October 2019

Cloning and characterization of a second lamprey pituitary glycoprotein hormone, thyrostimulin (GpA2/GpB5).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2018 08 18;264:16-27. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Center for Molecular and Comparative Endocrinology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA; Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA. Electronic address:

A novel heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone (GpH) comprised of alpha (GpA2) and beta (GpB5) subunits was discovered in 2002 and called thyrostimulin for its ability to activate the TSH receptor in mammals, but its central function in vertebrates has not been firmly established. We report here the cloning and expression of lamprey (l)GpB5, and its ability to heterodimerize with lGpA2 to form a functional l-thyrostimulin. The full-length cDNA of lGpB5 encodes 174 amino acids with ten conserved cysteine residues and one glycosylation site that is conserved with other vertebrate GpB5 sequences. Read More

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Grape seed procyanidins extract attenuates Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and testosterone synthase inhibition in rat testes.

Syst Biol Reprod Med 2018 Aug 3;64(4):246-259. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

a Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health , Lanzhou University , Lanzhou , China.

Cisplatin (CIS) is widely applied for its antihematological malignancies properties and as antisolid tumors drugs. However, it could cause testicular damage related with oxidative stress and testosterone synthesis disorder. Studies reported that grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE) could improve CIS induced-testes lesion via scavenging free radicals in animals, although its mechanisms were unclear. Read More

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Identification and functional characterization of two Secretogranin II genes in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2018 05 24;261:115-126. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals, and the Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:

Secretoneurin (SN) is an important stimulator of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) synthesis and secretion in goldfish. It is unknown whether this neuropeptide performs the same role in other fish species. In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding Secretogranin IIa (SgIIa) and b (SgIIb) were cloned from the brain of orange-spotted grouper. Read More

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Neurokinin B signaling in hermaphroditic species, a study of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2018 05 31;260:125-135. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, and the Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Neurokinin B (NKB) plays important roles in the mammalian reproductive axis by modulating the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins. In the present study, the tac3 cDNA was cloned from a hermaphroditic species, the orange-spotted grouper. Sequence analysis showed that the grouper Tac3 precursor encoded two tachykinin peptides, NKB and NKB-related peptide (NKBRP). Read More

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Expression of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Subunit Genes in Mouse Testis.

Dev Reprod 2017 Sep 30;21(3):327-333. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Department of Life Science, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Korea.

Gonadotropins are heterodimers consisting an alpha chain (Cgα) and a beta chain. Interestingly, presence of complicated LH-β transcripts in rat testis was accidently found; testicular LH-β transcripts were confined in seminiferous tubules to spermatids, and the translated products were localized in the elongated spermatids. We hypothesized that mouse testis has potential to produce the tissue specific LH-β with similar structure to the rat testicular forms. Read More

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September 2017

Molecular cloning and characterization of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone β-subunit cDNAs.

PLoS One 2017 28;12(8):e0183545. Epub 2017 Aug 28.

Biotechnology Department, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The common gonadotrophic hormone α-subunit (GTHα) has been previously isolated by our research group from A. gigas pituitaries; in the present work the cDNA sequences encoding FSHβ and LHβ subunits have also been isolated from the same species of fish. The FSH β-subunit consists of 126 amino acids with a putative 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 108 amino acid mature peptide, while the LH β-subunit consists of 141 amino acids with a putative 24 amino acid amino acid signal peptide and a 117 amino acid mature peptide. Read More

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October 2017

Cloning, localization and differential expression of Neuropeptide-Y during early brain development and gonadal recrudescence in the catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2017 09 18;251:54-65. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Department of Animal Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, P.O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Telangana, India.

Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) has diverse physiological functions which are extensively studied in vertebrates. However, regulatory role of NPY in relation to brain ontogeny and recrudescence with reference to reproduction is less understood in fish. Present report for the first time evaluated the significance of NPY by transient esiRNA silencing and also analyzed its expression during brain development and gonadal recrudescence in the catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Read More

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September 2017

Molecular identification of the Dyn/Kor system and its potential role in the reproductive axis of goldfish.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2018 02 24;257:29-37. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals, and the Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:

To ascertain the significance of the dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (Dyn/Kor) system in fish reproduction, prodynorphin (pdyn) cDNA was cloned from goldfish. Two Dyn peptides (DynA and DynB) are present in the goldfish prodynorphin precursor. Both DynA and DynB are biologically active as they are able to functionally interact with the goldfish Kor expressed in cultured eukaryotic cells to suppress forskolin-induced CRE promoter activity. Read More

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February 2018

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of pituitary GnRH receptor in a commercial scombroid fish, chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2017 06 30;247:143-151. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Laboratory of Marine Biology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan. Electronic address:

The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is essential during pubertal onset, for its regulation of the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins. Its action is mediated by GnRH receptors (GnRHRs) in the pituitary gonadotrophs. Our previous study demonstrated that the chub mackerel brain expresses three GnRH forms (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3), and that only GnRH1 neurons innervate anterior pituitary regions. Read More

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Gonadotropin subunits of the characiform Astyanax altiparanae: Molecular characterization, spatiotemporal expression and their possible role on female reproductive dysfunction in captivity.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2017 05 8;246:150-163. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 1524, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

To better understand the endocrine control of reproduction in Characiformes and the reproductive dysfunctions that commonly occur in migratory fish of this order when kept in captivity, we chose Astyanax altiparanae, which has asynchronous ovarian development and multiple spawning events, as model species. From A. altiparanae pituitary total RNA, we cloned the full-length cDNAs coding for the follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (fshb), the luteinizing hormone β subunit (lhb), and the common gonadotropin α subunit (gpha). Read More

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Differential regulation of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) in bovine preovulatory follicles and identification of JAK3 interacting proteins in granulosa cells.

J Ovarian Res 2016 Oct 28;9(1):71. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Département de biomédecine vétérinaire, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Centre de recherche en reproduction animale (CRRA), Université de Montréal, P.O. Box 5000, St-Hyacinthe, Québec, J2S 7C6, Canada.

Background: Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) is a member of the membrane-associated non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein family and is considered predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells. We previously identified JAK3 as a differentially expressed gene in granulosa cells (GC) of bovine preovulatory follicles. The present study aimed to further investigate JAK3 regulation, to identify protein binding partners and better understand its mode of action in bovine reproductive cells. Read More

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October 2016

GnIH plays a negative role in regulating GtH expression in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2016 09 2;235:18-28. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

In birds and mammals, the gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) effectively inhibits the expression of gonadotrophin (GtH). In teleosts, the effects of GnIH are still unclear and under much debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the functions of GnIH/receptors of gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIHRs) system during reproduction in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Read More

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September 2016

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2016 07 9;233:8-15. Epub 2016 May 9.

Animal Biotechnology, Graduate School of Future Convergence Technology, Institute of Genetic Engineering, Hankyong National University, Anseong 17579, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone (rec-FSH) from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica that was produced in Escherichia coli. Positive hybridomas (clones eFA-C5, eFA-C10, eFA-C11, eFA-C12, eFA-C13, and eFB-C14) were selected by using the eel FSH antigen in ELISA, and anti-eel FSH mAbs were purified from culture supernatants by performing affinity chromatography. Three of the 6mAbs were characterized and their isotypes were identified as IgG2b (eFA-C5 and eFA-C11) and IgG1 (eFB-C14). Read More

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Identification, cDNA Cloning, and Characterization of Luteinizing Hormone Beta Subunit (lhb) Gene in Catla catla.

Anim Biotechnol 2016 ;27(3):148-56

a Division of Fish Genetics and Biotechnology , Central Institute of Fisheries Education , Mumbai , India.

Reproductive hormones play a significant role in the gonadal development and gametogenesis process of animals. In the present study luteinizing hormone beta, (lhb) subunit gene was cloned and characterized from the brain of Catla catla. The lhb full-length of cDNA sequence is 629 bp which consists of 43bp 5'-UTR (untranslated region) 447bp, ORF(open reading frame) and 139 bp of 3'-UTR respectively. Read More

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December 2016

Influence of tidal cycles on the endocrine control of reproductive activity in common snook (Centropomus undecimalis).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2015 Dec 8;224:247-59. Epub 2015 Aug 8.

Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK.

The aim of our study was to confirm the role of tidal pattern on the coordination of oocyte maturation and spawning in common snook Centropomus undecimalis. To do so, we studied oocyte maturation during the spawning season in relation to the tidal pattern in both males and females by means of histology and hormonal profiling along the pituitary-gonadal axis. Plasma LH levels, as well as transcript levels of gonadotropin genes (fshβ and lhβ) from the pituitaries of sexually mature male and female common snook were analyzed using a heterologous ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Read More

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December 2015

Distinct functions of neuromedin u and neuromedin s in orange-spotted grouper.

J Mol Endocrinol 2015 Oct 10;55(2):95-106. Epub 2015 Jul 10.

State Key Laboratory of BiocontrolInstitute of Aquatic Economic Animals, and the Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, ChinaFisheries CollegeGuangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China.

Neuromedin U (NMU) and neuromedin S (NMS) play inhibitory roles in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. However, their functions are not clearly established in teleost fish. In the present study, nmu and nms homologs were identified in several fish species. Read More

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October 2015

Molecular cloning and characterization of gonadotropin subunits (GTHα, FSHβ and LHβ) and their regulation by hCG and GnRHa in Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) in vivo.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2015 Jun 1;41(3):587-601. Epub 2015 Mar 1.

Fisheries College, Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan Road, Qingdao, 266003, China.

In this study, three cDNA sequences encoding common glycoprotein α subunit (GTHα), follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (FSHβ) and luteinizing hormone β subunit (LHβ) were isolated from Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with other gonadotropic hormones (GTHs) indicated that their cysteine residues and potential N-linked glycosylation sites were highly conserved, and high homology with those of other perciformes was showed in phylogenetic analysis. GTHs transcripts were present highly in the pituitary and brain and weakly in testis and other tissues. Read More

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Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of QRFP in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2014 Oct 4;176:34-41. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Guangdong Daya Bay Fisheries Development Center, Huizhou 516081, China.

The peptide QRFP plays an important role in the regulation of vertebrate feeding behavior. In this study, we cloned the full length cDNA of a QRFP precursor in a teleost fish, the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis has shown that the functional regions of QRFP in other vertebrates (QRFP-25 and QRFP-7) are conserved in orange-spotted grouper. Read More

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October 2014

Seasonal expression of KiSS-1 and the pituitary gonadotropins LHβ and FSHβ in adult male Libyan jird (Meriones libycus).

Anim Reprod Sci 2014 Jun 13;147(1-2):56-63. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

University Hospital, Genetic Department, F-14033 Caen, France; University Caen, Basse Normandie, France; INSERM U1075, France. Electronic address:

The molecular mechanisms operating on a seasonal time-scale and regulating functions such as reproduction are poorly understood in animals living in desert environments. Kisspeptin, the product of the KiSS-1 gene, plays a critical role in control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis that orchestrates the reproductive system in vertebrates. We report a sequence analysis of KiSS-1 and the pituitary luteinising hormone-beta (LHβ) and follicle-stimulating hormone-beta (FSHβ) in the Libyan jird (Meriones libycus), a seasonal breeding rodent that is sexually active during spring and quiescent in fall. Read More

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The heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, GPA2/GPB5, regulates ion transport across the hindgut of the adult mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

PLoS One 2014 20;9(1):e86386. Epub 2014 Jan 20.

Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

A family of evolutionarily old hormones is the glycoprotein cysteine knot-forming heterodimers consisting of alpha- (GPA) and beta-subunits (GPB), which assemble by noncovalent bonds. In mammals, a common glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (GPA1) pairs with unique beta-subunits that establish receptor specificity, forming thyroid stimulating hormone (GPA1/TSHβ) and the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (GPA1/LHβ), follicle stimulating hormone (GPA1/FSHβ), choriogonadotropin (GPA1/CGβ). A novel glycoprotein heterodimer was identified in vertebrates by genome analysis, called thyrostimulin, composed of two novel subunits, GPA2 and GPB5, and homologs occur in arthropods, nematodes and cnidarians, implying that this neurohormone system existed prior to the emergence of bilateral metazoans. Read More

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January 2015

Characterization and seasonal changes in LHβ and FSHβ mRNA of Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia, Anura).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2013 Jun 22;187:95-103. Epub 2013 Apr 22.

Laboratorio de Endocrinología Comparada, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

In anurans, two types of gonadotropins were described in several species of Ranidae and Pipidae families but only in one of the Bufonidae family. Rhinella arenarum is a bufonid that have the lowest concentration of plasma androgens during the breeding. The objective of this paper was to characterize the cDNA sequence of β subunit of LH and FSH from toad pituitary and study seasonal variation in gonadotropins mRNA using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Read More

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Evidences for the regulation of GnRH and GTH expression by GnIH in the goldfish, Carassius auratus.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Feb 29;366(1):9-20. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals, The Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) plays an important role in regulating of reproduction in teleosts. To clarify the mode of action of GnIH on the synthesis of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotrophin (GtH), three GnIHR cDNAs were cloned from the goldfish brain. In situ hybridization results showed that GnIHRs were localized to the hypothalamus and pituitary. Read More

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February 2013

Direct in vitro effect of LH and steroids on leptin gene expression and leptin secretion by porcine luteal cells during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle.

Reprod Biol 2012 Nov 24;12(3):317-23. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Department of Animal Physiology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.

Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is implicated in the control of reproductive functions in different species. Leptin transcript and protein are present in several tissues including adipose tissue and corpus luteum. The regulation of leptin mRNA expression and leptin secretion in porcine luteal cells is not clear. Read More

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November 2012

Stress levels of glucocorticoids inhibit LHβ-subunit gene expression in gonadotrope cells.

Mol Endocrinol 2012 Oct 31;26(10):1716-31. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Department of Reproductive Medicine/Neuroscience, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0674, USA.

Increased glucocorticoid secretion is a common response to stress and has been implicated as a mediator of reproductive suppression upon the pituitary gland. We utilized complementary in vitro and in vivo approaches in the mouse to investigate the role of glucocorticoids as a stress-induced intermediate capable of gonadotrope suppression. Repeated daily restraint stress lengthened the ovulatory cycle of female mice and acutely reduced GnRH-induced LH secretion and synthesis of LH β-subunit (LHβ) mRNA, coincident with increased circulating glucocorticoids. Read More

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October 2012

Changes in the expression of pituitary gonadotropin subunits during reproductive cycle of multiple spawning female chub mackerel Scomber japonicus.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2012 Jun 23;38(3):883-97. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

Laboratory of Marine Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

The endocrine regulation of reproduction in a multiple spawning fish with an asynchronous-type ovary remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to monitor changes in the mRNA expression of three gonadotropin (GtH) subunits (GPα, FSHβ, and LHβ) during the reproductive cycle of the female chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Cloning and subsequent sequence analysis revealed that the cDNAs of chub mackerel GPα, FSHβ, and LHβ were 658, 535, and 599 nucleotides in length and encoded 117, 115, and 147 amino acids, respectively. Read More

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Defining global gene expression changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in female sGnRH-antisense transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

PLoS One 2011 10;6(6):e21057. Epub 2011 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system.

Methodology/principal Findings: In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Read More

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October 2011

Regulation of dopamine D2 receptor expression in grass carp pituitary cells: a possible mechanism for dopaminergic modification of luteinizing hormone synthesis.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2011 Aug 6;173(1):48-55. Epub 2011 May 6.

Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, People's Republic of China.

In many fishes, dopamine (DA) strongly inhibits luteinizing hormone (LH) release by direct action at the pituitary level. In this study, the effect of DA on LH synthesis was examined by detecting its β-subunit mRNA level in immature grass carp pituitary cells. Results showed that DA inhibited LHβ mRNA expression and its inhibition was antagonized by a DA D2 receptor (DRD2) antagonist, sulpiride, suggesting that DA inhibited LH synthesis via DRD2. Read More

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Up-regulation of FSHR expression during gonadal sex determination in the frog Rana rugosa.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2011 Jul 20;172(3):475-86. Epub 2011 Apr 20.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Education and Integrated Arts and Sciences, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

In vertebrates, gonadal production of steroid hormones is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) via their receptors designated FSHR and LHR, respectively. We have shown recently that steroid hormones are synthesized in the differentiating gonad of tadpoles during sex determination in the frog Rana rugosa. To elucidate the role of gonadotropins (GTHs) and their receptors in the production of gonadal steroid hormones during sex determination, we isolated the full-length FSHβ, LHβ, FSHR and LHR cDNAs from R. Read More

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