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Ribosomal proteins as distinct "passengers" of microvesicles: new semantics in myeloma and mesenchymal stem cells' communication.

Transl Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Oncogenetic laboratory; Sackler faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Aberrant mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrows (BM) promote disease progression and drug resistance. Here, we assayed the protein cargo transported from MM-MSCs to MM cells via microvesicles (MVs) with focus on ribosomal proteins (RPs) and assessment of their influence on translation initiation and design of MM phenotype. Proteomics analysis (mass spectrometry) demonstrated increased levels and repertoire of RPs in MM-MSCs MVs compared to normal donors (ND) counterparts (n=3-8; p= 9. Read More

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Crosstalk between extracellular vesicles and autophagy in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Apr 19:105628. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Cardiology, Second Hospital of Jilin University, No. 218 Ziqiang Street, Changchun 130041, China.

Extracellular vesicles are composed of loaded soluble substances and lipid bilayers; these include apoptotic bodies, exosomes, and microvesicles. Extracellular vesicles, as carriers of biological information between cells, have been recognized for their role in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The biogenesis of extracellular vesicles is closely related to autophagy. Read More

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Protective effect of melatonin entrapped PLGA nanoparticles on radiation-induced lung injury through the the miR-21/TGF-β1/Smad3 pathway.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 19:120584. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No.30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400038, China. Electronic address:

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a complication commonly found in victims suffering from nuclear accidents and patients treated with chest tumor radiotherapy, and drugs are limited for effective prevention and treatment. Melatonin (MET) has an anti-radiation effect, but its metabolic period in the body is short. In order to prolong the metabolism period of MET, we prepared MET entrapped poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (MET/PLGANPS) for the treatment of RILI. Read More

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Fibroblastic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs) is Enhanced by Hypoxia in 3D Cultures Treated with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6) and Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5).

Gene 2021 Apr 19:145662. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America. Electronic address:

Introduction: Culture conditions and differentiation cocktails may facilitate cell maturation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and support the production of engineered fibroblastic tissues with applications in ligament regeneration. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two connective tissue-related ligands (i.e. Read More

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Coordinated expression of Jumonji and AHCY under OCT transcription factor control to regulate gene methylation in wood frogs during anoxia.

Gene 2021 Apr 19:145671. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa K1S 5B6, Canada. Electronic address:

Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) can survive extended periods of whole body freezing. Freezing imparts multiple stresses on cells that include anoxia and dehydration, but these can also be experienced as independent stresses. Under anoxia stress, energy metabolism is suppressed, and pro-survival pathways are prioritized to differentially regulate some transcription factors including OCT1 and OCT4. Read More

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Expression of B7-H4 and IDO1 is associated with drug resistance and poor prognosis in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.

Hum Pathol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Departments of Pathology. Electronic address:

High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. While immune checkpoint inhibitors against PD-L1 and CTLA-4 have shown significant effects in multiple tumor types, the response rate to single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitors is low in HGSC. Alternative biomarkers and targets must be identified to guide patient selection and new therapeutic strategies in HGSC. Read More

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EPA and DHA differentially modulate membrane elasticity in the presence of cholesterol.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60657, USA; Center for Synthetic Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60657, USA. Electronic address:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modify the activity of a wide range of membrane proteins and are increasingly hypothesized to modulate protein activity by indirectly altering membrane physical properties. Among the various physical properties affected by PUFAs, the membrane area expansion modulus (K), which measures membrane strain in response to applied force, is expected to be a significant controller of channel activity. Yet the impact of PUFAs on membrane K has not been measured previously. Read More

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PcG Proteins MSI1 and BMI1 Function Upstream of miR156 to Regulate Aerial Tuber Formation in Potato1[OPEN].

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):185-203

Biology Division, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411008, Maharashtra, India.

Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) regulate developmental transitions in plants. AtBMI1, a PRC1 member, represses micro RNA156 (miR156) to trigger the onset of adult phase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). miR156 overexpression (OE) reduces below-ground tuber yield, but stimulates aerial tubers in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp andigena) under short-day (SD) photoperiodic conditions. Read More

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January 2020

Visualization of Protein Coding, Long Noncoding, and Nuclear RNAs by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization in Sections of Shoot Apical Meristems and Developing Flowers1[OPEN].

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):147-158

Sainsbury Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1LR, United Kingdom.

In addition to transcriptional regulation, gene expression is further modulated through mRNA spatiotemporal distribution, by RNA movement between cells, and by RNA localization within cells. Here, we have adapted RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to explore RNA localization in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that RNA FISH on sectioned material can be applied to investigate the tissue and subcellular localization of meristem and flower development genes, cell cycle transcripts, and plant long noncoding RNAs. Read More

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January 2020

Genome-wide Target Mapping Shows Histone Deacetylase Complex1 Regulates Cell Proliferation in Cucumber Fruit1[OPEN].

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):167-184

College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins participate in diverse and tissue-specific developmental processes by forming various corepressor complexes with different regulatory subunits. An important HDAC machinery hub, the Histone Deacetylase Complex1 (HDC1) protein, participates in multiple protein-protein interactions and regulates organ size in plants. However, the mechanistic basis for this regulation remains unclear. Read More

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January 2020

Systemic Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Adults with Bronchiectasis: Association with Clinical and Functional Features.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2021 16;76:e2474. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Reabilitacao, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP, BR.

Objectives: To compare the inflammatory and oxidative stress (OS) states of adults with bronchiectasis with those of healthy controls and correlate inflammatory and OS levels with lung function and physical capacity.

Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design. Seventy-four adults with bronchiectasis (age: 49±15 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]: 52. Read More

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ELISA detection of MPO-DNA complexes in human plasma is error-prone and yields limited information on neutrophil extracellular traps formed in vivo.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250265. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of General Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

Over the past years, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were shown to contribute to states of acute and chronic inflammatory disease. They are composed of expelled chromatin and decorated by neutrophil-derived proteins. Therefore, the analysis of DNA complexes with myeloperoxidase (MPO) by ELISA has become an attractive tool to measure NET formation in in vitro and in vivo samples. Read More

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Binding Mode of Human Norepinephrine Transporter Interacting with HIV-1 Tat.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Molecular Modeling and Biopharmaceutical Center, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, 789 South Limestone Street, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, United States.

The increase of HIV infection in macrophages results in HIV proteins being released, like HIV Tat which impairs the function of monoamine transporters. HIV-infected patients have displayed increased synaptic levels of dopamine (DA) due to reduced binding and function of monoamine transporters such as the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the dopamine transporter (DAT). Development of a three-dimensional model of the HIV-1 Tat-human NET (hNET) binding complex would help reveal how HIV-1 Tat causes toxicity in the neuron by affecting DA uptake. Read More

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Cell Death Triggered by the YUCCA-like Bs3 Protein Coincides with Accumulation of Salicylic Acid and Pipecolic Acid But Not of Indole-3-Acetic Acid.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jun;180(3):1647-1659

Center for Plant Molecular Biology, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076, Germany.

The pepper (Capsicum annuum) resistance gene bacterial spot3 (Bs3) is transcriptionally activated by the matching Xanthomonas euvesicatoria transcription-activator-like effector (TALE) AvrBs3. AvrBs3-induced Bs3 expression triggers a rapid and local cell death reaction, the hypersensitive response (HR). Bs3 is most closely related to plant flavin monooxygenases of the YUCCA (YUC) family, which catalyze the final step in auxin biosynthesis. Read More

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OXI1 and DAD Regulate Light-Induced Cell Death Antagonistically through Jasmonate and Salicylate Levels.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jun;180(3):1691-1708

Aix-Marseille University, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, UMR 7265 Biosciences and Biotechnologies Institute of Aix- Marseille, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lès-Durance, France.

Singlet oxygen produced from triplet excited chlorophylls in photosynthesis is a signal molecule that can induce programmed cell death (PCD) through the action of the OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCIBLE 1 (OXI1) kinase. Here, we identify two negative regulators of light-induced PCD that modulate OXI1 expression: DAD1 and DAD2, homologs of the human antiapoptotic protein DEFENDER AGAINST CELL DEATH. Overexpressing OXI1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) increased plant sensitivity to high light and induced early senescence of mature leaves. Read More

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Structural and mechanical characteristics of exosomes from osteosarcoma cells explored by 3D-atomic force microscopy.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr 29;13(13):6661-6677. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

WPI Nano Life Science Institute (WPI-Nano LSI), Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan.

Exosomes have recently gained interest as mediators of cell-to-cell communication and as potential biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. They also have potential as nanocarriers for drug delivery systems. Therefore, detailed structural, molecular, and biomechanical characterization of exosomes is of great importance for developing methods to detect and identify the changes associated with the presence of cancer and other diseases. Read More

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Inhibits the Development of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma By Downregulating in A431 Cells.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan City, China.

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is the most deadly disease among nonmelanoma skin cancers. plays a role in various cancers, but its role in CSCC has not been reported so far. The expression of and in cells was detected by RT-qPCR. Read More

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PCSK9 genetic (rs11591147) and epigenetic (DNA methylation) modifications associated with PCSK9 expression & serum proteins in CAD patients.

J Gene Med 2021 Apr 22:e3346. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Genetics & Biotechnology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India.

PCSK9 genetic polymorphisms play a significant role in cholesterol homeostasis. Therefore we aimed to investigate the association of PCSK9 genetic variations NM_174936.3:c. Read More

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SPOCK1 promotes the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells by regulating the NF-κB pathway and inducing EMT.

Neoplasma 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen, Southern University of Science and Technology, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen, China.

Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazal-like domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1) has been shown to promote various tumors, but its role in colon cancer (CRC) has not been clearly illuminated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SPOCK1 interference on the proliferation, migration and EMT of CRC cells. First, we analyzed the expression of SPOCK1 in various CRC datasets. Read More

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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomal MiR-338-3p represses progression of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting ETS1.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2021 Apr 22;35(2). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Jinan People's Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

The present study aims to explore the function of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-derived exosomal micro ribonucleic acid (miR)-338-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and further investigate its effect on HCC cell functions. Firstly, BMSCs were co-cultured with HCC cells, and BMSC-derived exosomes were identified. Next, Transwell assay and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) experiments were carried out to detect the effects of miR-338-3p and E26 transformation specific-1 (ETS1) on the viability, invasion, migration, and apoptosis of HCC cells through the exosomes derived from BMSCs. Read More

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Mid-infrared absorption by soft tissue sarcoma and cell ablation utilizing a mid-infrared interband cascade laser.

J Biomed Opt 2021 Apr;26(4)

University of Iowa, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Iowa City, Iowa, United States.

Significance: Mid-infrared (MIR) light refers to wavelengths ranging from 3 to 30  μm and is the most attractive spectral region for ablation of soft and hard tissues. This is because building blocks of biological tissue, such as water, proteins, and lipids, exhibit molecular vibrational modes in the MIR wavelengths that result in strong MIR light absorption. To date, researchers investigating MIR lasers for surgical applications have used bulky light sources, such as free electron lasers, nonlinear light generators, and carbon dioxide lasers. Read More

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Microenvironmental markers are correlated with lymph node metastasis in invasive submucosal colorectal cancer.

Histopathology 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2-1-1, Shiwagun'yahabachou, 028-3695, Japan.

Aims: Recent studies have shown that the microenvironment can include cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and that both play important roles in the progression and metastasis of CRC. Here, we aimed to analyze the expression patterns of cancer cell- and CAF-related proteins in submucosal invasive colorectal cancer (SiCRC) and whether such markers are correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM).

Methods And Results: Quantitative analysis was conducted for Ki-67, p53, β-catenin, and MMP7 to assess cancer cell markers. Read More

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The Antipsychotic Drug Clozapine Suppresses the RGS4 Polyubiquitylation and Proteasomal Degradation Mediated by the Arg/N-Degron Pathway.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03080, Korea.

Although diverse antipsychotic drugs have been developed for the treatment of schizophrenia, most of their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) has been reported to be linked, both genetically and functionally, with schizophrenia and is a physiological substrate of the arginylation branch of the N-degron pathway (Arg/N-degron pathway). Here, we show that the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine significantly inhibits proteasomal degradation of RGS4 proteins without affecting their transcriptional expression. Read More

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IRS-2/Akt/GSK-3/Nrf2 Pathway Contributes to the Protective Effects of Chikusetsu Saponin IVa against Lipotoxicity.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 3;2021:8832318. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710032, China.

Chronic hyperlipidemia leads to pancreatic -cell apoptosis and dysfunction through inducing oxidative stress. Chikusetsu saponin IVa (CHS) showed antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in our previous studies; however, its protective effects against lipotoxicity-induced -cell oxidative stress and dysfunction are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of CHS against lipotoxicity-induced -cell injuries and its possible mechanism involved. Read More

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Astragaloside IV Inhibits Mitochondrial-Dependent Apoptosis of the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Rats Through Modulation of the SIRT1/p53 Signaling Pathway.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 14;14:1647-1661. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the effect of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) on mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in the dorsal root ganglion of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) rats through the SIRT1/p53 pathway.

Methods: Diabetic rat model was induced by high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Diabetic rats were divided into three groups (n =16 per group): DPN group, AS-IV group (60mg/kg/d) and α-lipoic acid (ALA) group (60mg/kg/d). Read More

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Calycosin Induces Gastric Cancer Cell Apoptosis via the ROS-Mediated MAPK/STAT3/NF-κB Pathway.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 12;14:2505-2517. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science & Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Calycosin, an active compound in plants, can promote the apoptosis of various cancer cells; however, the mechanism by which it regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gastric cancer (GC) cells remains unclear.

Purpose: In this study, we investigated the effects of calycosin on apoptosis, the cell cycle, and migration in GC cells under ROS regulation.

Results: The results of the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay suggested that calycosin had significant cytotoxic effects on 12 gastric cancer cells, but no significant cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Read More

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High CO levels drive the TCA cycle backwards towards autotrophy.

Nature 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute for Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

It has recently been shown that in anaerobic microorganisms the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, including the seemingly irreversible citrate synthase reaction, can be reversed and used for autotrophic fixation of carbon. This reversed oxidative TCA cycle requires ferredoxin-dependent 2-oxoglutarate synthase instead of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase as well as extremely high levels of citrate synthase (more than 7% of the proteins in the cell). In this pathway, citrate synthase replaces ATP-citrate lyase of the reductive TCA cycle, which leads to the spending of one ATP-equivalent less per one turn of the cycle. Read More

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