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A Scoping Review on College Student Physical Activity: How Do Researchers Measure Activity and Examine Inequities?

J Phys Act Health 2021 May 11:1-9. Epub 2021 May 11.

Background: The purpose of this scoping review was to critically examine the design and quality of contemporary research involving college student physical activity participation, focusing on physical activity measurement, assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, and examination of inequities based on sociodemographic characteristics.

Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in 4 electronic databases.

Results: From 28,951 sources screened, data were extracted from 488 that met the inclusion criteria. Read More

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Impact of race on outcomes and healthcare utilization following spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 May 4;206:106634. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Racial disparities in spine surgery have been shown to impact surgical management and postoperative complications. However, for adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated by posterior spinal fusion (PSF), the influence of race on postoperative outcomes remains unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in baseline patient demographics, inpatient management, and postoperative complications for adolescents with AIS undergoing elective, posterior spinal surgery (≥ 4 levels). Read More

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COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices of United Arab Emirates medical and health sciences students: A cross sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0246226. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

The COVID-19 pandemic is the largest viral pandemic of the 21st century. We aimed to study COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among medical and health sciences students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We performed a cross-sectional study between 2 June and 19 August 2020. Read More

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Patient-reported recovery in upper abdominal cancer surgery care: A prospective study.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211016938

Department of Surgery and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

The study aimed to describe and analyse patient-reported recovery in patients after upper abdominal cancer surgery. This study had a quantitative design and patients were consecutively included in a university hospital in southern Sweden. Twenty-four patients answered the Postoperative Recovery Profile (PRP) questionnaire at three measurement points. Read More

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Condom use and vulnerabilities to sexually transmitted infections in quilombola communities: a descriptive study, Sergipe, Brazil, 2016-2017.

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2021 ;30(2):e2020617

Universidade Tiradentes, Pós-Graduação em Saúde e Ambiente, Aracaju, SE, Brasil.

Objective: To analyze frequency of condom use according to vulnerability factors for sexually transmitted infections in quilombola communities in Sergipe state, Brazil.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in 2016-2017. A structured questionnaire with sociodemographic and behavioral questions was used; rapid HIV and syphilis tests were performed. Read More

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January 2021

Elevated von Willebrand factor levels during heavy menstrual bleeding episodes limit the diagnostic utility for von Willebrand disease.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2021 May 4;5(4):e12513. Epub 2021 May 4.

Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Emory University Atlanta GA USA.

Background: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is often the first bleeding symptom for female individuals with inherited bleeding disorders. Guidelines recommend performing the hemostatic evaluation at HMB presentation. Von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels increase with stress, making it unclear if VWF studies during acute bleeding are beneficial in diagnosing von Willebrand disease (VWD). Read More

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Chronic Nonbacterial Osteomyelitis of the Sternocostoclavicular Region in Adults: A Single-Center Dutch Cohort Study.

JBMR Plus 2021 May 10;5(5):e10490. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Centre for Bone Quality, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology Leiden University Medical Center Leiden The Netherlands.

Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is a rare autoinflammatory bone disorder caused by chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), which is associated with sclerosis and hyperostosis primarily affecting the sternum, the medial end of the clavicles, and the first ribs. Other areas of the axial skeleton may also be affected. The more severe synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is additionally associated with dermatoses and joint manifestations. Read More

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Telephone Fracture Clinic Consultations: A Satisfactory Solution in Lockdown.

Cureus 2021 Apr 8;13(4):e14371. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Trauma and Orthopaedics, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, GBR.

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic was a catalyst to many learning opportunities within clinical practice in the UK. Attempts were made to reduce footfall within all institutions and within the study unit; this led to alterations in fracture clinic provision. An alternative method was developed whereby most of the initial contacts were in person and much of the follow-up was done remotely. Read More

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Hyaluronic acid is a negative regulator of mucosal fibroblast-mediated enhancement of HIV infection.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Gladstone Institute of Virology, Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA, USA.

The majority of HIV infections are established through the genital or rectal mucosa. Fibroblasts are abundant in these tissues, and although not susceptible to infection, can potently enhance HIV infection of CD4+ T cells. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix of fibroblasts, and its levels are influenced by the inflammatory state of the tissue. Read More

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Cholinergic calcium responses in cultured antennal lobe neurons of the migratory locust.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10018. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15/102, 30173, Hannover, Germany.

Locusts are advantageous organisms to elucidate mechanisms of olfactory coding at the systems level. Sensory input is provided by the olfactory receptor neurons of the antenna, which send their axons into the antennal lobe. So far, cellular properties of neurons isolated from the circuitry of the olfactory system, such as transmitter-induced calcium responses, have not been studied. Read More

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SARS-COV-2 antibody dynamics and B-cell memory response over-time in COVID-19 convalescent subjects.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Laura Schwarz-Kipp Research of Autoimmune Diseases, Sackler School of Medicine Tel-Aviv University, Neuroimmunology Laboratory at the Multiple Sclerosis Center, and Blood Bank, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gann, Israel.

Objectives: Worldwide spread of COVID-19 disease highlights the need for assessment of long-term humoral immunity in convalescent subjects. Our objectives were to evaluate long-term IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and B-cell memory response in COVID-19 convalescent subjects.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from a cohort of subjects recovering from COVID-19 disease and from healthy subjects that donated blood. Read More

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Maintenance of an Immunogenic Response to Pneumococcal Vaccination in Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health Indiana University School of Medicine Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Comparative Effectiveness Research, Indianapolis, IN.

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease because of splenic dysfunction. To mitigate this risk, patients are protected with prophylactic penicillin until completion of pneumococcal vaccination series. The objective of this study was to assess the maintenance of a protective immune response to pneumococcal vaccination in children with SCD. Read More

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S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine: a multiple dosing study using pharmacokinetic modelling.

Xenobiotica 2021 May 11:1-21. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

S-Carboxymethyl-L-cysteine is a mucolytic agent used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of respiratory disorders. Various mechanisms of action have been proposed but few studies have attempted to link the required concentrations with those achieved actually during clinical therapy.The data from several published studies has been re-analysed by WinNonlin using non-compartmental analysis modelling, Phoenix modelling and Classic PK compartmental modelling for both single (500-1500mg) and multiple oral administration of the drug. Read More

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A hemagglutination-based, semi-quantitative test for point-of-care determination of SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels.

medRxiv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Serologic, point-of-care tests to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are an important tool in the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of current point-of-care antibody tests developed for SARS-CoV-2 rely on lateral flow assays, but these do not offer quantitative information. To address this, we developed a new method of COVID-19 antibody testing employing hemagglutination tested on a dry card, similar to that which is already available for rapid typing of ABO blood groups. Read More

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Oral Lactulose vs. Polyethylene Glycol for Bowel Preparation in Colonoscopy: A Randomized Controlled Study.

Cureus 2021 Apr 8;13(4):e14363. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, IND.

Background Colonoscopy is the method of choice to evaluate colonic mucosa and the distal ileum, allowing the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Appropriate bowel preparation necessitates the use of laxative medications, preferentially by oral administration. These include polyethylene glycol (PEG), sodium picosulfate, and sodium phosphate (NaP). Read More

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Searching for pneumothorax in x-ray images using autoencoded deep features.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9817. Epub 2021 May 10.

Kimia Lab, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Fast diagnosis and treatment of pneumothorax, a collapsed or dropped lung, is crucial to avoid fatalities. Pneumothorax is typically detected on a chest X-ray image through visual inspection by experienced radiologists. However, the detection rate is quite low due to the complexity of visual inspection for small lung collapses. Read More

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Markedly poor physical functioning status of people experiencing homelessness admitted to an acute hospital setting.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9911. Epub 2021 May 10.

Discipline of Physiotherapy, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Adults who are homeless experience poor health and frequently require hospital in-patient care but the physical functioning ability of this group is rarely considered. The objective of this study was to evaluate a broad range of physical functioning variables to enable better future planning of targeted health and accommodation services for this group. This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in a large acute hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Read More

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Overuse of diagnostic testing in healthcare: a systematic review.

BMJ Qual Saf 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

IQ healthcare, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Overuse of diagnostic testing substantially contributes to healthcare expenses and potentially exposes patients to unnecessary harm. Our objective was to systematically identify and examine studies that assessed the prevalence of diagnostic testing overuse across healthcare settings to estimate the overall prevalence of low-value diagnostic overtesting.

Methods: PubMed, Web of Science and Embase were searched from inception until 18 February 2020 to identify articles published in the English language that examined the prevalence of diagnostic testing overuse using database data. Read More

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Levels and Characteristics of mRNAs in Spores of Firmicute Species.

J Bacteriol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departments of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Medicine and Pediatrics UConn Health, Farmington, CT 06030-3305 USA

Spores of Firmicute species contain 100s of mRNAs, whose major function in is to provide ribonucleotides for new RNA synthesis when spores germinate. To determine if this is a general phenomenon, RNA was isolated from spores of multiple Firmicute species and relative mRNA levels determined by RNA-seq. Determination of RNA levels in single spores allowed calculation of RNA nt/spore, and assuming mRNA is 3% of spore RNA indicated that only ∼6% of spore mRNAs were present at > 1/spore. Read More

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Evaluating quality in adolescent mental health services: a systematic review.

BMJ Open 2021 May 10;11(5):e044929. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To evaluate the quality of adolescent mental health service provision globally, according to the WHO Global Standards of adolescent mental health literacy, appropriate package of services and provider competencies.

Design And Data Sources: Systematic review of 5 databases, and screening of eligible articles, from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2020.

Study Eligibility Criteria: We focused on quantitative and mixed-method studies that evaluated adolescent mental health literacy, appropriate package of services and provider competencies in mental health services, and that targeted depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder among adolescents (10-19 years). Read More

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Strength and Sterility of Stock and Diluted Carprofen Over Time.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Carprofen, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, is a commonly used analgesic for laboratory animals. The manufacturerlabeling indicates the stock bottle may be stored and used for up to 28 d under refrigeration. However, institutional guidelines may vary in how long diluted carprofen solutions can be stored before they must be discarded. Read More

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Post-surgical complications after bladder outlet reducing surgery: an analysis of the FDA Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database.

Urology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Urology, Oregon Health & Science University. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine voluntary reports in the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, categorize complications and assign device-related causality with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), prostatic urethral lift (PUL), and transurethral water vapor therapy (TWVT).

Methods: A review was performed using the terms "Urolift," "Rezum," and "transurethral resection of the prostate" between 01/01/2015 and 12/31/2019. Duplicate and incomplete reports were excluded. Read More

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Developing a real-world evidence base for prescribed cannabis in the United Kingdom: preliminary findings from Project Twenty21.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Imperial College London, Burlington Danes Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Rd, White City, London, W12 0NN, UK.

The therapeutic potential of medical cannabis to treat a variety of conditions is becoming increasingly recognised. Globally, a large number of countries have now legalised cannabis for medical uses and a substantial number of patients are able to access their medications. Yet in the UK, where medical cannabis was legalised in November 2018, only a handful of NHS prescriptions have been written, meaning that most patients are unable to access the medicine. Read More

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Satisfaction of General Practice Trainees with the Teaching Skills of Trainers: An Exploratory and Regional Study.

Acta Med Port 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Unidade de Saúde Familiar do Dafundo. Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Lisboa Ocidental e Oeiras. Lisboa. Comissão de Ética para a Saúde. Administração Regional de Saude de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo. Lisboa. Clínica Universitária de Medicina Geral e Familiar. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade de Lisboa. Lisboa. Portugal.

Introduction: In Portugal, requirements for selection and training of General Practice trainers vary across the different regions of the country. The aim of our study was to assess the satisfaction of general practice trainees with their trainers of the Lisbon and Tagus Valley Regional Health Administration.

Material And Methods: General Practice trainees were the target population for our cross-sectional, exploratory study. Read More

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Melatonin and the health of menopausal women: a systematic review.

J Pineal Res 2021 May 9:e12743. Epub 2021 May 9.

The Department of Family Medicine and Siaal Research Center for Family Practice and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Melatonin is involved in multiple changes, that characterize the aging and can potentially be a safe and effective treatment for menopausal women. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the medical literature on the health benefits of oral melatonin administration on menopausal women. The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched systematically on interventional studies that evaluated the association between oral melatonin administration and the health of menopausal women. Read More

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Distinction between peanut allergy and tolerance by characterization of B-cell receptor repertoires.

Allergy 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Specific IgE against a peanut 2S albumin (Ara h2or 6) is the best predictor of clinically relevant peanut sensitization. However, sIgE levels of peanut allergic and those of peanut sensitized but tolerant patients partly overlap, highlighting the need for improved diagnostics to prevent incorrect diagnosis and consequently unnecessary food restrictions. Thus, we sought to explore differences in V(D)J gene transcripts coding for peanut 2S albumin-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from allergic and sensitized but tolerant donors METHODS: 2S albumin-binding B-cells were single-cell sorted from peripheral blood of peanut allergic (n=6) and tolerant (n=6) donors sensitized to Ara h2and/or 6 (≥ 0. Read More

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Molecular Epidemiology of Clinical and Colonizing Methicillin-Resistant Isolates in Companion Animals.

Front Vet Sci 2021 23;8:620491. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD, Australia.

In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSP) clinical and colonizing isolates of dogs and cats to profile contributing factors associated with their isolation. Nasal and rectal samples were collected from dogs and cats between 2015 and 2017 to identify colonizing isolates. Clinical isolates collected between 2003 and 2016 were retrieved from a Queensland university veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Read More

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Detectable Unmetabolized Folic Acid and Elevated Folate Concentrations in Folic Acid-Supplemented Canadian Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

Front Nutr 2021 21;8:642306. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Food, Nutrition, and Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited hemoglobinopathy caused by a variant (rs344) in the gene encoding the β-globin subunit of hemoglobin. Chronic hemolytic anemia and increased erythropoiesis and RBC turnover in individuals with SCD can result in increased needs for folate and other B-vitamins. We assessed B-vitamin status, and the distribution of folate forms, including unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA), in Canadian children with SCD supplemented with 1 mg/d folic acid (current routine practice). Read More

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A Chemo-Genomic Approach Identifies Diverse Epigenetic Therapeutic Vulnerabilities in MYCN-Amplified Neuroblastoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:612518. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Systems Biology Ireland and Precision Oncology Ireland, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Although a rare disease, neuroblastoma accounts for the highest proportion of childhood cancer deaths. There is a lack of recurrent somatic mutations in neuroblastoma embryonal tumours, suggesting a possible role for epigenetic alterations in driving this cancer. While an increasing number of reports suggest an association of MYCN with epigenetic machinery, the mechanisms of these interactions are poorly understood in the neuroblastoma setting. Read More

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The Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Among Pakistani Adults in Lahore.

Front Public Health 2021 21;9:578366. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, Forman Christian College: A Chartered University, Lahore, Pakistan.

In the wake of the worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus and the resultant restrictive measures, mental health has become a crucial issue. Physical health is not the only aspect of humans that is at risk. Globally, the rates and severity of mental illness are being significantly impacted by this pandemic. Read More

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