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Effects of acetylation on dissociation and phosphorylation of actomyosin in postmortem ovine muscle during incubation at 4 °C in vitro.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 27;356:129696. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100193, PR China.

This study aimed to assess the effects of acetylation levels on actomyosin disassociation and phosphorylation of lamb during incubation at 4 °C. Samples of whole proteins from lamb longissimus thoracis muscles were prepared and assigned into three treatments (high, middle and low acetylation groups). The results showed that deacetylation of myosin heavy chain and actin was inhibited by lysine deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A and nicotinamide in this study. Read More

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We need to do better: A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy of restless legs syndrome screening instruments.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Mar 13;58:101461. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of screening instruments for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and reports sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). Searches for primary studies were conducted in electronic databases. Of the 1541 citations identified, 52 were included in the meta-analysis. Read More

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Prevalence of at-risk hyperandrogenism by age and race/ethnicity among females in the United States using NHANES III.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Mar 26;260:189-197. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Office of Research Resources, Biostatistics and Epidemiology Consulting Lab, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA; Division of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Hyperandrogenism in females leads to multiple endocrine and metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) that yields adverse health outcomes across all ages. We sought to estimate the prevalence of hyperandrogenemia and at-risk hyperandrogenism among the US females of different age groups, racial/ethnic, and metabolic characteristics.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective population-based cross-sectional study of females 6 years or older having serum testosterone measures using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2013-2016 was conducted. Read More

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Microwave-assisted assembly of AgO-ZnO composite nanocones for electrochemical detection of 4-Nitrophenol and assessment of their photocatalytic activity towards degradation of 4-Nitrophenol and Methylene blue dye.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 27;416:125771. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University Chandigarh, 160014, India; SAIF/CIL, Panjab University Chandigarh, 160014, India. Electronic address:

4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) is an extensively utilized industrial chemical and one of major toxic water pollutant. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor the levels of 4-NP from environmental samples as well as its eradication are extremely important. Keeping this as a motivation, this research for the first-time reports microwave-assisted cost-effective synthesis of silver oxide (AgO)-zinc oxide (ZnO) composite nanocones (CNCs, 80-100 nm) for simultaneous electrochemical detection and photodegradation of 4-NP from aqueous solutions. Read More

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Effects of low-carbohydrate diet and ketogenic diet on glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic mice.

Nutrition 2021 Mar 4;89:111230. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China. Electronic address:

Objective: With the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, it is urgent to find a suitable treatment. Recently, the ketogenic diet has shown beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose, but some concerns have been raised about its probable side effects, such as hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Because a low-carbohydrate diet replaces part of the fat with carbohydrates on the basis of the ketogenic diet, we would like to know whether it does better in treating type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Three-dimensional heterogeneity analysis of climate aid's carbon reduction effect.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 7;289:112524. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Economics, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, PR China.

Exploring the effectiveness of climate aid is crucial to distribute funds scientifically and maximize its impact. A body of related literature has estimated the impact of international climate aid on carbon emissions. However, these studies did not adequately consider the multi-dimensional heterogeneity of climate aid's carbon reduction effect. Read More

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High-Fat Diet Drives an Aggressive Pancreatic Cancer Phenotype.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 7;264:163-172. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Surgery, Charleston, South Carolina; Department of Hollings Cancer Center, Charleston, South Carolina; Department of Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging evidence indicates associations between high-fat diet (HFD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, individual components of an HFD that increase cancer risk have not been isolated. In addition, a specific pattern of cytokine elevation by which MetS drives pancreatic tumor progression is not well described. Read More

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Exploring unknown per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the German environment - The total oxidizable precursor assay as helpful tool in research and regulation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 29;782:146825. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), 06813 Dessau-Rosslau, Germany.

Limnetic, marine and soil samples of the German environmental specimen bank (ESB) were analyzed for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) using target analysis and a modified total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay (direct TOP assay (dTOP)) that works without prior extraction. Target analysis determined ∑PFAS concentrations in bream livers of 8.7-282 μg kg wet weight (ww) in 2019, with highest contaminations in the Rhine and lower Elbe. Read More

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Development and clinical validation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to diagnose high HBV DNA levels in resource-limited settings.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Unité d'Epidémiologie des Maladies Émergentes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: A massive scale-up of testing and treatment is indicated to globally eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, access to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a key test to quantify HBV DNA levels and determine treatment eligibility, is limited in resource-limited countries. We developed and evaluated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to diagnose clinically important HBV DNA thresholds defined by WHO (≥20,000 and ≥200,000 IU/mL). Read More

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Anti-inflammatory activity of the Tongmai Yangxin Pill in the treatment of Coronary Heart Disease is associated with Estrogen Receptor and NF-κB signaling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114106. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Tongmai Yangxin Pill (TMYX) is a patented traditional Chinese medicine originating from two classic prescriptions, Zhigancao Decoction and Shenmai Yin, which composed of 11 Chinese medicinal herbs: Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) DC., Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb. Read More

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Circular sisRNA Identification and Characterisation.

Methods 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link National University of Singapore, Singapore 117604, Singapore; Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive, Singapore 117543, Singapore. Electronic address:

Stable Intronic Sequence RNA (sisRNA) is a relatively new class of non-coding RNA. Found in many organisms, these sisRNA produced from their host genes are generally involved in regulatory roles, controlling gene expression at multiple levels through active involvement in regulatory feedback loops. Large scale identification of sisRNA via genome-wide RNA sequencing has been difficult, largely in part due to its low abundance. Read More

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Effects of high fat diets and supplemental tart cherry and fish oil on obesity and type 2 diabetes in male and female C57BL/6J and TALLYHO/Jng mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Apr 7:108644. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755, USA. Electronic address:

Obesogenic and diabetogenic high fat (HF) diets can influence genetic factors in disease development with sexual dimorphic responses. We investigated potential protective effects of tart cherry (TC), fish oil (FO) and TC+FO supplementation in TALLYHO/Jng (TH) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice fed HF diets. Male and female TH and B6 mice were weaned onto five different diets; low fat (LF), HF, and HF supplemented with TC, FO, or TC+FO and maintained. Read More

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Upregulation of histone acetylation reverses organic anion transporter 2 repression and enhances 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114546. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Drug Metabolism and Pharmaceutical Analysis; Cancer Center of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti-Cancer Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The failure of chemotherapy in HCC patients is partly due to inadequate intracellular drug accumulation caused by abnormally expressed drug transporters. Human organic anion transporter 2 (hOAT2), a transporter mainly expressed in liver and kidney, is responsible for uptake of various antineoplastic drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Read More

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Neural activity during cognitive reappraisal in chronic low back pain: a preliminary study.

Scand J Pain 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC3004, Australia.

Objectives: Chronic pain patients often report higher levels of negative emotions, suggesting reduced ability to regulate emotions effectively, however, little is known of the underlying neural cognitive mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore brain activity and connectivity during cognitive reappraisal in chronic low back pain (CLBP).

Methods: This study recruited 24 female participants; 12 with CLBP and 12 healthy controls. Read More

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Mental and somatic health in university students with type 1 diabetes: new results from DiaSHoT18, a cross sectional national health and well-being survey.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: To explore mental and somatic health, quality of life, alcohol-related problems, sleep problems, and diabetes related distress in university students with type 1 diabetes (T1D), compared to students without T1D. Further, we evaluated associations with gender, treatment modalities, and achieved metabolic control.

Methods: All fulltime Norwegian students aged 18-35 years pursuing higher education in 2018 (n=162. Read More

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Bone density and bone health alteration in boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a prospective observational study.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics,APC, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Objectives: Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) are at increased risk for compromised bone health, manifesting as low-impact trauma long bone fractures and vertebral compression fractures.

Methods: In a prospective observational study, we studied bone health parameters in North Indian boys with DMD. We consecutively enrolled ambulatory boys with DMD on glucocorticoid therapy. Read More

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Sleep symptomatology is associated with greater subjective cognitive concerns: Findings from the community-based Healthy Brain Project.

Sleep 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

The Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Study Objectives: To examine if sleep symptomatology was associated with subjective cognitive concerns or objective cognitive performance in a dementia-free community-based sample.

Methods: A total of 1421 middle-aged participants (mean±standard deviation = 57±7; 77% female) from the Healthy Brain Project completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) to measure sleep quality, insomnia symptom severity, and daytime sleepiness, respectively. Participants were classified as having no sleep symptomatology (normal scores on each sleep measure), moderate sleep symptomatology (abnormal scores on one sleep measure), or high sleep symptomatology (abnormal scores on at least two sleep measures), using established cut-off values. Read More

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Prognostic value of total testosterone levels in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(2):235-242

Cardiology Division, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland.

Background: Endogenous testosterone levels decrease in men with aging. Controversies persist regarding the screening and treatment of low testosterone levels in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

Methods And Results: Total serum testosterone levels were measured in 1054 men hospitalized for ACS that were part of a Swiss prospective cohort. Read More

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Hypokalemia-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Caused by Adrenal Tumor-Related Primary Aldosteronism: A Report of 2 Cases.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Apr 10;22:e929758. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

BACKGROUND Primary aldosteronism, also known as Conn's syndrome, is a clinical condition caused by excessive production of aldosterone. The classic presenting signs of primary aldosteronism are hypertension and hypokalemia. However, rhabdomyolysis induced by severe hypokalemia is a rare manifestation of primary aldosteronism. Read More

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Candidate genes and signatures of directional selection on fruit quality traits during apple domestication.

Am J Bot 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biology, University of Minnesota Duluth, 207 Swenson Science Building, 1035 Kirby Drive, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA.

Premise: During plant domestication, traits can be subject to a variety of types of selection, ranging from strong directional selection for traits such as seed or fruit size to diversifying selection for traits like color or flavor. These types of selection interact with other evolutionary processes including genetic bottlenecks and interspecific gene flow to generate different levels of genetic diversity across the genome and at target genes in domesticated lineages, but little is known about the impacts of these processes in perennial fruit crops.

Methods: We used sequence capture by hybridization to examine patterns of diversity at a suite of candidate domestication and anonymous background genes in domesticated apple (Malus ×domestica) in comparison to its wild relatives Malus sieversii and Malus orientalis. Read More

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Effect of eight common Brazilian drugs on Lemna minor and Salvinia auriculata growth.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

School of Computing, Engineering and Built Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland.

The growth of two species of macrophytes (Lemna minor and Salvinia auriculata) under the effect of a mixture of amoxicillin, caffeine, carbamazepine, dipyrone, ibuprofen, losartan, omeprazole, and tenivastatin was investigated by bioassay. Three concentration levels were utilized in this study (10, 200, and 500 μg L) using a growth inhibition test based on the OECD 221/2006 guidelines. The frond number, total area, and chlorophyll a level were selected as suitable end points. Read More

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Contamination status, emission sources, and human health risk of brominated flame retardants in urban indoor dust from Hanoi, Vietnam: the replacement of legacy polybrominated diphenyl ether mixtures by alternative formulations.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, 10000, Vietnam.

This study investigated the occurrence, distribution of several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and some novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in urban indoor dust collected from ten inner districts of Hanoi, Vietnam to assess the contamination status, emission sources, as well as their associated human exposure through indoor dust ingestion and health risks. Total concentrations of PBDEs and NBFRs in indoor dust samples ranged from 43 to 480 ng g (median 170 ng g) and from 56 to 2200 ng g (median 180 ng g), respectively. The most abundant PBDE congener in these dust samples was BDE-209 with concentrations ranging from 29 to 360 ng g, accounting for 62. Read More

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Association Between Low-Level Blood Cadmium Exposure and Hyperuricemia in the American General Population: a Cross-sectional Study.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Oncology, Hainan General Hospital, Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Heavy metals, including cadmium, are suspected to increase serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia in both gender, but the evidences about this are inconclusive. To determine whether serum cadmium in American adults(≥19 years old) is associated with uric acid levels and risk of hyperuricemia, 2620 participants from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were recruited. Hyperuricemia was defined as a serum UA concentration ≥ 416. Read More

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Circulating miR-21-5p and miR-126-3p: diagnostic, prognostic value, and multivariate analysis in non-small-cell lung cancer.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Biochemistry Division of Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt.

One of the most recent of tumor molecular characterization approaches is the microRNA (miR) expression profile. No single marker is sufficiently accurate for clinical use. Numerous biomarkers panels were created for three main purposes: tumor subtype, classification and, early detection, and prediction of tumor responses to treatment and prognosis of patients. Read More

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Cellular engineering of plant cells for improved therapeutic protein production.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Arkansas Biosciences Institute, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR, 72401, USA.

In vitro cultured plant cells, in particular the tobacco BY-2 cell, have demonstrated their potential to provide a promising bioproduction platform for therapeutic proteins by integrating the merits of whole-plant cultivation systems with those of microbial and mammalian cell cultures. Over the past three decades, substantial progress has been made in improving the plant cell culture system, resulting in a few commercial success cases, such as taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso), the first FDA-approved recombinant pharmaceutical protein derived from plant cells. However, compared to the major expression hosts (bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells), plant cells are still largely underutilized, mainly due to low productivity and non-human glycosylation. Read More

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Dose-optimization for loss-of-response to vedolizumab - pharmacokinetics and immune mechanisms.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Gastroenterology Institute, Sheba Medical Center Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Real-life-data regarding pharmacokinetics of vedolizumab in patients needing dose-optimization are scarce. We set to examine whether pre-optimization vedolizumab-levels associate with therapy-outcomes and which mechanisms explain the associations.

Methods: A multi-center observational study assessed the outcome of dose-increase in association with pre-escalation levels in vedolizumab-treated patients. Read More

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A liquid culture cancer spheroid model reveals low PI3K/Akt pathway activity and low adhesiveness to the extracellular matrix.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of cancer cells in liquid without extracellular matrix (ECM) offers in vitro models for metastasising conditions such as those in vessels and effusion. However, liquid culturing is often hindered by cell adhesiveness, which causes large cell clumps. We previously described a liquid culture material, LA717, which prevents non-clonal cell adhesion and subsequent clumping, thus allowing clonal growth of spheroids in an anchorage-independent manner. Read More

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Zoxamide accumulation and retention evaluation after nanosuspension technology application in Tomato plant.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Life and Environmental Science, Food Toxicology Unit, University of Cagliari, University Campus of Monserrato, SS 554, 09042, Cagliari, Italy.

Background: Low water solubility of pesticide requires formulations with high levels of stabilizers and organic solvents. Moreover, only 0.1% of the applied pesticides formulation reaches the target, while 99. Read More

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Clinical and demographic correlates of accelerometer-measured physical activity in participants enrolled in the OPTIMISE HFpEF study.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Forvie Site, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB22 5DT, UK.

Aims: This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) in participants with suspected heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and assess associations between PA and participant characteristics.

Methods And Results: Adults with presumed HFpEF were recruited and received diagnostic evaluation and clinical assessment. Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers over 7 days. Read More

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Sequence analysis and ontogenetic expression patterns of cone opsin genes in the bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei).

J Hered 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL.

Sensory systems allow for the transfer of environmental stimuli into internal cues that can alter physiology and behaviour. Many studies of visual systems focus on opsins to compare spectral sensitivity among individuals, populations, and species living in different lighting environments. This requires an understanding of the cone opsins, which can be numerous. Read More

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