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Self-Immolative Dye-Doped Polymeric Probe for Precisely Imaging Hydroxyl Radicals by Avoiding Leakage.

Anal Chem 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Cytochemistry, School of Chemistry and Food Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114, P. R. China.

For sensing low abundance of biomarkers, utilizing nanocarriers to load dyes is an efficient method to amplify the detected signal. However, the non-specific leak of the internal dyes in this approach is accompanied by false positive signals, resulting in inaccurate signal acquirement. To address this issue, in this work, we reported a novel signal amplification strategy with dye as a scaffold to construct a self-immolative dye-doped polymeric probe (SDPP). Read More

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September 2021

Nanocubosomal based gel loaded with natamycin for ocular fungal diseases: development, optimization, , and assessment.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1836-1848

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni -Suef, Egypt.

Natamycin (NT) is a synthetic broad-spectrum antifungal used in eye drops. However, it has low solubility and high molecular weight, limiting its permeation, and generally causes eye discomfort or irritation when administered. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop an ophthalmic gel formulation with NT-loaded cubosomes to enhance ocular permeation, improve antifungal activity, and prolong the retention time within the eye. Read More

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December 2021

Altered ceramide metabolism is a feature in the extracellular vesicle-mediated spread of alpha-synuclein in Lewy body disorders.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA) are the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Lewy body disorders (LBD)-collectively Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Despite this genetic association, it remains unclear how GBA mutations increase susceptibility to develop LBD. We investigated relationships between LBD-specific glucocerebrosidase deficits, GBA-related pathways, and α-synuclein levels in brain tissue from LBD and controls, with and without GBA mutations. Read More

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September 2021

Transferrin-Conjugated Erianin-Loaded Liposomes Suppress the Growth of Liver Cancer by Modulating Oxidative Stress.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:727605. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Background: Liver cancer is one of the most malignant human cancers, with few treatments and a poor prognosis. Erianin (ERN) is a natural compound with multiple pharmacological activities that has been reported to have numerous excellent effects against liver cancer in experimental systems. However, its application has been limited due to its poor aqueous solubility and numerous off-target effects. Read More

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Macrophage reprogramming into a pro-healing phenotype by siRNA delivered with LBL assembled nanocomplexes for wound healing applications.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Laboratory of General Biochemistry and Physical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ghent University, Ghent, B-9000, Belgium.

Excessive inflammatory responses in wounds are characterized by the presence of high levels of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages rather than pro-healing M2 macrophages, which leads to delayed wound healing. Macrophage reprogramming from the M1 to M2 phenotype through knockdown of interferon regulatory factor 5 (irf5) has emerged as a possible therapeutic strategy. While downregulation of irf5 could be achieved by siRNA, it very much depends on successful intracellular delivery by suitable siRNA carriers. Read More

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September 2021

Hydrophilic polymer driven crystallization self-assembly: an inflammatory multi-drug combination nanosystem against Alzheimer's disease.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes/National Center for International Joint Research on Separation Membranes, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tiangong University, Tianjin, 300387, P. R. China.

The hydrophobic polymer driven crystallization of self-assembled micelles is usually sufficient for their purposes in materials chemistry studies. However, with the state of smart drug delivery research, micelles alone are not enough. The principles of the self assembly driven by hydrophilic dextran brushes together with charged poly(3-acrylamidophenyl boronic acid) (PPBA) are uncovered in this study. Read More

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September 2021

Vertebrate CTF18 and DDX11 essential function in cohesion is bypassed by preventing WAPL-mediated cohesin release.

Genes Dev 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

International Foundation of Medicine (IFOM), the Fondazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (FIRC) Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation, Milan 20139, Italy.

The alternative PCNA loader containing CTF18-DCC1-CTF8 facilitates sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) by poorly defined mechanisms. Here we found that in DT40 cells, CTF18 acts complementarily with the Warsaw breakage syndrome DDX11 helicase in mediating SCC and proliferation. We uncover that the lethality and cohesion defects of mutants are associated with reduced levels of chromatin-bound cohesin and rescued by depletion of WAPL, a cohesin-removal factor. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of Combination Treatments with Astaxanthin-Loaded Microparticles and Pentoxifylline on Intracellular ROS and Radiosensitivity of J774A.1 Macrophages.

Molecules 2021 Aug 25;26(17). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15-CV1, I-37134 Verona, Italy.

Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a serious, yet incurable, complication of external beam radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. Macrophages are key cellular actors in RIF because of their ability to produce reactive oxidants, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines that, in turn, are the drivers of pro-fibrotic pathways. In a previous work, we showed that phagocytosis could be exploited to deliver the potent natural antioxidant astaxanthin specifically to macrophages. Read More

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Laterally rotated flap for soft tissue augmentation around maxillary loaded osseointegrated dental implants: preliminary results of a pilot study.

Int J Implant Dent 2021 Sep 9;7(1):94. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Departament of Stomatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

A minimal width and thickness of keratinized and attached soft tissue is desirable to prevent peri-implant diseases. This report describes the preliminary results of a pilot study of a surgical approach for soft tissue augmentation around loaded dental implants in the partially or totally edentulous maxilla. Four patients presenting eight maxillary implants with a buccal peri-implant soft tissue deficiency received a laterally rotated flap. Read More

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September 2021

[Effect of simulated occlusal force on periodontal ligament stem cells of the deciduous teeth at different stages of root absorption].

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Sep;56(9):866-872

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Stomatalogy, The Fourth Military Medical University & State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Xi'an 710032, China.

To explore the related mechanisms of biological root resorption in decidual teeth by studying the biological effect of simulated occlusal force on the periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) at different stages of root absorption. According to the tooth type and root absorption degree, healthy retained deciduous incisors and healthy first premolars that needed to be removed for orthodontic treatment were collected and divided into three groups with six teeth in each group: the deciduous unabsorbed group (UN group), the absorbed group (R group) and the permanent teeth group (P group). PDLSC was isolated from periodontal ligament and cultured. Read More

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September 2021

Tumor-targeting pH/redox dual-responsive nanosystem epigenetically reverses cancer drug resistance by co-delivering doxorubicin and GCN5 siRNA.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Research Center for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.; Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause accounting for chemotherapy failure and recurrence of malignant tumors. A prominent mechanism underlying MDR is overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a drug efflux pump). Promoting drug delivery efficacy by targeting tumor and concurrently suppressing drug efflux through down-regulating P-gp emerges as an effective strategy to enhance intracellular drug accumulation for combating MDR tumor. Read More

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September 2021

Are Knotted or Knotless Techniques Better for Reconstruction of Full-Thickness Tears of the Superior Portion of the Subscapularis Tendon? A Study in Cadavers.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Centre for Trauma Research Ulm, Ulm University Medical Centre, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Knotted and knotless single-anchor reconstruction techniques are frequently performed to reconstruct full-thickness tears of the upper portion of subscapularis tendon. However, it is unclear whether one technique is superior to the other.

Questions/purposes: (1) When comparing knotless and knotted single-anchor reconstruction techniques in full-thickness tears of the upper subscapularis tendon, is there a difference in stiffness under cyclic load? (2) Are there differences in cyclic gapping between knotless and knotted reconstructions? (3) Are there differences in the maximal stiffness, yield load, and ultimate load to failure? (4) What are the modes of failure of knotless and knotted reconstruction techniques?

Methods: Eight matched pairs of human cadaveric shoulders were dissected, and a full-thickness tear of the subscapularis tendon (Grade 3 according to the Fox and Romeo classification) was created. Read More

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September 2021

The role of cigarette butts as vectors of metals in the marine environment: Could it cause bioaccumulation in oysters?

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 20;416:125816. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Centre of Documentation, Research and Experimentation on Accidental Water Pollution (Cedre), 715 rue Alain Colas, CS 41836, Brest Cedex 2 29218, France.

Tobacco is a well-documented threat to human health. However, its environmental impact has only recently been considered. Metals can interact with cigarette butts (CBs) being transported in the marine environment and reaching organisms. Read More

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Effect of Transition Metal Substitution on the Flexibility and Thermal Properties of MOF-Based Solid-Solid Phase Change Materials.

Inorg Chem 2021 Sep 17;60(17):12950-12960. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Chemistry, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB, U.K.

A series of azobenzene-loaded metal-organic frameworks were synthesized with the general formula M(BDC)(DABCO)(AB) (M = Zn, Co, Ni, and Cu; BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; DABCO = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane; and AB = azobenzene), herein named ⊃AB. Read More

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September 2021

IgE cross-linking induces activation of human and mouse mast cell progenitors.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: The concept of innate and adaptive effector cells that are repleted by maturing inert progenitor cell populations is changing. Mast cells develop from rare mast cell progenitors populating peripheral tissues at homeostatic conditions, or as a result of induced recruitment during inflammatory conditions.

Objective: As FcεRI-expressing mast cell progenitors are the dominating mast cell type during acute allergic lung inflammation in vivo, we hypothesized that they are activated by IgE cross-linking. Read More

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September 2021

Development of Iron Sequester Antioxidant [email protected] Nanoparticles with Photoprotective Effects on UVA-Irradiated HaCaT Cells.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 25;2021:6072631. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory for Post-Harvest Technology and Nondestructive Testing of Fruits & Vegetables, Collaborative Innovation Center of Post-Harvest Key Technology and Quality Safety of Fruits and Vegetables in Jiangxi Province, College of Agronomy, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China.

Background: Solar ultraviolet radiation A (UVA, 320-400 nm) is a significant risk factor leading to various human skin conditions such as premature aging or photoaging. This condition is enhanced by UVA-mediated iron release from cellular iron proteins affecting huge populations across the globe.

Purpose: Quercetin-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles ([email protected] NPs) were prepared to examine its cellular iron sequestration ability to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory responses in HaCaT cells. Read More

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A single microbubble formulation carrying 5-fluorouridine, Irinotecan and oxaliplatin to enable FOLFIRINOX treatment of pancreatic and colon cancer using ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction.

J Control Release 2021 Sep 1;338:358-366. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland BT14 6AB, UK. Electronic address:

FOLFIRINOX and FOLFOXIRI are combination chemotherapy treatments that incorporate the same drug cocktail (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and irinotecan) but exploit an altered dosing regimen when used in the management of pancreatic and colorectal cancer, respectively. Both have proven effective in extending life when used to treat patients with metastatic disease but are accompanied by significant adverse effects. To facilitate improved tumour-targeting of this drug combination, an ultrasound responsive microbubble formulation loaded with 5-fluorouridine, irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FIRINOX MB) was developed and its efficacy tested, together with the non-toxic folinic acid, in preclinical murine models of pancreatic and colorectal cancer. Read More

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September 2021

Simultaneous amelioration of diabetic ocular complications in lens and retinal tissues using a non-invasive drug delivery system.

Int J Pharm 2021 Sep 2;608:121045. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, India; The Mehta Family Center for Engineering in Medicine, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, India. Electronic address:

Topically administered delivery systems for ophthalmic applications have been studied for the treatment of anterior or posterior eye diseases. However, simultaneous treatment of both anterior and posterior eye diseases has not been explored. In this study, we fabricated a topically administrable polymeric nanoparticle (NP)- based delivery system consisting of pluronic®F-68 shell and polycaprolactone core for the simultaneous treatment of both anterior and posterior eye diseases. Read More

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September 2021

Nanoencapsulation improves the protective effects of a nitric oxide donor on drought-stressed Heliocarpus popayanensis seedlings.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 31;225:112713. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Animal and Plant Biology, Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, km 380, CEP 86057-970, Londrina, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:

Despite the important role played by nitric oxide (NO) in plants subjected to abiotic stress, NO donors application to induce drought tolerance in neotropical tree seedlings has not yet been tested. It is also worth investigating whether NO bioactivity in drought-stressed seedlings could be potentiated by NO donors nanoencapsulation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) containing S-nitroso-mercaptosuccinic acid (S-nitroso-MSA) on drought-stressed seedlings of neotropical tree species Heliocarpus popayanensis Kunth in comparison to free NO donor and NPs loaded with non-nitrosated MSA. Read More

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A carbonized wormwood modified photothermal microneedle patch for the repair of damaged skeletal muscles.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The National Engineering Research Center for Bioengineering Drugs and the Technologies, Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330088, China.

In this study, we aimed to achieve an efficient repair of damaged skeletal muscles using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) soluble microneedle patches (MNP) loaded with carbonized wormwood and prostaglandin E2 (inflammatory factors). The introduction of carbonized wormwood imparted the MNP with near-infrared light heating characteristics that improved the efficiency of prostaglandin E2 delivery while also promoting circulation in the damaged muscle area. Our experimental results showed that, compared with the classical moxibustion treatment, the system could more quickly restore muscle strength and the cross-sectional area of muscle bundle fibers in a mouse model of muscular injury. Read More

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September 2021

Multifunctional silica-coated mixed polymeric micelles for integrin-targeted therapy of pediatric patient-derived glioblastoma.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Sep 16;128:112261. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

CryoEM Laboratory of Soft Matter, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, Israel; Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Guangdong Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Shantou 515063, China. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a major cause of mortality because treatments are precluded by to the limited transport and penetration of chemotherapeutics across the blood-brain barrier. Pitavastatin (PTV) is a hydrophobic Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anticholesterolemic agent with reported anti-GBM activity. In the present study, we encapsulate PTV in silica-coated polymeric micelles (SiO PMs) surface-modified with the cyclic peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Val (cRGDfV) that actively targets the αβ integrin overexpressed in the BBB endothelium and GBM. Read More

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September 2021

Rodlike Particles of Polydopamine-CdTe Quantum Dots: An Actuator As a Photothermal Agent and Reactive Oxygen Species-Generating Nanoplatform for Cancer Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 2;13(36):42357-42369. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

W Booth School of Engineering Practice and Technology, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8, Ontario, Canada.

Herein, novel rodlike [email protected] particles based on polydopamine (PDA) loaded with CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped with mercaptopropionic acid ([email protected] QDs) with atypical chemical features are evaluated as a potential actuator for photothermal therapy and oxidative stress induction. Under mild conditions established for the safe and efficient use of lasers, temperature increases of 10.2 and 7. Read More

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September 2021

Investigation of a Capnometry Guided Respiratory Intervention in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2021 09 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including psychotherapies and medications, have high dropout and nonresponse rates, suggesting that more acceptable and effective treatments for PTSD are needed. Capnometry Guided Respiratory Intervention (CGRI) is a digital therapeutic effective in panic disorder that measures and displays end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO) and respiratory rate (RR) in real-time within a structured breathing protocol and may have benefit in PTSD by moderating breathing and EtCO levels. We conducted a single-arm study of a CGRI system, Freespira®, to treat symptoms of PTSD. Read More

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September 2021

Metformin-loaded lecithin nanoparticles induce colorectal cancer cytotoxicity via epigenetic modulation of noncoding RNAs.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is major aliment around the word, with a cumulative rate of mortality. Metformin (MT) was recently approved as anticancer drug against solid tumors, such as CRC. Resistance to MT therapy remains to be a challenging matter facing the development of possible anti-cancer strategy. Read More

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September 2021

Gym and home-based combined training in men with primary hypertension: are they equally effective on functional fitness profile, body composition components, and biochemical parameters of hypertension?

Clin Exp Hypertens 2021 Sep 1:1-14. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: This study aimed to compare the effects of 10 weeks of gym versus home-based combined training on the functional fitness, body composition, and biochemical parameters of hypertension in primary hypertensive men.

Methods: Forty-six patients (age 48 ± 9 years, BMI 30 ± 4 kg/m) assigned into three groups: a gym-based combined training (GBCTr: n = 16; resistance at 60-80% of 1RM, using pin-loaded resistance equipment, aerobic at 40-60% HRR, and stretching), home-based combined training (HBCTr: n = 15; resistance at 12-15 RPE, using an elastic exercise band, aerobic at 40-60% HRR, and stretching), and control (CTR, n = 15).

Results: Following GBCTr and HBCTr, the functional aerobic capacity ( = . Read More

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September 2021

Antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic activities of the aqueous leaf extract of (Rosacea) in mice.

Metabol Open 2021 Sep 13;11:100118. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on the inexorable rise despite the promises of a wide range of conventional medications. Thus, there is a need to scientifically investigate plants for antidiabetic effect.

Methods: After the Engl (Rosaceae) leaf has been decocted, the plant extract's antidiabetic activity was first investigated and then . Read More

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September 2021

Cerium oxide nanoparticles loaded nanofibrous membranes promote bone regeneration for periodontal tissue engineering.

Bioact Mater 2022 Jan 5;7:242-253. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Bone regeneration is a crucial part in the treatment of periodontal tissue regeneration, in which new attempts come out along with the development of nanomaterials. Herein, the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO NPs) on the cell behavior and function of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) was investigated. Results of CCK-8 and cell cycle tests demonstrated that CeO NPs not only had good biocompatibility, but also promoted cell proliferation. Read More

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January 2022

Oleic acid-reinforced PEGylated polymethacrylate transdermal film with enhanced antidyslipidemic activity and bioavailability of atorvastatin: A mechanistic ex-vivo/in-vivo analysis.

Int J Pharm 2021 Aug 28;608:121057. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United States.

To enhance the poor bioavailability and extensive liver metabolism of atorvastatin calcium (ATC), we have developed an oleic acid-reinforced PEGylated polymethacrylate (OLA-PEG-E-RLPO) transdermal film as a convenient and alternative delivery system. The effect of varying levels of Eudragit RLPO, PEG 400, and oleic acid on the target product profile was optimized through Quality by Design (QbD) approach. The ATC-loaded OLA-PEG-E-RLPO transdermal films were evaluated in ex-vivo experiments using full thickness skin, utilizing Franz cell studies, and undergone in-vivo pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) assessment, using poloxamer-induced dyslipidemic Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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Perfluorocarbons therapeutics in modern cancer nanotechnology for hypoxia-induced anti-tumor therapy.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Aug 29. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab. India.

With an estimated failure rate of about 90%, immunotherapies that are intended for the treatment of solid tumors have caused an anomalous rise in the mortality rate over the past decades. It is apparent that resistance towards such therapies primarily occurs due to elevated levels of HIF-1 (Hypoxia-induced factor) in tumor cells, which are caused by disrupted microcirculation and diffusion mechanisms. With the advent of nanotechnology, several innovative advances were brought to the fore; and, one such promising direction is the use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in the management of solid tumors. Read More

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LncRNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 shuttled by prostate cancer cells-secreted exosomes initiates osteoblastic phenotypes in the bone metastatic microenvironment via miR-205-5p/runt-related transcription factor 2/splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich/polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 2 axis.

Clin Transl Med 2021 Aug;11(8):e493

Department of Urology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, PR China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) patients commonly present with osteoblastic-type bone metastasis. Exosomes derived from tumor cells possess biological significance and can mediate intercellular communication in the tumor microenvironment. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) is also implicated in the stability in tumorigenesis and the development of PCa, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Read More

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