21,059 results match your criteria levels income

Augmented Package of Palliative Care for Women With Cervical Cancer: Responding to Refractory Suffering.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Jun;7:886-895

Department of Non-communicable Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

The essential package of palliative care for cervical cancer (EPPCCC), described elsewhere, is designed to be safe and effective for preventing and relieving most suffering associated with cervical cancer and universally accessible. However, it appears that women with cervical cancer, more frequently than patients with other cancers, experience various types of suffering that are refractory to basic palliative care such as what can be provided with the EPPCCC. In particular, relief of refractory pain, vomiting because of bowel obstruction, bleeding, and psychosocial suffering may require additional expertise, medicines, or equipment. Read More

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Essential Package of Palliative Care for Women With Cervical Cancer: Responding to the Suffering of a Highly Vulnerable Population.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Jun;7:873-885

Department of Non-communicable Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Women with cervical cancer, especially those with advanced disease, appear to experience suffering that is more prevalent, complex, and severe than that caused by other cancers and serious illnesses, and approximately 85% live in low- and middle-income countries where palliative care is rarely accessible. To respond to the highly prevalent and extreme suffering in this vulnerable population, we convened a group of experienced experts in all aspects of care for women with cervical cancer, and from countries of all income levels, to create an essential package of palliative care for cervical cancer (EPPCCC). The EPPCCC consists of a set of interventions, medicines, simple equipment, social supports, and human resources, and is designed to be safe and effective for preventing and relieving all types of suffering associated with cervical cancer. Read More

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Willingness to give amid pandemics: a contingent valuation of anticipated nongovernmental immunization programs.

Int J Health Econ Manag 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Economics and Finance, Sacred Heart University, 5151 Park Avenue, Fairfield, CT, 06825, USA.

Given that altruism is crucial in assisting impoverished households to cope with health and economic crises, it is important to improve our understanding of how preferences and motives for giving differ during a pandemic. We implemented a web-based, contingent valuation survey to estimate Americans' willingness to give for nongovernmental immunization programs in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results indicate that the median person is willing to give a one-time donation of $26, or at least $13 when willingness-to-give estimates are corrected for uncertainty regarding future donations. Read More

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The effectiveness of volunteer befriending for improving the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia in Bosnia and Herzegovina - an exploratory randomised controlled trial.

Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2021 Jun 11;30:e48. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Centre University of Sarajevo, Bosnia, Herzegovina.

Aims: Social isolation in people living with schizophrenia is associated with poor quality of life and increased symptom severity. Volunteer befriending interventions are a potential strategy for addressing social isolation, but evidence of their effectiveness is limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the experiences of volunteer befriending and tested its effectiveness for improving the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Read More

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The effect of high blood pressure-health literacy, self-management behavior, self-efficacy and social support on the health-related quality of life of Kazakh hypertension patients in a low-income rural area of China: a structural equation model.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 10;21(1):1114. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Nursing Psychology Research Center of Xiangya Nursing School, Central South University, 172 Tong Zi Po Road, Changsha, 410000, Hunan, China.

Background: Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of hypertensive patients is not only affected by the disease itself but also by some subjective factors. Low health literacy is prevalent among ethnic minorities. Considering the Kazakh-Chinese people have the highest prevalence of hypertension in Xinjiang, and the High Blood Pressure-Health Literacy (HBP-HL) has not been included in the study of HRQoL. Read More

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The pregnancy-related anxiety characteristics in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: why should we care?

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jun 10;21(1):424. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Nursing, Xinjiang Medical University, No. 567, Shangde North Road, Urumqi, 830000, Xinjiang, China.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is very commonly-seen in clinical settings, and GDM patients may have higher levels of anxiety. It's necessary to evaluate the anxiety level and potentially influencing factors in patients with GDM, to provide insights for the management of anxiety of GDM patients.

Methods: Patients with GDM treated in our hospital from May, 2018 to May, 2020 were included. Read More

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COVID-19 and health promotion in Brazil: community health workers between vulnerability and resistance.

Glob Health Promot 2021 Jun 10:17579759211012375. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Politics, University of York, York, North Yorkshire, UK.

Health promotion in Brazil relies on community health workers (CHWs), frontline providers linking the health system with vulnerable groups. Brazilian CHWs are overwhelmingly women from poor backgrounds, with precarious and sometimes hazardous working conditions, as well as fragmented and unsystematic training. This paper evaluates how the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated pre-existing vulnerabilities of CHWs (pertaining to low salary, precarious and hazardous working conditions and inadequate training) and created new ones, with a profound impact on their ability to carry out health promotion activities. Read More

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Stress management interventions among socioeconomically disadvantaged parents: A meta-analysis and moderation analysis.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Apr 24;120:103954. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Michigan State University College of Nursing, 1355 Bogue St., C241, East Lansing, MI 48824, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Socioeconomically disadvantaged parents experience high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. Many interventions have been tested to reduce parental stress, but no meta-analysis has been conducted to quantitatively summarize the effects and explore the moderators of intervention effects among socioeconomically disadvantaged parents.

Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to (1) quantitatively examine the intervention effects of prior stress management interventions among socioeconomically disadvantaged parents on reducing stress, depression, and anxiety; and (2) explore the potential moderators of intervention effects. Read More

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Community-level factors and incidence of gun violence in the United States, 2014-2017.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 10;280:113969. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of Connecticut, USA.

Rationale And Objective: In the United States, gun violence claims thousands of lives each year and is a pressing public health issue. To gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, this study spatially analyzed county- and state-level predictors of yearly gun violence rates and gun-related casualty rates.

Methods: This study modeled hypothesized predictors of gun violence incidence and casualties across four years. Read More

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Stress-related growth of HIV/AIDS patients: Role of religion and self-esteem in mitigating perceived discrimination.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jun;71(6):1545-1550

Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Objective: Objectives of the present research were to i) examine association between levels of religiosity, self-esteem, perceived discrimination and stress related growth among HIV/AIDS patients and ii) find out the mediating effect of self-esteem on perceived discrimination and stress related growth among HIV/AIDS patients.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on respondents registered in VCCT (Voluntary Confidential Counseling & testing) center at Civil Hospital of Jalal Pur Jattan, Gujrat. Total sample of 247 patients was selected on the basis of two stage stratified simple random sampling technique. Read More

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What influences demand for cigars among African American adult cigar smokers? Results from a hypothetical purchase task.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Health Behavior and Policy.

African Americans (AA) have historically been targeted by the tobacco industry and have the highest rates of current cigar use among racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Yet, there is limited evidence on other factors influencing cigar use. Read More

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Health data from diaries used in low-income communities, north India.

Bull World Health Organ 2021 Jun 1;99(6):446-454. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Objective: To determine the acceptability of keeping a self-written health diary among members of low-income communities, with the aim of generating needed health data.

Methods: We identified three different types of impoverished communities (tribal, inner-city slum and rural) in north India, and conducted a baseline survey to establish the sociodemographic properties of the members of 595 (tribal), 446 (slum) and 51 (rural) households. We designed health diaries with a single page to fill in per month, each with a carbon duplicate, and distributed diaries to willing participants. Read More

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Trends and practices for managing low-risk prostate cancer: a SEER-Medicare study.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Background: Expectant management (EM) has been widely recommended for men with low-risk prostate cancers (PCa). We evaluated trends in EM and the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with EM, initiating a National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline-concordant active surveillance (AS) monitoring protocol, and switching from EM to active treatment (AT).

Methods: We used the SEER-Medicare database to identify men ages 66+ diagnosed with a low-risk PCa (PSA < 10 ng/mL, Gleason ≤ 6, stage ≤ T2a) in 2010-2013 with ≥1 year of follow-up. Read More

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Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay using SYBR safe and gold-nanoparticle probe for detection of Leishmania in HIV patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12152. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Asymptomatic leishmaniasis cases have continuously increased, especially among patients with HIV who are at risk to develop further symptoms of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Thus, early diagnosis using a simple, sensitive and reliable diagnostic assay is important because populations at risk mostly reside in rural communities where laboratory equipment is limited. In this study, the highly sensitive and selective determination of Leishmania infection in asymptomatic HIV patients was achieved using dual indicators (SYBR safe and gold-nanoparticle probe; AuNP-probe) in one-step LAMP method based on basic instruments. Read More

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Social and Economic Differences in Neighborhood Walkability Across 500 U.S. Cities.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Population Health, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

Introduction: Neighborhood walkability has been established as a potentially important determinant of various health outcomes that are distributed inequitably by race/ethnicity and sociodemographic status. The objective of this study is to assess the differences in walkability across major urban centers in the U.S. Read More

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Understanding measures of racial discrimination and microaggressions among American Indian and Alaska Native college students in the Southwest United States.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 9;21(1):1099. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Box 356560, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA.

Background: Racial discrimination, including microaggressions, contributes to health inequities, yet research on discrimination and microaggressions has focused on single measures without adequate psychometric evaluation. To address this gap, we examined the psychometric performance of three discrimination/microaggression measures among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) college students in a large Southwestern city.

Methods: Students (N = 347; 65% female; ages 18-65) completed the revised-Everyday Discrimination Scale, Microaggressions Distress Scale, and Experiences of Discrimination measure. Read More

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Association of life course socioeconomic status and adult height with cognitive functioning of older adults in India and China.

BMC Geriatr 2021 Jun 9;21(1):354. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Development Studies, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Govandi Station Road, Mumbai, 400088, India.

Background: Cognitive functioning is an important measure of intrinsic capacity. In this study, we examine the association of life course socioeconomic status (SES) and height with cognitive functioning among older adults (50+) in India and China. The age pattern of cognitive functioning with measures of life course socioeconomic status has also been examined. Read More

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Clinico-Pathological and Molecular Spectrum of Biotinidase Deficiency- Experience from a Lower Middle-Income Country.

Clin Lab 2021 Jun;67(6)

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, biochemical, and molecular analysis of Pakistani patients with biotinidase deficiency (BD).

Methods: Medical charts, urine organic acid (UOA) chromatograms, and biotinidase (BTD) enzyme activity of 113 suspected BD cases and BTD gene results of BTD enzyme deficient patients presenting at the Biochemical Genetics Clinic, AKUH from January 2010 to December 2019 were reviewed. Details were collected on a prestructured questionnaire. Read More

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Relationship between Serum Fatty Acids and Components of Physical Frailty in Community-Dwelling Japanese Older Adults.

J Frailty Aging 2021 ;10(3):237-240

Rei Otsuka, Section of NILS-LSA, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 7-430 Morioka, Obu, Aichi 474-8511, Japan, Tel: +81-562-46-2311; FAX: +81-562-46-2373; E-mail:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids help maintain insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial function, and anti-inflammation. It is well known that deterioration in these areas can cause frailty. However, little is known about the differences in serum polyunsaturated fatty acid levels among frailty components. Read More

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Prevalence of drug-drug interactions with pangenotypic direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C and real-world care management in the United States: a retrospective observational study.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2021 Jun 9:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA.

: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens for hepatitis C virus (HCV) have varying potentials for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To (1) identify prevalence of potential DDI with glecaprevir-pibrentasvir (GLE-PIB) and sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (SOF-VEL) and (2) describe health care provider actions in response to pharmacist recommendations based on potential interactions with GLE-PIB or SOF-VEL, using 2 complementary data sources. Possible interacting drugs were identified among adult patients in a United States electronic medical record database covering 21 health care organizations and 26 million patients in 2018. Read More

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Parental socioeconomic status and adolescent health in Japan.

Shohei Okamoto

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12089. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

There is no consensus on which parental socioeconomic indicators should be used to define adolescents' socioeconomic status (SES). Utilising the data for 3154 parent-adolescent pairs obtained from the sample of the Survey of Lifestyle Value of Parents and Children 2011 conducted by the Cabinet Office in Japan, the associations between adolescent's subjective economic status, parental SES (i.e. Read More

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Geographical variation and temporal trend in anemia among children 6-59 months of age in low- and middle-income countries during 2000-2018: forecasting the 2030 SDG target.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Jun 9:1-20. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068, Australia.

Objective: To examine geographical variations, trends, and projections in the prevalence of childhood anemia at national and subpopulation levels.

Design: Repeated cross-sectional Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted during 2000-2018.

Setting: 53 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Read More

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Dietary share of ultra-processed foods and its association with vitamin E biomarkers in Brazilian lactating women.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 9:1-23. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Post Graduate Program in Nutrition, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Senador Salgado Filho Ave., 59078-970, Natal, RN, Brazil.

Despite evidence showing that the intake of ultra-processed food has a negative impact on health, diet quality and dietary vitamin E, its impact on vitamin E nutritional status and breast milk remains unknown. This study aimed to assess the influence of the consumption of ultra-processed foods on vitamin E biomarkers of lactating women. A cross-sectional study was performed with 294 lactating women. Read More

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Prevalence of elder abuse and victim-related risk factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in China.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 8;21(1):1096. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Law School, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan Province, P.R. China.

Background: With the accelerated aging of the Chinese population, elder abuse has become a serious social problem. As COVID-19 has had a very large impact on economic development and lifestyle in China, it has also affected elder abuse. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of elder abuse in China during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify changes in risk factors for elder abuse in the context of COVID-19. Read More

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Anxiety during the Pandemic: Racial and ethnic differences in the trajectory of fear.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 29;292:58-66. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Health Services and Information Management, East Carolina University, North Carolina, USA.

Background: In addition to the threat of serious illness, COVID-19 brought abrupt changes in lifestyle resulting in widespread fear among many Americans. This study examines the evolution of anxiety over the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, testing for differential experiences among vulnerable populations.

Methods: Phase 1 of the Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey details the frequency of anxiety among a nationally representative sample of adults from April 23, 2020 through July 21, 2020. Read More

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Computational Model To Quantify the Growth of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Wastewater.

mSystems 2021 Jun 8:e0036021. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Although wastewater and sewage systems are known to be significant reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations and periodic outbreaks of drug-resistant infection, there is little quantitative understanding of the drivers behind resistant population growth in these settings. In order to fill this gap in quantitative understanding of the development of antibiotic-resistant infections in wastewater, we have developed a mathematical model synthesizing many known drivers of antibiotic resistance in these settings to help predict the growth of resistant populations in different environmental scenarios. A number of these drivers of drug-resistant infection outbreak, including antibiotic residue concentration, antibiotic interaction, chromosomal mutation, and horizontal gene transfer, have not previously been integrated into a single computational model. Read More

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Assessment of dietary intake of bioactive food compounds according to income level in the Brazilian population.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 8:1-22. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Food Science and Experimental Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: There is an inverse association between bioactive compounds intake and disease risk. The knowledge of its consumption according to socioeconomic strata is important, which allows identification of potential intervention targets.

Objective: To investigate bioactive compounds intake according to income level in Brazilian population. Read More

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The epidemiological landscape of anemia in women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 7;11(1):11955. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Health Geography and Disease Modeling Laboratory, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 45221, USA.

The role of geographical disparities of health-related risk factors with anemia are poorly documented for women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We aimed to determine the contribution of potential factors and to identify areas at higher risk of anemia for women in reproductive age in SSA. Our study population comprised 27 nationally representative samples of women of reproductive age (15-49) who were enrolled in the Demographic and Health Surveys and conducted between 2010 and 2019 in SSA. Read More

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Disclosure to social network members among abortion-seeking women in low- and middle-income countries with restrictive access: a systematic review.

Reprod Health 2021 Jun 7;18(1):114. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

UNDP-UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Health care for stigmatized reproductive practices in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) often remains illegal; when legal, it is often inadequate, difficult to find and / or stigmatizing, which results in women deferring care or turning to informal information sources and providers. Women seeking an induced abortion in LMICs often face obstacles of this kind, leading to unsafe abortions. A growing number of studies have shown that abortion seekers confide in social network members when searching for formal or informal care. Read More

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