13,499 results match your criteria leucine zipper


A synthetic lethal screen identifies HDAC4 as a potential target in MELK overexpressing cancers.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

European Research Institute for the Biology of Ageing, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, A. Deusinglaan 1, Groningen 9713 AV, the Netherlands.

Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is frequently overexpressed in cancer, but the role of MELK in cancer is still poorly understood. MELK was shown to have roles in many cancer-associated processes including tumor growth, chemotherapy resistance, and tumor recurrence. To determine whether the frequent overexpression of MELK can be exploited in therapy, we performed a high-throughput screen using a library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants to identify genes whose functions become essential when MELK is overexpressed. Read More

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September 2021

The lipid-binding START domain regulates the dimerization of ATML1 via modulating the ZIP motif activity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Dev Growth Differ 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8902, Japan.

In Arabidopsis thaliana, the epidermis is the outermost cell layer composed of many specialized types of epidermal cells, such as pavement cells, trichomes, and guard cells. The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) class Ⅳ transcription factors (TFs), which are unique to the plant kingdom, have been recognized as key regulators of epidermis development. Unlike animal HD proteins, which can bind to DNA as monomers, plant HD-ZIP class Ⅳ TFs bind to DNA as dimers, although little is known about the regulation of their dimerization process. Read More

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September 2021

Relationship between functional Nrf2 gene promoter polymorphism and sperm DNA damage in male infertility.

Syst Biol Reprod Med 2021 Sep 19:1-14. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

This study examines the association of the -617 C > A polymorphism in the Nrf2 gene (rs6721961) with male infertility in a Turkish population and determines its functional role in spermatogenesis in correlation with the impact of different levels of DNA damage on the genotypes. A total of 100 infertile men and 100 healthy fertile men were included in the study. Nrf2 genotyping was performed with the PCR-based restriction fragment length gene polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Transcriptome analysis of sesame- interactions revealing the distinct genetic components for early defense responses.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Aug 9;27(8):1675-1693. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Biochemistry, ICAR-Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh, Gujarat India.

Sesame ( L.) is an oilseed crop challenged by many biotic stresses. Charcoal rot caused by (MP) is one of the most devastating diseases of sesame. Read More

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Genome-wide prediction of cauliflower miRNAs and lncRNAs and their roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation.

Planta 2021 Sep 14;254(4):72. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Biotechnology, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan, 731235, India.

Main Conclusion: We have predicted miRNAs, their targets and lncRNAs from the genome of Brassica oleracea along with their functional annotation. Selected miRNAs and their targets are experimentally validated. Roles of these non-coding RNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation are also deciphered. Read More

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September 2021

Genome-wide identification and characterization of bZIP transcription factors and their expression profile under abiotic stresses in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Sep 9;21(1):413. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, 230036, China.

Background: In plants, basic leucine zipper transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in multiple biological processes such as anthesis, fruit growth & development and stress responses. However, systematic investigation and characterization of bZIP-TFs remain unclear in Chinese white pear. Chinese white pear is a fruit crop that has important nutritional and medicinal values. Read More

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September 2021

An Overview of the Nrf2/ARE Pathway and Its Role in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 4;22(17). Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Cell-to-Cell Communication, Medical University of Lodz, Mazowiecka 6/8, 92-215 Lodz, Poland.

Nrf2 is a basic region leucine-zipper transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in the coordinated gene expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, promoting cell survival in adverse environmental or defective metabolic conditions. After synthesis, Nrf2 is arrested in the cytoplasm by the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 suppressor (Keap1) leading Nrf2 to ubiquitin-dependent degradation. One Nrf2 activation mechanism relies on disconnection from the Keap1 homodimer through the oxidation of cysteine at specific sites of Keap1. Read More

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September 2021

Expression Analysis of MaTGA8 Transcription Factor in Banana and Its Defence Functional Analysis by Overexpression in Arabidopsis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 28;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Institute of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China.

TGA transcription factor is a member of the D subfamily of the basic region-leucine zippers (bZIP) family. It is a type of transcription factor that was first identified in plants and is the main regulator in plant development and physiological processes, including morphogenesis and seed formation in response to abiotic and biotic stress and maintaining plant growth. The present study examined the sequence of the transcription factor, the sequence of which belonged to subfamily D of the bZIP and had multiple cis-acting elements such as the G-box, TCA-element, TGACG-element, and P-box. Read More

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A review emphasizing on utility of heptad repeat sequence as a tool to design pharmacologically safe peptide-based antibiotics.

Biochimie 2021 Sep 4;191:126-139. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

Extensive usage of antibiotics has created an unprecedented scenario of the rapid emergence of many drug-resistant bacteria, which has become an alarming public health concern around the globe. Search for better alternatives that are as efficacious as antibiotics led to the discovery of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These small cationic amphiphilic peptides have emerged as a promising option as antimicrobial agents, owing to their multifaceted implications against varied pathogens. Read More

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September 2021

HY5 and ABI5 transcription factors physically interact to fine tune light and ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.

Plant Mol Biol 2021 Sep 7;107(1-2):117-127. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Key Message: Cross-talk between light and ABA signaling is mediated by physical interaction between HY5 and ABI5 Arabidopsis. Plants undergo numerous transitions during their life-cycle and have developed a very complex network of signaling to integrate information from their surroundings to effectively survive in the ever-changing environment. Light signaling is one of the crucial factors that govern the plant growth and development from the very first step of that is from seedling germination to the flowering. Read More

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September 2021

Integrated exome and RNA sequencing of TFE3-translocation renal cell carcinoma.

Nat Commun 2021 09 6;12(1):5262. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

TFE3-translocation renal cell carcinoma (TFE3-tRCC) is a rare and heterogeneous subtype of kidney cancer with no standard treatment for advanced disease. We describe comprehensive molecular characteristics of 63 untreated primary TFE3-tRCCs based on whole-exome and RNA sequencing. TFE3-tRCC is highly heterogeneous, both clinicopathologically and genotypically. Read More

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September 2021

Coupling a recombinant oxidase to catalase through specific noncovalent interaction to improve the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Oct 13;150:109895. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Biological Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural oxidase (HMFO) can catalyze both hydroxyl and aldehyde oxidations. It catalyzes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid. However, the application of HMFO encountered two problems: the expressed HMFO in Escherichia coli. Read More

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October 2021

TaFDL2-1A interacts with TabZIP8-7A protein to cope with drought stress via the abscisic acid signaling pathway.

Plant Sci 2021 Oct 14;311:111022. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas and College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Drought has negative effects on cereal production. Studies have shown that many basic leucine zipper transcription factors (bZIP TFs) help to cope with drought stress. In this study, bZIP TF wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Read More

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October 2021

[F]F-ET-OTSSP167 Targets Maternal Embryo Leucine Zipper Kinase for PET Imaging of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Mol Pharm 2021 Sep 17;18(9):3544-3552. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

Maternal embryo leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is a serine/threonine kinase and is highly expressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study aimed to develop a F-radiolabeled tracer based on the structure of a small-molecule MELK inhibitor OTSSP167 and evaluate its application for PET imaging of MELK expression in TNBC. OTSSP167 was modified with ethylene glycol to adjust its pharmacokinetics and was then radiolabeled with F to obtain [F]F-ET-OTSSP167 at a labeling yield of 7. Read More

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September 2021

Regulatory mechanisms of heme regulatory protein BACH1: a potential therapeutic target for cancer.

Med Oncol 2021 Sep 4;38(10):122. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Environmental Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, 620024, India.

A limited number of overexpressed transcription factors are associated with cancer progression in many types of cancer. BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) is the first mammalian heme-binding transcription factor that belongs to the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) family and a member of CNC (cap 'n' collar). It forms heterodimers with the small musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (MAF) proteins and stimulates or suppresses the expression of target genes under a very low intracellular heme concentration. Read More

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September 2021

Comparative analysis of the MyTH4-FERM myosins reveals insights into the determinants of actin track selection in polarized epithelia.

Mol Biol Cell 2021 Sep 2:mbcE20070494. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606.

MyTH4-FERM (MF) myosins evolved to play a role in the creation and function of a variety of actin-based membrane protrusions that extend from cells. Here, we performed an analysis of the MF myosins, Myo7A, Myo7B, and Myo10, to gain insight into how they select for their preferred actin networks. Using enterocytes that create spatially separated actin tracks in the form of apical microvilli and basal filopodia, we show that actin track selection is principally guided by the mode of oligomerization of the myosin along with the identity of the motor domain, with little influence from the specific composition of the lever arm. Read More

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September 2021

Abnormal levels of mitochondrial proteins in plasma neuronal extracellular vesicles in major depressive disorder.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA.

To characterize neuronal mitochondrial abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD), functional mitochondrial proteins (MPs) extracted from enriched plasma neuron-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) of MDD participants (n = 20) were quantified before and after eight weeks of treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Pretreatment baseline NDEV levels of the transcriptional type 2 nuclear respiratory factor (NRF2) which controls mitochondrial biogenesis and many anti-oxidant gene responses, regulators of diverse neuronal mitochondrial functions cyclophilin D (CYPD) and mitofusin-2 (MFN2), leucine zipper EF-hand containing transmembrane 1 protein (LETM1) component of a calcium channel/calcium channel enhancer, mitochondrial tethering proteins syntaphilin (SNPH) and myosin VI (MY06), inner membrane electron transport complexes I (subunit 6) and III (subunit 10), the penultimate enzyme of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) generation nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylytransferase 2 (NMNAT2), and neuronal mitochondrial metabolic regulatory and protective factors humanin and mitochondrial open-reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c) all were significantly lower than those of NDEVs from matched controls (n = 10), whereas those of pro-neurodegenerative NADase Sterile Alpha and TIR motif-containing protein 1 (SARM1) were higher. The baseline NDEV levels of transcription factor A mitochondrial (TFAM) and the transcriptional master-regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis PPAR γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) showed no differences between MDD participants and controls. Read More

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September 2021

Skeleton interoception regulates bone and fat metabolism through hypothalamic neuroendocrine NPY.

Elife 2021 09 1;10. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Cell Engineering, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States.

The central nervous system regulates activity of peripheral organs through interoception. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that PGE2/EP4 skeleton interception regulate bone homeostasis. Here, we show that ascending skeleton interoceptive signaling downregulates expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and induce lipolysis of adipose tissue for osteoblastic bone formation. Read More

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September 2021

Regulation and function of AP-1 in insulinoma cells and pancreatic β-cells.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Aug 27;193:114748. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Saarland University Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, D-66421 Homburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Ca1.2 L-type voltage-gated Ca channels play a central role in pancreatic β-cells by integrating extracellular signals with intracellular signaling events leading to insulin secretion and altered gene transcription. Here, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathway following stimulation of Ca1. Read More

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Prognostic impact of CEBPA bZIP domain mutation in acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo.

Mutations of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPAmu) are found in 10-15% of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. Double-mutated CEBPA (CEBPAdm) is associated with a favorable prognosis; however, single-mutated CEBPA (CEBPAsm) does not appear to improve prognosis. We investigated the CEBPAmu for prognosis in 1028 AML patients, registered in the Multi-center Collaborative Program for Gene Sequencing of Japanese AML. Read More

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Heterodimer formed by ROC8 and ROC5 modulates leaf rolling in rice.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Institute of Food Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China.

Moderately rolled leaf is one of the target traits of the ideal plant architecture in rice breeding. Many genes, including homeodomain leucine zipper IV transcription factors ROC5 and ROC8, regulating rice leaf rolling have been cloned and functionally analysed. However, the molecular mechanism by which these genes modulate leaf-rolling remains largely elusive. Read More

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Efficient intracellular delivery of proteins by a multifunctional chimaeric peptide in vitro and in vivo.

Nat Commun 2021 08 26;12(1):5131. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Centers of Biological Products, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Protein delivery with cell-penetrating peptide is opening up the possibility of using targets inside cells for therapeutic or biological applications; however, cell-penetrating peptide-mediated protein delivery commonly suffers from ineffective endosomal escape and low tolerance in serum, thereby limiting in vivo efficacy. Here, we present an intracellular protein delivery system consisting of four modules in series: cell-penetrating peptide, pH-dependent membrane active peptide, endosome-specific protease sites and a leucine zipper. This system exhibits enhanced delivery efficiency and serum tolerance, depending on proteolytic cleavage-facilitated endosomal escape and leucine zipper-based dimerisation. Read More

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LZTFL1 mediates phototaxis via controlling BBSome recruitment to the basal body and its reassembly at the ciliary tip.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(35)

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Institute of Health Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, People's Republic of China;

Many G protein-coupled receptors and other signaling proteins localize to the ciliary membrane for regulating diverse cellular processes. The BBSome composed of multiple Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins is an intraflagellar transport (IFT) cargo adaptor essential for sorting signaling proteins in and/or out of cilia via IFT. Leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1 (LZTFL1) protein mediates ciliary signaling by controlling BBSome ciliary content, reflecting how LZTFL1 mutations could cause BBS. Read More

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Genome-Wide Identification, Expansion Mechanism and Expression Profiling Analysis of   Gene Family in Gramineae Crops.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 15;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 15.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Engineering Research Center for Plant Biotechnology and Germplasm Utilization of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

The gene family encodes a typical transcription factor containing a noncanonical Leucine (Leu-)-zipper motif that plays an essential role in regulating plant growth and development, as well as responding to various stresses. However, limited information on the gene family is available in the case of the Gramineae crops. Here, 125 genes from nine Gramineae crops species were phylogenetically classified into four clades using bioinformatics analysis. Read More

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Role of Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells (NFAT) Pathway in Regulating Autophagy and Inflammation in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 12;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors are substrates of calcineurin and play an important role in integrating Ca signaling with a variety of cellular functions. Of the five NFAT proteins (NFAT1-5), NFAT1-4 are subject to dephosphorylation and activation by calcineurin, a Ca-calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. Increased levels of intracellular Ca activates calcineurin, which in turn dephosphorylates and promotes nuclear translocation of NFAT. Read More

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Phenolics-Rich Extracts of Dietary Plants as Regulators of Fructose Uptake in Caco-2 Cells via GLUT5 Involvement.

Molecules 2021 Aug 5;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Molecular and Industrial Biotechnology, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 2/22, 90-537 Łódź, Poland.

The latest data link the chronic consumption of large amounts of fructose present in food with the generation of hypertension and disturbances in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which promote the development of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. This effect is possible after fructose is absorbed by the small intestine cells and, to a lesser extent, by hepatocytes. Fructose transport is dependent on proteins from the family of glucose transporters (GLUTs), among which GLUT5 selectively absorbs fructose from the intestine. Read More

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Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper (GILZ) in Cardiovascular Health and Disease.

Cells 2021 Aug 21;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Section of Pharmacology, University of Perugia, 06156 Perugia, Italy.

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential in regulating functions and homeostasis in many biological systems and are extensively used to treat a variety of conditions associated with immune/inflammatory processes. GCs are among the most powerful drugs for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but their long-term usage is limited by severe adverse effects. For this reason, to envision new therapies devoid of typical GC side effects, research has focused on expanding the knowledge of cellular and molecular effects of GCs. Read More

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Updates on the Role of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) and ABSCISIC ACID-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTORs (ABFs) in ABA Signaling in Different Developmental Stages in Plants.

Cells 2021 Aug 5;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland.

The core abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway consists of receptors, phosphatases, kinases and transcription factors, among them ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) and ABRE BINDING FACTORs/ABRE-BINDING PROTEINs (ABFs/AREBs), which belong to the BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER (bZIP) family and control expression of stress-responsive genes. ABI5 is mostly active in seeds and prevents germination and post-germinative growth under unfavorable conditions. The activity of ABI5 is controlled at transcriptional and protein levels, depending on numerous regulators, including components of other phytohormonal pathways. Read More

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HD-ZIP Gene Family: Potential Roles in Improving Plant Growth and Regulating Stress-Responsive Mechanisms in Plants.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Aug 17;12(8). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt.

Exploring the molecular foundation of the gene-regulatory systems underlying agronomic parameters or/and plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses is crucial for crop improvement. Thus, transcription factors, which alone or in combination directly regulated the targeted gene expression levels, are appropriate players for enlightening agronomic parameters through genetic engineering. In this regard, homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) genes family concerned with enlightening plant growth and tolerance to environmental stresses are considered key players for crop improvement. Read More

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Genetic in situ engineering of myeloid regulatory cells controls inflammation in autoimmunity.

J Control Release 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA; Department of Bioengineering and Molecular Engineering & Sciences Institute, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, WA, USA. Electronic address:

The ability of myeloid regulatory cells (MRCs) to control immune responses and to promote tolerance has prompted enormous interest in exploiting them therapeutically to treat inflammation, autoimmunity, or to improve outcomes in transplantation. While immunomodulatory small-molecule compounds and antibodies have provided relief for some patients, the dosing entails high systemic drug exposures and thus increased risk of off-target adverse effects. More recently, MRC-based cell-therapy products have entered clinical testing for tolerance induction. Read More

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