1,684 results match your criteria leptospirosis patients


Predictors of severe leptospirosis: a multicentre observational study from Central Malaysia.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Oct 19;21(1):1081. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging disease with vast clinical presentations, that ranges from subclinical or mild to severe and fatal outcomes. Leptospirosis can be managed well if diagnosed earlier, however, similar clinical presentations by several other febrile illnesses or co-infections, and laboratory diagnostic challenges due to the biphasic nature of the illness, often result in mis- or underdiagnosis, thereby lead to severe illness. Identification of clinical predictors for the severe form of the disease plays a crucial role in reducing disease complication and mortality. Read More

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October 2021

The Applicability of Commonly Used Severity of Illness Scores to Tropical Infections in Australia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Medicine, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

Many patients with leptospirosis, melioidosis, and rickettsial infection require intensive care unit (ICU) admission in tropical Australia every year. The multi-organ dysfunction associated with these infections results in significantly elevated severity of illness (SOI) scores. However, the accuracy of these SOI scores in predicting death from these tropical infections is incompletely defined. Read More

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October 2021

Comparative genome characterization of Leptospira interrogans from mild and severe leptospirosis patients.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e31. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. In Thailand, Leptospira interrogans is a major cause of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis patients present with a wide range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, mild infections to severe illness involving organ failure. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of a genus-specific rGroEL IgM-ELISA and commercial ELISA kits during the course of leptospirosis in Thailand.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 5;11(1):19785. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Helminthology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In the present study, we developed a genus-specific rGroEL IgM-ELISA assay for use in screening diagnosis of suspected leptospirosis among acute undifferentiated febrile illness patients during acute fever. The diagnostic accuracies of the rGroEL IgM-ELISA, commercial Panbio IgM-ELISA, and Virion-Serion Classic IgG-ELISA were evaluated using 133 Thai leptospirosis sera and 210 controls. Sensitivities were 91. Read More

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October 2021

Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage in the Era of COVID-19.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2021 24;2021:8800500. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Infectious Disease, Sanford USD Medical Center, Sioux Falla, SD, USA.

Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) can occur after infection with Hantavirus which can occur by inhaling aerosolized rodent urine, feces, and saliva contaminated with the virus. It presents with the rapid development of pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, and cardiogenic shock with the hallmark being microvascular leakage. We report a patient with a history of alcohol abuse and recent exposure to mice and sick kittens who presented with cough with sputum production, shortness of breath, orthopnea, and new-onset lower extremity edema. Read More

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September 2021

Identification and validation of circulating miRNAs as potential new biomarkers for severe liver disease in patients with leptospirosis.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(9):e0257805. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Center of Excellence in Hepatitis and Liver Cancer, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Leptospirosis, a global zoonotic infectious disease, has various clinical manifestations ranging from mild self-limiting illness to life-threatening with multi-organ damage, including liver involvement. This study was aimed at identifying circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel biomarkers for predicting severe liver involvement in patients with leptospirosis.

Methods: In a discovery set, 12 serum samples of patients with anicteric and icteric leptospirosis at initial clinical presentation were used for miRNA profiling by a NanoString nCounter miRNA assay. Read More

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September 2021

Seroprevalence trends of Scrub typhus among the febrile patients of Northern India: A prospective cross-sectional study.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Jul 30;10(7):2552-2557. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Microbiology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, U.P, India.

Background: Rickettsial infections remain one of the most neglected and underdiagnosed tropical diseases in the developing countries. Scrub typhus can prove to an important diagnosis in pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) patients and is transmitted by a species of trombiculid mites ("chiggers"). The disease leads to a plethora of symptoms like fever, rash, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, thrombocytopenia, etc. Read More

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Association Between Severity of Leptospirosis and Subsequent Major Autoimmune Diseases: A Nationwide Observational Cohort Study.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:721752. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Introduction: Infections play a role in autoimmune diseases (AD). Leptospirosis has been linked to the trigger of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Objective: To investigate subsequent risk of major AD in hospitalized Taiwanese for Leptospirosis. Read More

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September 2021

Evolution of Public Health Prevention of Leptospirosis in a One Health Perspective: The Example of Mahasarakham Province (Thailand).

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Sep 17;6(3). Epub 2021 Sep 17.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE (Animals, Health, Territories, Risks and Ecosystems), F-34398 Montpellier, France.

Leptospirosis is an endemic disease with moderate to high incidence in Mahasarakham province, Thailand. The present study was designed to assess the policy implementation mission regarding leptospirosis prevention and control from the national level to the local administrative levels, through a One Health perspective. A qualitative study was conducted, using documentation review, individual in-depth interviews with public health officers, local government officers, livestock officers who developed policy implementation tools or have responsibilities in leptospirosis prevention and control. Read More

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September 2021

Leptospirosis in pregnancy: A systematic review.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Sep 14;15(9):e0009747. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Leptospirosis is a leading zoonotic disease worldwide with more than 1 million cases in the general population per year. With leptospirosis being an emerging infectious disease and as the world's environment changes with more floods and environmental disasters, the burden of leptospirosis is expected to increase. The objectives of the systematic review were to explore how leptospirosis affects pregnancy, its burden in this population, its effects on maternal and fetal outcomes and the evidence base surrounding treatment options. Read More

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September 2021

Leptospirosis and Coinfection: Should We Be Concerned?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 6;18(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia.

Pathogenic is the causative agent of leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease affecting animals and humans worldwide. The risk of host infection following interaction with environmental sources depends on the ability of to persist, survive, and infect the new host to continue the transmission chain. may coexist with other pathogens, thus providing a suitable condition for the development of other pathogens, resulting in multi-pathogen infection in humans. Read More

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September 2021

Factors Affecting Maternal Outcome in Urban Setting (FAMOUS)-ICU Experience.

J Assoc Physicians India 2021 Jun;69(6):11-12

Professor and Head, Department of Medicine, LTM Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra.

Background: Pregnant women in India are at higher risk of dying as compared to middle to high income countries. Deaths can be prevented if risk factors are identified, critical illness is diagnosed early and timely care is provided. The present research was undertaken to study the clinical profile and factors affecting the outcome of pregnant and postpartum patients in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU). Read More

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Both Full-Length and Protease-Cleaved Products of Osteopontin Are Elevated in Infectious Diseases.

Biomedicines 2021 Aug 13;9(8). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Animal Pharmaceutical Science, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Kyusyu University of Health and Welfare, Nobeoka 882-8508, Japan.

Circulating full-length osteopontin (FL-OPN) is elevated in plasma from patients with various infectious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia, (TB), hepatitis virus infection, leptospirosis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), AIDS/TB, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Proteolysis of OPN by thrombin, matrix metalloproteases, caspase 8/3, cathepsin D, plasmin, and enterokinase generates various cleaved OPNs with a variety of bioactivities by binding to different target cells. Moreover, OPN is susceptible to gradual proteolysis. Read More

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Seropositivity for dengue and IgM among patients with acute febrile illness: an indicator of co-infection?

Germs 2021 Jun 2;11(2):155-162. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Dr, MBBS, MD, Professor, Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, 575001, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: Presentation of febrile illness with nonspecific features, overlapping manifestations of dengue and leptospirosis, limited laboratory diagnostic tests, make the clinical diagnosis of pyrexia a challenge. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and dengue IgM co-infection among acute febrile illness patients.

Methods: This is a retrospective hospital-based study which included patient data collected from June 2016 to May 2017. Read More

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Longitudinal analysis to characterize classes and subclasses of antibody responses to recombinant receptor-binding protein (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients in Thailand.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(8):e0255796. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Serological assays to detect antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might contribute to confirming the suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients not detected with molecular assays. Human antibodies that target the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-binding domain of the viral spike protein are a target for serodiagnosis and therapeutics. This study aimed to characterize the classes and subclasses of antibody responses to a recombinant receptor-binding protein (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients and investigated the reactivity of these antibodies in patients with other tropical infections and healthy individuals in Thailand. Read More

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Laboratory Diagnosis of Tropical Infections.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 May;25(Suppl 2):S122-S126

Department of Microbiology, PD Hinduja Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Highlights: (1) Blood culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis of bacterial infections. (2) Bone marrow culture is more sensitive than blood culture even in patients with enteric fever receiving antibiotics. (3) Microscopic agglutination test is considered the gold standard for diagnosing leptospirosis; however, now IgM ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are more frequently used for diagnosis. Read More

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An evaluation of diagnostic tests in a case series of suspected leptospirosis patients seen in primary care.

N Z Med J 2021 Jul 30;134(1539):33-43. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Professor of Veterinary Public Health, Molecular Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory, School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North.

Aims: This study describes 47 presentations of suspected leptospirosis in general practice in New Zealand. Our primary aim was to assess the laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis in these patients, by comparing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and culture results.

Methods: Patients suspected of leptospirosis were recruited from general practices in the Waikato (n=17) and Wairoa (n=30) between August 2011 and June 2015. Read More

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Clinical Features and Severity of Leptospirosis Cases Reported in the Hawke's Bay Region of New Zealand.

J Trop Med 2021 6;2021:5567081. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Tropical and Infectious Diseases Unit, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust, Liverpool, UK.

Aims: To record demographics, symptoms, signs, and laboratory features of confirmed leptospirosis cases in the Hawke's Bay area of New Zealand to aid clinicians in diagnosis and recognition of severity.

Methods: Review of suspected leptospirosis cases referred to the reference laboratory from hospitals in the Hawke's Bay region between March 2003 and March 2012. Inclusion criteria were IgM positivity and diagnosis confirmed with either polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Read More

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Ocular leptospirosis in four patients: A diagnostic dilemma.

Med J Malaysia 2021 07;76(4):569-572

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Department of Ophthalmology, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is caused by the pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The infection occurs worldwide and is particularly more common in the tropics. However, it is becoming a neglected reemerging global health disease due to rapid urbanisation. Read More

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Prevalence of Malaria and Leptospirosis Co-Infection among Febrile Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Jul 3;6(3). Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak University, Tha Sala, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80161, Thailand.

Malaria and leptospirosis are important cosmopolitan infections that have emerged with overlapping geographic distribution, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Therefore, co-infection with malaria and leptospirosis may occur in overlapping areas. The present study aimed to quantify the prevalence of malaria and leptospirosis co-infection among febrile patients. Read More

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The role of leptospiremia and specific immune response in severe leptospirosis.

Sci Rep 2021 07 16;11(1):14630. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Excellence Center for Critical Care Nephrology, Thai Red Cross Society, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, 1873, Rama 4 Rd., Lumphini, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Leptospirosis can cause a high mortality rate, especially in severe cases. This multicenter cross-sectional study aimed to examine both host and pathogen factors that might contribute to the disease severity. A total of 217 leptospirosis patients were recruited and divided into two groups of non-severe and severe. Read More

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Evaluation of the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine on accelerating the recovery of renal failure in patients with leptospirosis, a randomized clinical trial study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Jul 25;67:102518. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Limited studies have been conducted on patients with renal function recovery regarding severe leptospirosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in accelerating the reduction of serum creatinine in patients with leptospirosis.

Patients And Methods: This is a clinical trial study involving 64 patients with leptospirosis, with microscopic agglutination tests used to confirm the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. Read More

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Seroprevalence of among patients with leptospirosis in northern Iran: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

J Helminthol 2021 Jul 12;95:e34. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Strongyloidiasis and leptospirosis are neglected tropical diseases that have affected many countries across the world. In this study, we evaluated the seroprevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis among patients with leptospirosis in northern Iran. We evaluated 156 laboratory- or clinically confirmed leptospirosis cases. Read More

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Study protocol: epidemiological and clinical characteristics of acute viral hepatitis in Brazilian health services.

BMJ Open 2021 07 9;11(7):e045852. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Laboratório de Patologia Clínica e de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Introduction: Acute viral hepatitis is a disease of great clinical importance. This study proposes actions to better characterise cases of acute hepatitis in Brazil and to provide relevant information to institutionalised health policies within the Unified Health System. Available data on acute hepatitis in Brazil need to be re-evaluated regarding the different hepatotropic agent (hepatitis A to E virus) frequencies, as well as other agents that can cause similar clinical conditions, such as Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2(HSV1, HSV2), Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Human Herpes Virus 6 and 7 (HHV6, HHV7), arbovirus (yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, Zika), parvovirus B19, adenovirus, parechovirus, enterovirus, HIV, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and syphilis, in addition to autoimmune hepatitis. Read More

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Pattern of infectious diseases in northern Iran: An approach to internal medicine management.

Caspian J Intern Med 2021 Apr;12(3):275-282

Hospital Administration Research Center, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran.

Background: Despite the development of their prevention and treatment, infectious diseases cause high mortality, many disabilities and inadequate living conditions worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of infectious diseases in northern Iran with an approach to internal medicine management.

Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted in 2019 on all 7095 infectious diseases patient records that referred to Ghaemshahr Razi Hospital, Mazandaran Province, Iran during 2012-2018. Read More

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Regional Rodent-Borne Infectious Diseases in North America: What Wilderness Medicine Providers Need to Know.

Authors:
James H Diaz

Wilderness Environ Med 2021 Sep 30;32(3):365-376. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

LSU School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana. Electronic address:

Rodents can transmit infectious diseases directly to humans and other animals via bites and exposure to infectious salivary aerosols and excreta. Arthropods infected while blood-feeding on rodents can also transmit rodent-borne pathogens indirectly to humans and animals. Environmental events, such as wet winters, cooler summers, heavy rains, and flooding, have precipitated regional rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks; these outbreaks are now increasing with climate change. Read More

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September 2021

Leptospirosis and rickettsiosis, a diagnostic challenge for febrile syndrome in endemic areas

Biomedica 2021 06 29;41(2):208-217. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas, Escuela de Graduados, Universidad CES, Medellín, Colombia.

This is the case of a 50-year-old male from the region of Urabá, Colombia, with a mixed infection by Rickettsia rickettsii and Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni ST78 and negative test for malaria and dengue fever. The patient presented with febrile syndrome and was unresponsive to systemic antibiotic treatment, who finally died in the intensive care unit. We established the postmortem diagnosis through molecular typification of the two etiological agents. Read More

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Ending the Neglect of Treatable Bacterial Zoonoses Responsible for Non-Malaria Fevers.

Yale J Biol Med 2021 Jun 30;94(2):351-360. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Institut Pasteur, Unité Biologie des Spirochètes, Paris, France.

Bacterial zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis, Q fever, melioidosis, spotted fever group rickettsioses, and brucellosis are increasingly recognized causes of non-malaria acute fevers. However, though readily treatable with antibiotics, these diseases are commonly misdiagnosed resulting in poor outcomes in patients. There is a considerable deficit in the understanding of basic aspects of the epidemiology of these neglected diseases and diagnostic tests for these zoonotic bacterial pathogens are not always available in resource-poor settings. Read More

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Optimizing the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) panel for the diagnosis of Leptospirosis in a low resource, hyper-endemic setting with varied microgeographic variation in reactivity.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 07 1;15(7):e0009565. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Leptospirosis Research Laboratory, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Saliyapura, Sri Lanka.

The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is the standard serological reference test for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, despite being a technically demanding and laborious procedure. The use of a locally optimised MAT panel is considered essential for proper performance and interpretation of results. This paper describes the procedure of selecting such an optimised panel for Sri Lanka, a country hyper-endemic for leptospirosis. Read More

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Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases of acute Chagas disease in the Peruvian Amazon basin, 2009-2016.

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2021 Jan-Mar;38(1):70-76. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Centro de Salud Santa Rosa, Red de Salud San Francisco, Dirección Regional de Salud Ayacucho, Ayacucho, Perú.

Acute Chagas disease (ACD) cases are reported sporadically in Peru. In this report we describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of eight new ACD cases detected by the surveillance system in the Amazon basin, between 2009 and 2016. The average age was 12,7 ±13. Read More

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