3,030 results match your criteria leptin ghrelin


Mouse Spexin: (II) Functional Role as a Satiety Factor inhibiting Food Intake by Regulatory Actions Within the Hypothalamus.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 2;12:681647. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Spexin (SPX) is a pleiotropic peptide with highly conserved protein sequence from fish to mammals and its biological actions are mediated by GalR2/GalR3 receptors expressed in target tissues. Recently, SPX has been confirmed to be a novel satiety factor in fish species but whether the peptide has a similar function in mammals is still unclear. Using the mouse as a model, the functional role of SPX in feeding control and the mechanisms involved were investigated. Read More

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[Pathogenetic mechanisms for the development of hematological disorders in induced fatty liver disease in Wistar rats and assessment of the regulatory effects of carnosine and α-lipoic acid].

Vopr Pitan 2021;90(3):6-19. Epub 2021 May 17.

Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, 109240, Moscow, Russian Federation.

The study of the relationship between hematopoiesis and metabolism is now particularly relevant in view of the high incidence of alimentary dependent diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this regard, pathogenetic factors of this disease development are studied actively in order to choose adequate drug therapy and usage of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties. of the study was to study the pathogenetic relationship of hematological disorders and imbalance of growth factors, leptin and ghrelin in male Wistar rats in the model of the initial stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development and to assess the regulatory effect of minor bioactive substances - carnosine and α-lipoic acid. Read More

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Dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular Axis due to Energy Deficit.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Freemasons Centre for Male Health and Well-being, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Context: While gonadal axis dysregulation due to energy deficit is well recognised in women, the effects of energy deficit on the male gonadal axis have received much less attention.

Evidence Acquisition: To identify relevant articles, we conducted PubMed searches from inception to May 2021.

Evidence Synthesis: Case series and mechanistic studies demonstrate that energy deficit (both acutely over days or chronically over months) either due to inadequate energy intake and/or excessive energy expenditure can lower serum testosterone concentration as a result of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis dysregulation in men. Read More

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Effects of dietary fibre on metabolism and performance in sows.

Pol J Vet Sci 2021 Jun;24(2):271-279

Clinic of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikalon 224, Karditsa, 43100, Greece.

The etiology of Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) includes stress οn preparturition and constipation associated with low water intake or low fiber intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a raw crude fibre concentrate (Arbocel®) on sow's metabolism and performance. 100 sows from a farm suffering from PDS, were divided into two groups, with equal distribu- tion of their parity (1 to 5 parity): a) T1 group (control group): 50 sows were fed with regular gestation feed (GF), pre-farrowing feed (PFF), and lactation feed (LF), b) T2 group: 50 sows were fed with regular GF, PFF and LF supplemented with topdress Arbocel® from 104th day of gestation until 7th day of lactation). Read More

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Associations between ghrelin and leptin and neural food cue reactivity in a fasted and sated state.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 7;240:118374. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Brain Center, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Food cue exposure can trigger eating. Food cue reactivity (FCR) is a conditioned response to food cues and includes physiological responses and activation of reward-related brain areas. FCR can be affected by hunger and weight status. Read More

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Eat, sleep, repeat - endocrine regulation of behavioural circadian rhythms.

FEBS J 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Centre of Brain, Behavior and Metabolism, Institute of Neurobiology, University of Lübeck, Germany.

The adaptation of organisms to a rhythmic environment is mediated by an internal timing system termed the circadian clock. In mammals, molecular clocks are found in all tissues and organs. This circadian clock network regulates the release of many hormones, which in turn influence some of the most vital behavioural functions. Read More

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Arcuate nucleus, median eminence, and hypophysial pars tuberalis.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;180:227-251

Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The arcuate nucleus (ARC) is located in the mediobasal hypothalamus and forms a morphological and functional entity with the median eminence (ME), the ARC-ME. The ARC comprises several distinct types of neurons controlling prolactin release, food intake, and metabolism as well as reproduction and onset of puberty. The ME lacks a blood-brain barrier and provides an entry for peripheral signals (nutrients, leptin, ghrelin). Read More

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January 2021

Caloric Restriction Prevents Metabolic Dysfunction and the Changes in Hypothalamic Neuropeptides Associated with Obesity Independently of Dietary Fat Content in Rats.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 22;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Physiology, University of Navarra, IdiSNA, 31008 Pamplona, Spain.

Energy restriction is a first therapy in the treatment of obesity, but the underlying biological mechanisms have not been completely clarified. We analyzed the effects of restriction of high-fat diet (HFD) on weight loss, circulating gut hormone levels and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats ( = 40) were randomly distributed into four groups: two fed ad libitum a normal diet (ND) (N group) or a HFD (H group) and two subjected to a 25% caloric restriction of ND (NR group) or HFD (HR group) for 9 weeks. Read More

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Prognostic significance of cachexia in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with pembrolizumab.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Background: Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by weight loss leading to immune dysfunction that is commonly observed in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined the impact of cachexia on the prognosis of patients with advanced NSCLC receiving pembrolizumab and evaluated whether the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia affects the clinical outcome.

Patients And Methods: Consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC treated with pembrolizumab were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Read More

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Plasma levels of ghrelin and GLP-1, but not leptin or amylin, respond to a psychosocial stressor in women and men.

Horm Behav 2021 Jun 23;134:105017. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA; Center for Ingestive Behavior Research, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA.

It is well known that stress elevates intake of total calories and shifts food preference toward unhealthy food choices. There is, however, little known on the physiological mechanisms that drive stress-induced hyperphagia. In order to better understand how to reduce stress eating, it is critical to identify mechanisms in humans that are points of convergence between stress and eating. Read More

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Effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors on appetite markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 18;31(8):2507-2511. Epub 2021 May 18.

High Point University Fred Wilson School of Pharmacy, One University Parkway, High Point, NC, 27268, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Glycosuria induced by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors leads to weight loss and improved diabetes control, but a significant disparity exists between observed and expected weight loss with these medications, hindering clinical effects. This study investigated whether this discrepancy could be explained by compensatory increases in appetite and associated alterations in appetite-regulating hormones.

Methods And Results: This was a prospective single-center observational pilot study. Read More

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ApoA2-256T > C polymorphism interacts with Healthy Eating Index, Dietary Quality Index-International and Dietary Phytochemical Index to affect biochemical markers among type 2 diabetic patients.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 25:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Several investigations revealed the association between ApoA2 concentration and lipid profile, inflammation and oxidative stress markers. Dietary habits also play a major role in the health status of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the interaction of ApoA2-256T > C with dietary indexes on ghrelin and leptin hormones together with biochemical markers among individuals with T2DM. Read More

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The endocannabinoid system is modulated in reward and homeostatic brain regions following diet-induced obesity in rats: a cluster analysis approach.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives Et Adaptatives (LNCA), UMR7364, Université́ de Strasbourg, CNRS, 12 rue Goethe, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Objectives: Increased availability of high-calorie palatable food in most countries has resulted in overconsumption of these foods, suggesting that excessive eating is driven by pleasure, rather than metabolic need. The behavior contributes to the rise in eating disorders, obesity, and associated pathologies like diabetes, cardiac disease, and cancers. The mesocorticolimbic dopamine and homeostatic circuits are interconnected and play a central role in palatable food intake. Read More

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Effect of left or right gastric artery interventional embolization on obesity and ghrelin/leptin expression in pigs.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):5444-5451. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Central South University, Xiangya School of Medicine Affiliated Haikou Hospital Haikou, Hainan Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of left or right gastric artery interventional embolization on obesity and ghrelin/leptin expression in pigs.

Methods: Thirty-two female Wuzhishan pigs aged 3-4 months were randomly divided into four groups, with eight pigs in each group: obesity + left gastric artery embolization group, obesity + right gastric artery embolization group, obesity + sham surgery group and healthy control group. The body weight and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) before the operation, one month and three months after the operation, and the gastric pathology three months after the operation were compared. Read More

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Effect of left gastric artery embolization on obesity and ghrelin/leptin levels in pigs.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):5368-5373. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Central South University, Xiangya School of Medicine Affiliated Haikou Hospital Haikou, Hainan Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the influence of left gastric artery embolization (LGAE) on obesity and Ghrelin/Leptin levels in pigs.

Methods: Healthy female Wuzhishan piglets aged 3-4 months were allocated into obesity + LGAE group, obesity group, control group (fed with a normal diet; n=8 for each group). Body weight, serum Ghrelin, Leptin, glucose and insulin levels were compared before surgery, 1 month and 3 months after surgery. Read More

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Adverse Effects of Selected Markers on the Metabolic and Endocrine Profiles of Obese Women With and Without PCOS.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 26;12:665446. Epub 2021 May 26.

Zoology Department, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of the present study, is to investigate the influence of obesity, with and without polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), on the levels of kisspeptin, vitamin D (Vit D), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and to explore the relationship between these parameters and endocrine and metabolic variables. The study group included 126 obese Saudi females. Of these 63 were suffering from PCOS while the rest were normo-ovulatory obese women (non-PCOS obese). Read More

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Gut hormones, adipokines, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines/markers in loss of control eating: A scoping review.

Appetite 2021 Jun 8;166:105442. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Nursing, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA. Electronic address:

Loss of control (LOC) eating is the defining feature of binge-eating disorder, and it has particular relevance for bariatric patients. The biomarkers of LOC eating are unclear; however, gut hormones (i.e. Read More

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The role of age in the physiological adaptations and psychological responses in bikini-physique competitor contest preparation: a case series.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 Jun 9;18(1):45. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Kinesiology, Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry Lab, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 78412, USA.

The increased popularity of the bikini-physique competitions has not translated to greater research identifying the influence of age on adaptations during contest preparation. The purpose of this case series was to observe how age may influence the adaptations normally seen during preparation and the exploration of newer protocols to address adaptations more relative to the judging standards. Over a 16-week pre-contest preparation, a 32-y bikini competitor (BC) and 44-y master's bikini competitor (MBC) visited the laboratory bi-weekly to observe changes in body fat mass (BF), lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral density (BMD), total body water (TBW); exploratory measures of deltoid cross-sectional area (Delt), gluteus maximus muscle thickness (GM), and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness (SAT); reproductive hormones estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and energy balance hormones triiodothyronine (T), leptin and ghrelin; hydration status during contest preparation and the week of competition; resting metabolic rate (RMR); psychometric data related to perceived anxiety, stress, and body image were assessed. Read More

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Shift working and cardiovascular health.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Jun 8:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Adequate sleep is an important component of cardiovascular health. Due to circadian misalignment and irregular shifts, inadequate sleep is common in shift workers. Adverse consequences include daytime sleepiness, decreased cognitive performance, increased sympathetic tone, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, and altered leptin and ghrelin levels. Read More

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Chronic stress accelerates the process of gastric precancerous lesions in rats.

J Cancer 2021 13;12(14):4121-4133. Epub 2021 May 13.

Science and Technology Innovation Center, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Gastrointestinal cancers account for 20% of all deaths worldwide. Gastric cancer (GC) patients are susceptible to psychological change, especially depression which is commonly induced by chronic stress. Gastric precancerous lesions (GPL) is an important prodromal stage in the occurrence of gastric cancer. Read More

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Eating behavior as a new frontier in memory research.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Aug 2;127:795-807. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

University of California, Los Angeles, United States.

The study of memory is commonly associated with neuroscience, aging, education, and eyewitness testimony. Here we discuss how eating behavior is also heavily intertwined-and yet considerably understudied in its relation to memory processes. Both are influenced by similar neuroendocrine signals (e. Read More

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Carbohydrate Restriction with or without Exercise Training Improves Blood Pressure and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Women.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 May 27;9(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Physical Education and Sports, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao 999078, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week low-carbohydrate diet (LC) with or without exercise training on cardiometabolic health-related profiles in overweight/obese women.

Methods: Fifty overweight/obese Chinese women (age: 22.2 ± 3. Read More

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Fermented Diet Liquid Feeding Improves Growth Performance and Intestinal Function of Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 19;11(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Accumulating evidences demonstrate that fermented feed and liquid feeding exerted a great beneficial influence on growth performance and health in the pig industry. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented liquid feeding on the growth performance and intestinal function of pigs. Two hundred and eighty-eight 27-day-old weaned piglets (8. Read More

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A Negative Energy Balance Is Associated with Metabolic Dysfunctions in the Hypothalamus of a Humanized Preclinical Model of Alzheimer's Disease, the 5XFAD Mouse.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 20;22(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

Instituto de investigación Biomédica de Málaga-IBIMA, 29010 Málaga, Spain.

Increasing evidence links metabolic disorders with neurodegenerative processes including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Late AD is associated with amyloid (Aβ) plaque accumulation, neuroinflammation, and central insulin resistance. Here, a humanized AD model, the 5xFAD mouse model, was used to further explore food intake, energy expenditure, neuroinflammation, and neuroendocrine signaling in the hypothalamus. Read More

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Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Adipose Tissue with Focus on Energy Metabolism.

Cells 2021 May 21;10(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Département de médecine, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC G1V 4G5, Canada.

The endocannabinoid system is involved in a wide range of processes including the control of energy acquisition and expenditure. Endocannabinoids and their receptors are present in the central nervous system but also in peripheral tissues, notably the adipose tissues. The endocannabinoid system interacts with two main hormones regulating appetite, namely leptin and ghrelin. Read More

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Clamping Cortisol and Testosterone Mitigates the Development of Insulin Resistance during Sleep Restriction in Men.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Sleep and Performance Research Center, Washington State University, Spokane, WA.

Context: Sleep loss in men increases cortisol and decreases testosterone, and sleep restriction by 3-4 h/night induces insulin resistance.

Objective: We clamped cortisol and testosterone and determined the effect on insulin resistance.

Design And Setting: Randomized double-blind, in-laboratory crossover study. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Yukgunja-Tang for Patients with Cancer-related Anorexia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial, Pilot Study.

Integr Cancer Ther 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15347354211019107

Daejeon Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The purpose of this study is both to estimate the efficacy and the safety of Yukgunja-tang (YGJT) and to establish evidence for the use of herbal medicines in the management of patients with cancer-related anorexia.

Methods: We enrolled 40 patients with cancer-related anorexia. The enrolled participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: the control group (n = 20), which received nutrition counseling, and the treatment group (n = 20), which received nutrition counseling and was administered YGJT at twice a day for 4 weeks (a total of 56 times @ 3. Read More

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Alzheimer's disease: a step closer to understanding type 3 diabetes in African Americans.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research/Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, 72079, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and the most common cause of adult-onset dementia. Recent results suggest an increased prevalence and severity in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Our understanding of the potential mechanism(s) underlying this ethnicity difference is limited. Read More

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The effect of umbilical cord blood spexin, free 25(OH) vitamin D3 and adipocytokine levels on intrauterine growth and anthropometric measurements in newborns.

Cytokine 2021 Aug 16;144:155578. Epub 2021 May 16.

University of Health Science, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Spexin is a newly described peptide and is known to reduce the uptake of long-chain fatty acids into adipocytes. The serum spexin levels of obese children between the ages of 12-18 are lower. The effect of serum spexin and free 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels on intrauterine development in newborns is unknown. Read More

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ComparativeStudyofCRHMicroinjections Into PVN and CeA Nuclei on Food Intake, Ghrelin, Leptin, and Glucose Levels in Acute Stressed Rats.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2021 Jan-Feb;12(1):133-148. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is involved in stress and energy homeostasis. On the other hand, CRH receptors also exist within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and Central Amygdala (CeA) nuclei. The present study compared the effect of CRH microinjections into PVN and CeA on three consecutive hours and cumulative food intake, internal regulatory factors of food intake, such as serum leptin and ghrelin, as well as blood glucose levels in rats under different acute psychological (Social Stress [SS] and Isolation Stress [IS] group) stresses. Read More

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January 2021