11,323 results match your criteria leptin expression

The effect of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on the fetal compartment.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Mar 24;145:103314. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Departamento de Obstetrícia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-UNIFESP), Rua Pedro de Toledo 669, 9 andar - 04939032, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

In indicated preterm births such a Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), little is known about the role of the amnion membranes. Investigating the role of amnion membrane inflammation in response GDM may suggest novel pathophysiologic mechanisms. We hypothesize that increased GDM inflammatory mediators may weaken the amnion membrane predisposing them to infection. Read More

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Dietary Selenium Requirement for the Prevention of Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance in Middle-Aged Mice.

J Nutr 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Food Science, Nutrition, and Health Promotion, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA.

Background: Although dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or excess induces type 2 diabetes-like symptoms in mice, suboptimal body Se status usually causes no symptoms but may promote age-related decline in overall health.

Objectives: We sought to determine the dietary Se requirement for protection against type 2 diabetes-like symptoms in mice.

Methods: Thirty mature (aged 4 mo) male C57BL/6J mice were fed a Se-deficient torula yeast AIN-93M diet supplemented with Na2SeO4 in graded concentrations totaling 0. Read More

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Consumption of vitamin A-deficient diet elevates endoplasmic reticulum stress marker and suppresses high fructose-induced orexigenic gene expression in the brain of male Wistar rats.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 8:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Lipid Biochemistry Division, ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Objective: Here, we assessed the impact of vitamin A deficiency (both alone and in combination with fructose) on the retinol status, phospholipids fatty acid composition and pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and energy homeostasis of the brain. For this purpose, weanling male Wistar rats were divided into four groups consisting of 8 rats each, except 16 for the second group and they received one of the following diets; control, vitamin A-deficient (VAD), high fructose (HFr) and HFr with VAD for 16 weeks, except half of the VAD diet-fed rats, were shifted to HFr diet, after 8 weeks period.

Results: The retinol content of the whole brain remained comparable across the groups, despite a significant reduction in the plasma at the end of VAD diet feeding. Read More

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Hormonal fine-tuning of clock in decidual region of mouse placenta by dopamine, melatonin, insulin, leptin and ghrelin.

Placenta 2021 Mar 27;108:55-63. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Biological Rhythms, Institute of Physiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Introduction: The maternal part of the rodent placenta harbors a circadian clock which robustly responds to glucocorticoids, however, its sensitivity to other hormones has not been elucidated. In this study, we tested five selected hormones (dopamine, melatonin, insulin, leptin and ghrelin) for their effectiveness to affect the clock in decidual region of mouse placenta in vitro.

Methods: We administered the hormones or corresponding vehicles at various time points over 24 h to organotypic placental explants of mPer2 mice containing the decidua basalis (DB) region and monitored their effects on amplitude, period, median expression level (mesor) and phase of PER2-driven bioluminescence rhythms. Read More

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Effects of carotid baroreceptor stimulation on aortic remodeling in obese rats.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuhan 430060, People's Republic of China; Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, People's Republic of China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Cardiology, Wuhan 430060, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: Our previous study found carotid baroreceptor stimulation (CBS) reduces body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, restores abnormal secretion of adipocytokines and inflammation factors, decreases systolic blood pressure (SBP) by inhibiting activation of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in obese rats. In this study, we explore effects of CBS on aortic remodeling in obese rats.

Methods And Results: Rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce obesity and underwent either CBS device implantation and stimulation or sham operation at 8 weeks. Read More

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February 2021

Angiopoietin-Like Growth Factor Involved in Leptin Signaling in the Hypothalamus.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 26;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biochemistry, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon 35015, Korea.

The hypothalamic regulation of appetite governs whole-body energy balance. Satiety is regulated by endocrine factors including leptin, and impaired leptin signaling is associated with obesity. Despite the anorectic effect of leptin through the regulation of the hypothalamic feeding circuit, a distinct downstream mediator of leptin signaling in neuron remains unclear. Read More

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Caspase-Cleaved Keratin 18 Measurements Identified Ongoing Liver Injury after Bariatric Surgery.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 16;10(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, Justus Liebig University, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective treatment option in morbidly obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, worsening or new onset of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis have been observed. Caspase-cleaved keratin 18 (ccK18) has been established as a marker of hepatocyte apoptosis, a key event in NASH development. Read More

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Fucoidan and Fucoxanthin Attenuate Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation of NAFLD through Modulation of Leptin/Adiponectin Axis.

Mar Drugs 2021 Mar 12;19(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 116, Taiwan.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the emerging cause of chronic liver disease globally and lack of approved therapies. Here, we investigated the feasibility of combinatorial effects of low molecular weight fucoidan and high stability fucoxanthin (LMF-HSFx) as a therapeutic approach against NAFLD. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of LMF-HSFx or placebo in 42 NAFLD patients for 24 weeks and related mechanism in high fat diet (HFD) mice model and HepaRG cell line. Read More

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Pseudo-Starvation Driven Energy Expenditure Negatively Affects Ovarian Follicle Development.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 30;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

German Institute of Human Nutrition in Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany.

In the present investigation, we examined whether a change in whole body energy fluxes could affect ovarian follicular development, employing mice ectopically expressing uncoupling protein 1 in skeletal muscle (UCP1-TG). Female UCP1-TG and wild-type (WT) mice were dissected at the age of 12 weeks. Energy intake and expenditure, activity, body weight and length, and body composition were measured. Read More

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Impact of SGLT-2 Inhibition on Cardiometabolic Abnormalities in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 4;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive-age women. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. Women with PCOS have a high prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance (IR), increased blood pressure (BP), and activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). Read More

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Post-Transcriptional Regulation of : A Checkpoint for Metabolic Control of Female Reproduction.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 24;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.

The proper expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) by pituitary gonadotropes is critical for maintaining maximum reproductive capacity. GnRH receptor expression must be tightly regulated in order to maintain the normal pattern of expression through the estrous cycle in rodents, which is believed to be important for interpreting the finely tuned pulses of GnRH from the hypothalamus. Much work has shown that expression is heavily regulated at the level of transcription. Read More

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Leptin Is Associated with Poor Clinical Outcomes and Promotes Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Progression.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 15;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Genomic Medicine Core Laboratory, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou 33305, Taiwan.

Emerging evidence has shown the oncogenic roles of leptin in modulating cancer progression in addition to its original roles. Analyses of transcriptomic data and patients' clinical information have revealed leptin's prognostic significance in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, its biological effects on RCC progression have not yet been explored. Read More

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ROS Modulating Effects of Lingonberry ( L.) Polyphenols on Obese Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 9;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 48 Wojska Polskiego St., 60-627 Poznan, Poland.

Oxidative stress and dysregulated adipocytokine secretion accompanying hypertrophied adipose tissue induce chronic inflammation, which leads to vascular endothelial dysfunction. The present study investigated the ability of anthocyanin (ACN) and non-anthocyanin polyphenol (PP) fractions from lingonberry fruit to mitigate adipose tissue hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This study showed that the PP fraction decreased intracellular ROS generation in hypertrophied adipocytes by enhancing antioxidant enzyme expression () and inhibiting oxidant enzyme expression (, ). Read More

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Melatonin Administration Accelerates Puberty Onset in Mice by Promoting FSH Synthesis.

Molecules 2021 Mar 9;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, National Center for International Research, Department of Hubei Province Engineering Research Center in Buffalo Breeding and Products, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Although melatonin has been extensively studied in animal reproduction, the mechanism of melatonin in puberty remains elusive. This study was designed to explore the effect of intraperitoneal administration of melatonin on puberty onset in female mice. The injection of melatonin into postnatal days 10 mice at a dose of 15 mg/kg accelerated the puberty onset in mice. Read More

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EGCG Inhibits Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation into Adipocytes and Prevents a STAT3-Mediated Paracrine Oncogenic Control of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Invasive Phenotype.

Molecules 2021 Mar 10;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Centre de Recherche CERMO-FC, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada.

Obese subjects have an increased risk of developing triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), in part associated with the chronic low-grade inflammation state. On the other hand, epidemiological data indicates that increased consumption of polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables plays a key role in reducing incidence of some cancer types. Here, we tested whether green tea-derived epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could alter adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into adipocytes, and how this impacts the secretome profile and paracrine regulation of the TNBC invasive phenotype. Read More

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Isolated from Different Hosts Modifies the Intestinal Microbiota and Displays Differential Metabolic and Immunomodulatory Properties in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 21;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, China.

The incidence of obesity, which is closely associated with the gut microbiota and chronic inflammation, has rapidly increased in the past 40 years. Therefore, the probiotic-based modification of the intestinal microbiota composition has been developed as a strategy for the treatment of obesity. In this study, we selected four strains isolated from the feces of newborn and elderly humans to investigate whether supplementation with of various origins could alleviate obesity in mice. Read More

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Cerebral Insulin Bolus Revokes the Changes in Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Induced by Chronic Central Leptin Infusion.

Cells 2021 Mar 6;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Instituto de Investigación La Princesa, E-28009 Madrid, Spain.

Central actions of leptin and insulin on hepatic lipid metabolism can be opposing and the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. Both hormones can modulate the central somatostatinergic system that has an inhibitory effect on growth hormone (GH) expression, which plays an important role in hepatic metabolism. Using a model of chronic central leptin infusion, we evaluated whether an increase in central leptin bioavailability modifies the serum lipid pattern through changes in hepatic lipid metabolism in male rats in response to an increase in central insulin and the possible involvement of the GH axis in these effects. Read More

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Leptin and Cancer: Updated Functional Roles in Carcinogenesis, Therapeutic Niches, and Developments.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 11;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

Leptin is an obesity-associated adipokine that is known to regulate energy metabolism and reproduction and to control appetite via the leptin receptor. Recent work has identified specific cell types other than adipocytes that harbor leptin and leptin receptor expression, particularly in cancers and tumor microenvironments, and characterized the role of this signaling axis in cancer progression. Furthermore, the prognostic significance of leptin in various types of cancer and the ability to noninvasively detect leptin levels in serum samples have attracted attention for potential clinical applications. Read More

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Maternal and Postnatal High Linoleic Acid Diet Impacts Lipid Metabolism in Adult Rat Offspring in a Sex-Specific Manner.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 14;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia.

Linoleic acid (LA), an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is essential for fetal growth and development. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal and postnatal high LA (HLA) diet on plasma FA composition, plasma and hepatic lipids and genes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver of adult offspring. Female rats were fed with low LA (LLA; 1. Read More

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Leptin antagonism inhibits prostate cancer xenograft growth and progression.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

C Nelson, Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre - Queensland, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Translational Research Institute, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Hyperleptinemia is a well-established therapeutic side-effect of drugs inhibiting the androgen axis in prostate cancer (PCa), including main stay androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and androgen targeted therapies (ATT). Given significant crossover between the adipokine hormone signalling of leptin and multiple cancer-promoting hallmark pathways, including growth, proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, metabolism and inflammation, targeting the leptin axis is therapeutically appealing, especially in advanced PCa where current therapies fail to be curative. In this study we uncover leptin as a novel universal target in PCa, and are the first to highlight increased intratumoural leptin and leptin receptor (LEPR) expression in PCa cells and patient tumours exposed to androgen deprivation, as is observed in patient tumours of metastatic and castrate resistant (CRPC) PCa. Read More

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Vitamin D and Obesity: Current Evidence and Controversies.

Curr Obes Rep 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75, Goudi, 11527, Athens, Greece.

Purpose Of Review: Evidence from observational studies suggests that obesity is associated with low vitamin D. As both obesity and hypovitaminosis D present an alarmingly increased prevalence worldwide, there is an intense research interest to clarify all aspects of this association. This review summarizes current evidence from meta-analyses investigating vitamin D status in obesity, including the effects of weight loss and bariatric surgery on vitamin D status and the outcomes of vitamin D supplementation on body weight. Read More

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Ablation of Nampt in AgRP neurons leads to neurodegeneration and impairs fasting- and ghrelin-mediated food intake.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21450

Integrative Metabolism and Environmental Influences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates food intake and whole-body metabolism. NAD regulates multiple cellular processes controlling energy metabolism. Yet, its role in hypothalamic AgRP neurons to control food intake is poorly understood. Read More

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Pancreatic fat cells of humans with type 2 diabetes display reduced adipogenic and lipolytic activity.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD e.V.); Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases of the Helmholtz Center Munich at the Eberhard-KarlsUniversity of Tübingen, Neuherberg; Department of Internal Medicine IV, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nephrology, University Hospital of Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Obesity, especially visceral fat accumulation, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of T2D on the pancreatic fat depot. Pancreatic fat pads from 17 partial pancreatectomized patients (PPP) were collected, pancreatic preadipocytes isolated and in vitro differentiated. Read More

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The characterization of distinct populations of murine skeletal cells that have different roles in B lymphopoiesis.

Blood 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

The University of Melbourne, Australia.

Hematopoiesis is extrinsically controlled by cells of the bone marrow microenvironment, including skeletal lineage cells. The identification and subsequent studies of distinct subpopulations of maturing skeletal cells is currently limited due to a lack of methods to isolate these cells. We found that murine Lineage-CD31-Sca-1-CD51+ cells can be divided into four subpopulations using flow cytometry, based on their expression of the platelet derived growth factor receptors ⍺ and β (PDGFR⍺ and PDGFRβ). Read More

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Changes in serum adipokines during natural extended fasts in female northern elephant seals.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Mar 26:113760. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928.

Adipose tissue is essential to endotherms for thermoregulation and energy storage as well as functioning as an endocrine organ. Adipose derived hormones, or adipokines, regulate metabolism, energy expenditure, reproduction, and immune function in model systems but are less well studied in wildlife. Female northern elephant seals (NES) achieve high adiposity during foraging and then undergo natural fasts up to five weeks long during haul-outs associated with reproduction and molting, resulting in large changes in adipose reserves. Read More

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No evidence for change in expression of and genes in cultured human adipocytes stimulated by myokines and adipokines.

Adipocyte 2021 12;10(1):153-159

Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrodiabetology, Medical University of Łódź and Military Medical Academy Memorial Teaching Hospital of the Medical University of Łódź - Central Veteran Hospital, Łódź, Poland.

TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 proteins play analogous, but not identical role in governing insulin-signalling pathway. Little is known about changes in expression levels of and genes in mammals, including humans. Number of factors were studied, but data remain controversial. Read More

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December 2021

CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signalling deficiency exacerbates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in male mice.

Endocrinology 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Advanced Preventive Medical Sciences Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

The CX3CL1-CX3CR1 system plays an important role in disease progression by regulating inflammation both positively and negatively. We reported previously that C-C chemokine receptor 5, as well as CCR2, promotes obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signalling is involved in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obese mice, via adipose tissue macrophage recruitment and M1/M2 polarization. Read More

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Adipocyte and steroidogenic cell cross-talk in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Hum Reprod Update 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Robinson Research Institute Adelaide Medical School, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: Metabolic and endocrine alterations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affect adipose tissue mass and distribution. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenism, obesity and adipocyte dysfunction. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS drives dysfunctional adipocyte secretion of potentially harmful adipocytokines. Read More

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Regulatory effect of mitoQ on the mtROS-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in leptin-pretreated BEAS-2 cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 May 8;21(5):466. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Discipline of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000, P.R. China.

Obese asthma is a phenotype of asthma whose occurrence is gradually increasing in both adults and children. The majority of studies have demonstrated that obesity is a major risk factor for asthma and the effect of obesity on the lungs is considerable. NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been previously demonstrated to serve a role in obese asthma mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). Read More

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Sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate reduce fat accumulation in mice via modulating appetite and relevant genes.

Nutrition 2021 Feb 12;87-88:111198. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Ya'an, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, three of the most common short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), can be produced when some non-digestible carbohydrates enter the large intestine and undergo bacterial fermentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three SCFAs on appetite regulation and lipid metabolism and to determine the extent that appetite contributes to the beneficial influences of SCFAs.

Methods: In a 35-d study, 48 C57BL/6J male mice were randomly allocated to six groups: control; 5% sodium acetate; 5% sodium propionate; 5% sodium butyrate; pair fed 1; and pair fed 2. Read More

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February 2021