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Phylogeographic Clustering Suggests that Distinct Clades of Salmonella enterica Serovar Mississippi Are Endemic in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

mSphere 2021 Sep 22:e0048521. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Food Science, Cornell Universitygrid.5386.8, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Salmonella enterica serovar Mississippi is the 2nd and 14th leading cause of human clinical salmonellosis in the Australian island state of Tasmania and the United States, respectively. Despite its public health relevance, relatively little is known about this serovar. Comparison of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data of Mississippi isolates with WGS data for 317 additional S. Read More

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September 2021

Sustained Replication of Synthetic Canine Distemper Virus Defective Genomes and .

mSphere 2021 Sep 22:e0053721. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburghgrid.21925.3d School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Defective interfering (DI) genomes restrict viral replication and induce type I interferon. Since DI genomes have been proposed as vaccine adjuvants or therapeutic antiviral agents, it is important to understand their generation, delineate their mechanism of action, develop robust production capacities, assess their safety and longevity, and determine their long-term effects. To address this, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (rCDV) from an entirely synthetic molecular clone designed using the genomic sequence from a clinical isolate obtained from a free-ranging raccoon with distemper. Read More

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September 2021

RAMPART: A phase III multi-arm multi-stage trial of adjuvant checkpoint inhibitors in patients with resected primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at high or intermediate risk of relapse.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Sep 16;108:106482. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, Institute of Clinical Trials & Methodology, 2nd Floor 90 High Holborn, London WC1V 6LJ, UK.

Background: 20-60% of patients with initially locally advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) develop metastatic disease despite optimal surgical excision. Adjuvant strategies have been tested in RCC including cytokines, radiotherapy, hormones and oral tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), with limited success. The predominant global standard-of-care after nephrectomy remains active monitoring. Read More

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September 2021

Joint involvement in Noonan syndrome.A retrospective paediatric descriptive study.

Joint Bone Spine 2021 Sep 14:105270. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Rheumatology Department, CHU Cavale Blanche, Center of Autoimmune Rare Diseases (CERAINO), Brest, France; UMR1227, INSERM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: Noonan syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized mainly by congenital heart disease, occasional intellectual disability, and varied orthopaedic, rheumatological and haematologic anomalies. Despite potentially serious functional consequences, joint involvement has been rarely studied in the literature. Our objective was to perform a retrospective study evaluating the prevalence and characteristics of joint involvement in Noonan syndrome. Read More

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September 2021

A Central Role for Atg5 in Microbiota-Dependent Foxp3 RORγt Treg Cell Preservation to Maintain Intestinal Immune Homeostasis.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:705436. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic pathway that ensures the degradation of intracellular components. The autophagic pathway is regulated by autophagy-related (Atg) proteins that govern formation of double-membraned vesicles called autophagosomes. Autophagy deficiency in regulatory T (Treg) cells leads to increased apoptosis of these cells and to the development of autoimmune disorders, predominantly characterized by intestinal inflammation. Read More

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Metabolic potential of microbial community and distribution mechanism of Staphylococcus species during broad bean paste fermentation.

Food Res Int 2021 Oct 2;148:110533. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; Synergetic Innovation Center of Jiangsu Modern Industrial Fermentation, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

Although the microbial diversity and structure in bean-based fermented foods have been widely studied, systematic studies on functional microbiota and mechanism of community forms in multi-microbial fermentation systems were still lacking. In this work, the metabolic pathway and functional potential of microbial community in broad bean paste (BBP) were investigated by metagenomics approach, and Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Weissella, Aspergillus and Zygosaccharomyces were found to be the potential predominant populations responsible for substrate alteration and flavor biosynthesis. Among them, Staphylococcus was the most abundant and widespread functional microbe, and closely related Staphylococcus species were diverse and ubiquitously distributed, with the opportunistic pathogen S. Read More

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October 2021

Expression of atrial‑fetal light chains in cultured human cardiomyocytes after chemical ischemia‑reperfusion injury.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Nov 7;24(5). Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Division of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Haematology, Department of Medical Laboratory Diagnostics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, 50‑556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Atrial light chains (ALC1) are naturally present in adult heart atria, while ventricular light chains (VLC1) are predominant in ventricles. Degradation of VLC1 and re‑expression of ALC1 in heart ventricles are associated with heart disorders in response to pressure overload. The aim of the current study was to investigate changes in myosin light chain expression after simulated ischemia and simulated reperfusion (sI/sR). Read More

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November 2021

Linum usitatissimum FAD2A and FAD3A enhance seed polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation and seedling cold tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant Sci 2021 Oct 8;311:111014. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas and College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly linolenic acid, which is converted from linoleic acid. Studies have indicated that the biosynthesis of linoleic acid and linolenic acid is controlled by FAD2 and FAD3, respectively. However, the functional distinctions of different LuFAD2 and LuFAD3 copies from L. Read More

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October 2021

PMS activation by magnetic cobalt-N-doped carbon composite for ultra-efficient degradation of refractory organic pollutant: Mechanisms and identification of intermediates.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 28;287(Pt 1):132074. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018, People's Republic of China.

Refractory organic pollutant effluent has led to severe water pollution. In this study, magnetic Co-N-doped carbon hybrid catalysts (Co-NC-x) were fabricated using a facile cation exchange combined pyrolysis and self-reduction technique to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for rehabilitation of the water environment. Factors affecting the catalytic activity of the Co-NC-850 were comprehensively examined. Read More

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Removal of As(III) by Electrically Conducting Ultrafiltration Membranes.

Water Res 2021 Aug 25;204:117592. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Institute for Carbon Management (ICM), University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

As(III) species are the predominant form of arsenic found in groundwater. However, nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are often unable to effectively reject As(III). In this study, we fabricate highly conducting ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for effective As(III) rejection. Read More

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[Controversy about the critical role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during infancy].

Nutr Hosp 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Instituto Biosanitario de Granada (Ibs-Granada). Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud.

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are critical for infant growth and development, particularly arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). ARA and DHA are components of cell membrane phospholipids and play an important role in cell division, differentiation, and signaling; and DHA is the n-3 fatty acid predominant in the developing brain and retina. During the third trimester of pregnancy, LC-PUFAs increase substantially in fetal circulation, and a "biomagnification" process in the fetal brain is observed. Read More

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September 2021

LncRNA coordinates Hippo and mTORC1 pathway activation in cancer.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Aug 30;12(9):822. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of General Surgery, Key Laboratory of Hepatosplenic Surgery, Ministry of Education, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

The Hippo and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathways are the two predominant pathways that regulate tumour growth and metastasis. Therefore, we explored the potential crosstalk between these two functionally relevant pathways to coordinate their tumour growth-control functions. We found that a Hippo pathway-related long noncoding RNA, HPR, directly interacts with Raptor, an essential component of mTORC1, to upregulate mTORC1 activation by impairing the phosphorylation of Raptor by AMPK. Read More

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Randomised clinical trial: the effects of pregabalin vs placebo on functional dyspepsia.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Currently, central neuromodulators are among the therapeutic options for the treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD). Pregabalin, a gabapentinoid, is a neuromodulator that could potentially improve visceral hypersensitivity in FD patients.

Aim: To assess the efficacy and safety of pregabalin for the treatment of FD METHODS: We performed a randomised placebo-controlled study including FD patients who did not respond to proton pump inhibitors. Read More

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Revealing the heterogeneous activation mechanism of peroxydisulfate by CuO: the critical role of surface-binding organic substrates.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 24;802:149833. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China. Electronic address:

Heterogeneous catalytic activation mechanisms of peroxydisulfate (PDS) by transition metal oxides are generally attributed to the interactions between catalysts and PDS, however, the role of the co-existed organic substrate was largely overlooked in the past studies. In this work, phenol was selected as the target organic pollutant in a CuO/PDS system to evaluate its deep-seated role in participating in the effective activation of PDS. First, optimized reaction conditions as pH of 6. Read More

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AGA Clinical Practice Update on the Diagnosis and Management of Atrophic Gastritis: Expert Review.

Gastroenterology 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Santa Clara, California; Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California.

Description: The purpose of this Clinical Practice Update Expert Review is to provide clinicians with guidance on the diagnosis and management of atrophic gastritis, a common preneoplastic condition of the stomach, with a primary focus on atrophic gastritis due to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection-the most common etiology-or due to autoimmunity. To date, clinical guidance for best practices related to the diagnosis and management of atrophic gastritis remains very limited in the United States, which leads to poor recognition of this preneoplastic condition and suboptimal risk stratification. In addition, there is heterogeneity in the definitions of atrophic gastritis, autoimmune gastritis, pernicious anemia, and gastric neoplasia in the literature, which has led to confusion in clinical practice and research. Read More

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Best Practices for the Implementation and Sustainment of a Virtual Health Information System Training: A Qualitative Study.

JMIR Med Educ 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

University Health Network, 190 Elizabeth Street, R. Fraser Elliot Building, RFE 3S-441, Toronto, CA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated the adoption and implementation of digital technologies to help transform the educational ecosystem and the delivery of care.

Objective: This study aimed to generate an understanding of instructors' and learners' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of virtual training amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, this study sought to understand the challenges and opportunities towards the implementation of virtual training in the context of health information systems. Read More

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Emergence of Dengue 4 as Dominant Serotype During 2017 Outbreak in South India and Associated Cytokine Expression Profile.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 10;11:681937. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Institute of Clinical Anatomy and Cell Analysis, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Dengue virus (DENV) infection is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, which is fatal if untreated symptomatically. Emergence of new genotype within serotypes led to enhanced severity. The objective of the study is to identify the molecular characteristics of the DENV circulated during 2017 outbreak in Tamil Nadu, India, and to investigate the role of inflammatory cytokines in different "serotypes" and in "dengue severity". Read More

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September 2021

Immunomodulating Effect of the Consumption of Watercress on Exercise-Induced Inflammation in Humans.

Foods 2021 Jul 30;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany.

The vegetable watercress ( R.Br.) is, besides being a generally nutritious food, a rich source of glucosinolates. Read More

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Microgreens: Functional Food with Antiproliferative Cancer Properties Influenced by Light.

Foods 2021 Jul 22;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, Viale Fanin, 44-40127 Bologna, Italy.

The anti-proliferative/pro-oxidant efficacy of green pea, soybean, radish, Red Rambo radish, and rocket microgreens, cultivated under either fluorescent lighting (predominant spectral peaks in green and orange) or combination light-emitting diode (LED, predominant spectral peak in blue) was investigated using Ewing sarcoma lines, RD-ES and A673, respectively. All aqueous microgreen extracts significantly reduced cell proliferation (cancer prevention effect) to varying extents in two-dimensional sarcoma cell cultures. The effect of the polyphenol fraction in the aqueous food matrix was unrelated to total polyphenol content, which differed between species and light treatment. Read More

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Impact of Changing Surgical Strategies on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Parotid Carcinoma: A 53-Year Single-Institution Experience.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jul 23;57(8). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake 470-1192, Aichi, Japan.

: We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent surgery for parotid carcinoma in a single institution during a 53-year period. This study aimed to estimate the impact of changing the surgical approach to parotid carcinoma on clinical outcomes including the incidence rate of the facial nerve palsy. : Sixty-seven patients with parotid carcinoma who underwent surgery between 1966 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Perspectives and Issues in the Assessment of Deficiency in the Management of Lung Cancer Patients.

Cells 2021 Jul 29;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Hospital-Integrated Biobank (BB-0033-00025), Nice Hospital University, FHU OncoAge, Université Côte d' Azur, 06000 Nice, France.

Lung cancers are ranked third among the cancer incidence in France in the year 2020, with adenocarcinomas being the commonest sub-type out of ~85% of non-small cell lung carcinomas. The constant evolution of molecular genotyping, which is used for the management of lung adenocarcinomas, has led to the current focus on tumor suppressor genes, specifically the loss of function mutation in the gene. -deficient adenocarcinomas are preponderant in younger aged male smokers with a predominant solid morphology. Read More

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Synuclein Family Members Prevent Membrane Damage by Counteracting α-Synuclein Aggregation.

Biomolecules 2021 07 21;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany.

The 140 amino acid protein α-synuclein (αS) is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) with various roles and locations in healthy neurons that plays a key role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Contact with biomembranes can lead to α-helical conformations, but can also act as s seeding event for aggregation and a predominant β-sheet conformation. In PD patients, αS is found to aggregate in various fibrillary structures, and the shift in aggregation and localization is associated with disease progression. Read More

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Importins: Diverse roles in male fertility.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Centre for Reproductive Health, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, 27-31 Wright Street, Clayton, Victoria, 3168 Australia; Department of Molecular and Translational Sciences, Monash University, 27-31 Wright Street, Clayton, Victoria, 3168 Australia. Electronic address:

Regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport is central to the changes in gene expression that underpin cellular development and homeostasis, including in the testis, and proteins in the importin family are the predominant facilitators of cargo transport through the nuclear envelope. Reports documenting cell-specific profiles of importin transcripts and proteins during spermatogenesis led us to hypothesize that importins facilitate developmental switches in the testis. More recently, importins have been shown to serve additional functions, both inside and outside the nucleus; these include acting as subcellular scaffolding, mediating cellular stress responses, and controlling transcription. Read More

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Systematic evaluation of a series of pectic polysaccharides extracted from apple pomace by regulation of subcritical water conditions.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 11;368:130833. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

To investigate the influences of different subcritical water conditions on apple pomace pectic polysaccharides (APP) extraction, 20 samples were successfully prepared and systematically analyzed. At low temperature region (100-120 °C), extraction effect was predominant and extracted APP was high molecular weight, esterification degree and galacturonic acid content as well as light color. At middle temperature region (140 °C), the balance of extraction and degradation effects was reached and led to the highest APP yield (14. Read More

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Burden of Seasonal Influenza A and B in Panama from 2011 to 2017: An Observational Retrospective Database Study.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

GSK, Panama City, Panama.

Introduction: Influenza A and B viruses constantly evolve and cause seasonal epidemics and sporadic outbreaks. Therefore, epidemiological surveillance is critical for monitoring their circulation pattern. Trivalent and quadrivalent vaccine formulations are available in Panama (until and since 2016, respectively). Read More

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Influence of 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) incorporated experimental cleaners on the bonding performance of saliva-contaminated zirconia ceramic.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510, Japan.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of experimental cleaners containing 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) on the saliva decontamination of ceramic and their influence in restoring zirconia's adherence to resin cement.

Materials And Methods: Four hundred sixty alumina-blasted zirconia specimens were categorized into saliva-contaminated and uncontaminated groups which were treated with ceramic primer (P), experimental cleaner 1 (C1), C1 followed by P (C1P), experimental cleaner 2 (C2), and C2 followed by P (C2P). Stainless-steel rods were then attached to the specimens using PanaviaV5 cement (Kuraray Noritake Dental; Tokyo, Japan). Read More

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Resveratrol Can Attenuate Astrocyte Activation to Treat Spinal Cord Injury by Inhibiting Inflammatory Responses.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

School of Life Science, Shaoxing University, Zhejiang, China.

Several preclinical and clinical studies have attempted to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism associated with spinal cord injury. However, investigations have been unable to define the precise related mechanisms, and this has led to the lack of effective therapeutic agents for the condition. Neuroinflammation is one of the predominant processes that hinder spinal cord injury recovery. Read More

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Bioactivity evaluation for volatiles and water extract of commercialized star anise.

Heliyon 2021 Aug 8;7(8):e07721. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Food Toxicology and Contaminants Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Usually, it takes about a year since the harvested fresh star anise fruit (SAF) reaches the market for consumer usage, all this time with different handling processes and different storage circumstances greatly affect its quality as well as its chemical composition and biological activity.

Aim: This study investigated the chemical constituents for volatiles and water extracts of commercialized SAF, as well as, their bioactivities.

Results: The chemical constituents were dominated by Trans (47. Read More

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Transmitted Light as Attractant with Mechanical Traps for Collecting Nocturnal Mosquitoes in Urban Bangkok, Thailand.

J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2021 Sep;37(3):132-142

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Mosquito surveillance is the cornerstone for determining abundance, species diversity, pathogen infection rates, and temporal and spatial distribution of different life stages in an area. Various methods are available for assessing adult mosquito populations, including mechanical trap devices using different forms of attractant cues (chemical and visual) to lure mosquitoes to the trap. So-called "light traps" use various electromagnetic wavelengths to produce a variety of visible spectral colors to attract adult mosquitoes. Read More

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September 2021

Restless leg syndrome presenting as chronic severe limb pain in a dialysis patient.

Hemodial Int 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Nephrology, Trichy SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.

"Chronic pain" is a commonly reported symptom among hemodialysis patients. Despite its high prevalence and the poor health-related quality of life associated with it, chronic pain remains an ineffectively assessed and managed entity in dialysis patients. We report a case of a 55-year-old gentleman on maintenance hemodialysis who presented with 3 months history of "excruciating flitting and fleeting type" of pain largely involving both lower limbs and occasionally neck, shoulder, chest, and upper limbs. Read More

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