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Simultaneous decoding of cardiovascular and respiratory functional changes from pig intraneural vagus nerve signals.

J Neural Eng 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Center for Neuroprosthetics and Institute of Bioengineering, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Chemin de Mines 9, Geneva, 1202, SWITZERLAND.

Objective: Bioelectronic medicine is opening new perspectives for the treatment of some major chronic diseases through the physical modulation of autonomic nervous system activity. Being the main peripheral route for electrical signals between central nervous system and visceral organs, the vagus nerve (VN) is one of the most promising targets. Closed-loop VN stimulation would be crucial to increase effectiveness of this approach. Read More

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The effect of body fatness on regional brain imaging markers and cognitive function in healthy elderly mediated by impaired glucose metabolism.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 11;140:488-495. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea; Department of Public Health, Yonsei University Graduate School, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea; Institute of Human Complexity and Systems Science, Yonsei University, Incheon, 21983, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Brain atrophy is related to vascular risk factors and can increase cognitive dysfunction risk. This community-based, cross-sectional study investigated whether glucose metabolic disorders due to body fatness are linked to regional changes in brain structure and a decline in neuropsychological function in cognitively healthy older adults. From 2016 to 2019, 429 participants underwent measurements for cortical thickness and subcortical volume using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and for cognitive function using the neuropsychological screening battery. Read More

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Cancer diagnosis using generative adversarial networks based on deep learning from imbalanced data.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 12;135:104540. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904-4743, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Cancer is a serious global disease due to its high mortality, and the key to effective treatment is accurate diagnosis. However, limited by sampling difficulty and actual sample size in clinical practice, data imbalance is a common problem in cancer diagnosis, while most conventional classification methods assume balanced data distribution. Therefore, addressing the imbalanced learning problem to improve the predictive performance of cancer diagnosis is significant. Read More

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Recruitment of release sites underlies chemical presynaptic potentiation at hippocampal mossy fiber boutons.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jun 21;19(6):e3001149. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Synaptic plasticity is a cellular model for learning and memory. However, the expression mechanisms underlying presynaptic forms of plasticity are not well understood. Here, we investigate functional and structural correlates of presynaptic potentiation at large hippocampal mossy fiber boutons induced by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin. Read More

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The Effects of Choice on the Reading Comprehension and Enjoyment of Children with Severe Inattention and no Attentional Difficulties.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Institute of Education, UCL, 25, Woburn Square, London, WC1H 0AA, UK.

It has been proposed that enhancing motivation supports the learning of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Less is known if inattentive children with no ADHD diagnosis may similarly benefit, when being motivated to engage in an academic task. Using a repeated-measures design, this study investigated the effects of text choice as an intrinsic motivator on the reading comprehension and enjoyment of Year 4 children attending mainstream primary schools (N = 92; aged 8-9 years; 48 boys); comparing those with no attentional difficulties and severe inattention. Read More

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Testosterone-induced increase in libido in a patient with a loss-of-function mutation in the AR gene.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Jun 1;2021. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland.

Summary: Complete androgen-insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), a disorder of sex development (46,XY DSD), is caused primarily by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). Gonadectomy is recommended due to the increased risk of gonadoblastoma, however, surgical intervention is often followed by loss of libido. We present a 26-year-old patient with CAIS who underwent gonadectomy followed by a significant decrease in libido, which was improved with testosterone treatment but not with estradiol. Read More

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Exploratory Outlier Detection for Acceleromyographic Neuromuscular Monitoring: Machine Learning Approach.

J Med Internet Res 2021 May 31;23(6):e25913. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussel, Belgium.

Background: Perioperative quantitative monitoring of neuromuscular function in patients receiving neuromuscular blockers has become internationally recognized as an absolute and core necessity in modern anesthesia care. Because of their kinetic nature, artifactual recordings of acceleromyography-based neuromuscular monitoring devices are not unusual. These generate a great deal of cynicism among anesthesiologists, constituting an obstacle toward their widespread adoption. Read More

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Does high fidelity neonatal resuscitation simulation increase salivary cortisol levels of health care providers?

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Background: The use of simulation-based medical education is strongly recommended to insure neonatal resuscitation skills for health caregivers. High fidelity simulation was executed to allow the evaluation of technical and non-technical skills. Salivary cortisol level was considered reliable biomarkers of adrenocortical activity and useful tool to learning assessment and stress response. Read More

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Towards gender equity in artificial intelligence and machine learning applications in dermatology.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

There has been increased excitement around the use of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) in dermatology for the diagnosis of skin cancers and assessment of other dermatologic conditions. As these technologies continue to expand, it is essential to ensure they do not create or widen sex- and gender-based disparities in care. While desirable bias may result from the explicit inclusion of sex or gender in diagnostic criteria of diseases with gender-based differences, undesirable biases can result from usage of datasets with an underrepresentation of certain groups. Read More

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Human host status inference from temporal microbiome changes via recurrent neural networks.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Computer Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR.

With the rapid increase in sequencing data, human host status inference (e.g. healthy or sick) from microbiome data has become an important issue. Read More

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Risk predicting for acute coronary syndrome based on machine learning model with kinetic plaque features from serial coronary computed tomography angiography.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Geriatric Cardiology & National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Second Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28# Fuxing road, Haidian district, Beijing 100853, China.

Aims: More patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as gatekeeper. However, the prospective relation of plaque features to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events has not been previously explored.

Methods And Results: One hundred and one out of 452 patients with documented ACS event and received more than once CCTA during the past 12 years were recruited. Read More

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Telemedical Diabetic Retinopathy Screening in a Primary Care Setting: Quality of Retinal Photographs and Accuracy of Automated Image Analysis.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2021 Jun 20:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

: Screening for diabetic eye disease (DED) and general diabetes care is often separate, which leads to delays and low adherence to DED screening recommendations. Thus, we assessed the feasibility, achieved image quality, and possible barriers of telemedical DED screening in a point-of-care general practice setting and the accuracy of an automated algorithm for detection of DED.: Patients with diabetes were recruited at general practices. Read More

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Proteomic profiling of low muscle and high fat mass: a machine learning approach in the KORA S4/FF4 study.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.

Background: The coexistence of low muscle mass and high fat mass, two interrelated conditions strongly associated with declining health status, has been characterized by only a few protein biomarkers. High-throughput proteomics enable concurrent measurement of numerous proteins, facilitating the discovery of potentially new biomarkers.

Methods: Data derived from the prospective population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg S4/FF4 cohort study (median follow-up time: 13. Read More

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Prediction of Impending Septic Shock in Children With Sepsis.

Crit Care Explor 2021 Jun 15;3(6):e0442. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute for Computational Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Objectives: Sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of in-hospital mortality. Timely treatment is crucial in improving patient outcome, yet treatment delays remain common. Early prediction of those patients with sepsis who will progress to its most severe form, septic shock, can increase the actionable window for interventions. Read More

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Modulation of Dopamine for Adaptive Learning: A Neurocomputational Model.

Comput Brain Behav 2021 Mar 12;4(1):34-52. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara.

There have been many proposals that learning rates in the brain are adaptive, in the sense that they increase or decrease depending on environmental conditions. The majority of these models are abstract and make no attempt to describe the neural circuitry that implements the proposed computations. This article describes a biologically detailed computational model that overcomes this shortcoming. Read More

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Voices of the students: Adolescent well-being and social interactions during the emergent shift to online learning environments.

Educ Inf Technol (Dordr) 2021 Jun 14:1-19. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Learning Technologies, University of North Texas, Denton, TX USA.

Health and safety concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic required many face-to-face United States schools to suddenly shut their doors, moving classes to virtual learning environments. Amidst concerns of technology overuse, adolescents across the country saw dramatic increases in both personal screen time use and social isolation as they learned to navigate online schooling. Understanding the impact of the pandemic-related shutdowns upon adolescent well-being, learning, and social life is critical for designing effective online learning experiences, but research provides few insights from the adolescent perspective. Read More

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Spring Festival and COVID-19 Lockdown: Disentangling PM Sources in Major Chinese Cities.

Geophys Res Lett 2021 Jun 4;48(11):e2021GL093403. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control College of Environmental Science and Engineering Nankai University Tianjin China.

Responding to the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak, China imposed an unprecedented lockdown producing reductions in air pollutant emissions. However, the lockdown driven air pollution changes have not been fully quantified. We applied machine learning to quantify the effects of meteorology on surface air quality data in 31 major Chinese cities. Read More

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Increasing Reach of the Diabetes Prevention Program in African American Churches: Project FIT Lessons Learned in Using an Interprofessional Student Service-Learning Approach.

Mo Med 2021 May-Jun;118(3):264-271

Doctoral student in the Psychology Department, UMKC-KCMO.

The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is an evidence-based lifestyle intervention proven to reduce/delay diabetes onset with diet change, physical activity, and modest weight loss. However, access to the program is limited in low-resource communities. Having health profession students facilitate DPP groups as a service learning course-credit opportunity may benefit their interprofessional training while also expanding DPP access in underserved communities. Read More

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Discovery awareness for staff supporting individuals with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour: is it helpful and does it increase self-efficacy?

Int J Dev Disabil 2019 Apr 20;67(1):44-57. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Discovery awareness (DA) is an approach to using video within structured meetings to help staff become more mindful, aware and interested in a client they are supporting who has intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. The objective was to evaluate whether, and how, DA is helpful for staff in both inpatient and community settings, and whether it increases self-efficacy in working with people with challenging behaviour. A two-phase mixed method design was employed. Read More

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Teaching young adults with intellectual disabilities about early parent-child attachment behaviors using an educational DVD.

Int J Dev Disabil 2019 Mar 4;65(3):143-151. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Mental Health Learning Disability Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust.

: Previous research has largely focused on evaluating the impact of teaching practical parenting skills to parents with intellectual disabilities. Teaching them about the importance and nature of early attachment behaviors has not yet been explored. This study investigates whether knowledge of early attachment behavior of young adults with an intellectual disability who are not yet parents, can be increased using an educational DVD. Read More

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Salient employability skills for youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities in Singapore: the perspectives of job developers.

Int J Dev Disabil 2017 Jun 3;65(1):1-9. Epub 2017 Jun 3.

Department of Teaching and Learning, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

: In order to increase employment opportunities for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), professionals are tasked with designing and implementing job training services to youth preparing to enter the job market. Having a better understanding of desirable employability skills aids in allowing professionals to develop programs that will target the needs of those who make decisions relating to human resources. : This study features a qualitative research design to identify employability skills that individuals with IDDs in Singapore should possess to be successful in the workplace. Read More

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Muscarinic regulation of the neuronal Na /K -ATPase in rat hippocampus.

J Physiol 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Medical Neurobiology, Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada, The Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Medicine, Jerusalem, 91120, Israel.

Key Points: Stimulation of postsynaptic muscarinic receptors was shown to excite principal hippocampal neurons by modulating several membrane ion conductances. We show here that activation of postsynaptic muscarinic receptors causes neuronal excitation also by inhibiting Na /K -ATPase activity. Muscarinic Na /K -ATPase inhibition is mediated by two separate signalling pathways that lead downstream to enhanced Na /K -ATPase phosphorylation by activating PKC and PKG Muscarinic excitation through Na /K -ATPase inhibition likely is involved in cholinergic modulation of hippocampal activity and may turn out to be a widespread mechanism of neuronal excitation in the brain. Read More

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Improvement of PI-RADS-dependent prostate cancer classification by quantitative image assessment using radiomics or mean ADC.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Germany. Electronic address:

Background Currently, interpretation of prostate MRI is performed qualitatively. Quantitative assessment of the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (mADC) is promising to improve diagnostic accuracy while radiomic machine learning (RML) allows to probe complex parameter spaces to identify the most promising multi-parametric models. We have previously developed quantitative RML and ADC classifiers for prediction of clinically significant prostate cancer (sPC) from prostate MRI, however these have not been combined with radiologist PI-RADS assessment. Read More

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MDC-net: A new convolutional neural network for nucleus segmentation in histopathology images with distance maps and contour information.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 10;135:104543. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Applied Computing, College of Computing, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931, USA; Center for Biocomputing and Digital Heath, Institute of Computing and Cybersystems, & Health Research Institute, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931, USA. Electronic address:

Accurate segmentation of nuclei in digital pathology images can assist doctors in diagnosing diseases and evaluating subsequent treatments. Manual segmentation of nuclei from pathology images is time-consuming because of the large number of nuclei and is also error-prone. Therefore, accurate and automatic nucleus segmentation methods are required. Read More

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Effect of capsaicinoids in hot pepper powder on microbial community and free sugar during kimchi fermentation.

J Food Sci 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Integrated Biomedical and Life Science, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Effect of capsaicinoids in hot pepper powder (HP) contains various chemical compounds, including capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, which are the main ingredients of the spicy taste. To evaluate the effect of HP on the microbial community in kimchi fermentation, kimchi [kimchi-HP, kimchi-HPE and kimchi-HPER made by adding HP, HP alcohol extract (HPE) and HPE residues (HPER)] was fermented at 4°C for 28 days. The pH and titratable acidity of the samples and the number of bacteria changed with fermentation time. Read More

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Virtual reality and annotated radiological data as effective and motivating tools to help Social Sciences students learn neuroanatomy.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 18;11(1):12843. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Medical Imaging, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Neuroanatomy as a subject is important to learn, because a good understanding of neuroanatomy supports the establishment of a correct diagnosis in neurological patients. However, rapid changes in curricula reduced time assigned to study (neuro)anatomy. Therefore, it is important to find alternative teaching methods to study the complex three-dimensional structure of the brain. Read More

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Beta power and movement-related beta modulation as hallmarks of energy for plasticity induction: Implications for Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphological and Functional Imaging Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy. Electronic address:

Extensive work on movement-related beta oscillations (~13-30 Hz) over the sensorimotor areas in both humans and animals has demonstrated that sensorimotor beta power decreases during movement and transiently increases after movement. This beta power modulation has been interpreted as reflecting interactions between sensory and motor cortical areas with attenuation of sensory afferents during movement and their subsequent re-activation for internal models updating. More recent studies in neurologically normal subjects have demonstrated that this movement-related modulation as well as mean beta power at rest increase with practice and that previous motor learning enhances such increases. Read More

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Effect of deep learning image reconstruction in the prediction of resectability of pancreatic cancer: Diagnostic performance and reader confidence.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jun 11;141:109825. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance and reader confidence in determining the resectability of pancreatic cancer at computed tomography (CT) using a new deep learning image reconstruction (DLIR) algorithm.

Methods: A retrospective review was conduct of on forty-seven patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancers who underwent baseline multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT scan. Image data sets were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid model-based adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR-V) 60 %, and DLIR "TrueFidelity" at low(L), medium(M), and high strength levels(H). Read More

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Data mining for evaluating the ecological compensation, static and dynamic benefits of returning farmland to forest.

Authors:
Yi Sun Hua Li

Environ Res 2021 Jun 16;201:111524. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Based on data mining technology, this paper incorporates Bayesian networks to examine ecosystem data in order to investigate the static and dynamic benefits of returning farmland to forests and ecological compensation. The restricted network structure is suggested to reduce training costs and simplify model structure. Simultaneously, in order to increase prediction accuracy over a single model, ensemble learning is utilized to train multiple models to solve the same problem. Read More

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Mask then classify: multi-instance segmentation for surgical instruments.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

ARTORG, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Purpose: The detection and segmentation of surgical instruments has been a vital step for many applications in minimally invasive surgical robotics. Previously, the problem was tackled from a semantic segmentation perspective, yet these methods fail to provide good segmentation maps of instrument types and do not contain any information on the instance affiliation of each pixel. We propose to overcome this limitation by using a novel instance segmentation method which first masks instruments and then classifies them into their respective type. Read More

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