4,864 results match your criteria lean mice

Telmisartan induces a specific gut microbiota signature which may mediate its antiobesity effect.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 9;170:105724. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lübeck, Germany; DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; CBBM (Center of Brain, Behavior and Metabolism), Germany. Electronic address:

Telmisartan prevents diet-induced obesity (DIO) in rodents. Given that the precise underlying mechanism is not known, we examined whether a gut-related mechanism might be involved. Sprague-Dawley rats received cafeteria diet (CD) for 3 months to develop DIO and were administered either telmisartan (8 mg/kg) or vehicle. Read More

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SCF is functionally linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome.

EMBO Rep 2021 Jun 11:e52036. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Dysregulation of lipid metabolism could lead to the development of metabolic disorders. We report here that the F-box protein JFK promotes excessive lipid accumulation in adipose tissue and contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome. JFK transgenic mice develop spontaneous obesity, accompanied by dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, phenotypes that are further exacerbated under high-fat diets. Read More

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Free Fatty Acid Increases the Expression of NLRP3-Caspase1 in Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obese Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430022, Hubei Province, China.

Background And Aims: Obesity is an important risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis. The necrosis of epididymal adipose tissue occurs in severe acute pancreatitis. Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in metabolic related inflammation. Read More

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Deficiency of PPARγ in Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Does not Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Bone Deterioration in Mice.

J Nutr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Background: Bone marrow osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from a common mesenchymal stem cell and have a reciprocal relationship. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a regulator for adipocyte differentiation, may be a potential target for reducing obesity and increasing bone mass.

Objectives: This study tested the hypothesis that bone-specific Pparg conditional knockout (cKO), via deletion of Pparg from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) using Osterix 1 (Osx1)-Cre, would prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced bone deterioration in mice. Read More

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Cellular and physiological circadian mechanisms drive diurnal cell proliferation and expansion of white adipose tissue.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3482. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Hyperplastic expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) relies in part on the proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells residing in the stromal vascular cell fraction (SVF) of WAT. This study reveals a circadian clock- and feeding-induced diurnal pattern of cell proliferation in the SVF of visceral and subcutaneous WAT in vivo, with higher proliferation of visceral adipocyte progenitor cells subsequent to feeding in lean mice. Fasting or loss of rhythmic feeding eliminates this diurnal proliferation, while high fat feeding or genetic disruption of the molecular circadian clock modifies the temporal expression of proliferation genes and impinges on diurnal SVF proliferation in eWAT. Read More

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Obese Adipose Tissue Modulates Pro-inflammatory Responses of Mouse Airway Epithelial Cells.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The grid.59062.38University of Vermont Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care, and Vermont Lung Center, Burlington, VT, United States.

Although recognized as an important endocrine organ, little is known about the mechanisms through which adipose tissue can regulate inflammatory responses in distant tissues, such as lung, that are affected by obesity. To explore potential mechanisms, male C57BL/6J mice were provided either high-fat diet, low-fat diet, or were provided a high-fat diet then switched to the low-fat diet to promote weight loss. Visceral adipocytes were then cultured in vitro to generate conditioned media (CM) that was used to treat both primary (MTEC) and immortalized (MTCC) airway epithelial cells. Read More

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Adipocyte death triggers a pro-inflammatory response and induces metabolic activation of resident macrophages.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 5;12(6):579. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

A chronic low-grade inflammation within adipose tissue (AT) seems to be the link between obesity and some of its associated diseases. One hallmark of this AT inflammation is the accumulation of AT macrophages (ATMs) around dead or dying adipocytes, forming so-called crown-like structures (CLS). To investigate the dynamics of CLS and their direct impact on the activation state of ATMs, we established a laser injury model to deplete individual adipocytes in living AT from double reporter mice (GFP-labeled ATMs and tdTomato-labeled adipocytes). Read More

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Decreased Abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila Leads to the Impairment of Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Lean Type 2 Diabetes.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 4:e2100536. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Although obesity occurs in most of the patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a fraction of patients with T2D are underweight or have normal weight. Several studies have linked the gut microbiome to obesity and T2D, but the role of gut microbiota in lean individuals with T2D having unique clinical characteristics remains unclear. A metagenomic and targeted metabolomic analysis is conducted in 182 lean and abdominally obese individuals with and without newly diagnosed T2D. Read More

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Skeletal muscle and fiber type-specific intramyocellular lipid accumulation in obese mice.

Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

In obesity, accumulation of lipid droplets in skeletal muscle fibers and a shift towards fast muscle fiber types can both contribute to insulin resistance. However, it is not yet clear how intramyocellular lipid accumulation and fiber type changes are associated. Therefore, we investigated to what extent the lipids accumulated in a fiber type-specific manner in the functionally similar fast-, intermediate- and slow-twitch gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus muscles, respectively, in high-fat diet-induced obese 54-week-old female C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice (n = 9) compared to control standard-diet-treated lean mice (n = 9). Read More

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Effects of a novel polyphenol-rich plant extract on body composition, inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis in obese mice.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background/objectives: The worldwide prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is reaching epidemic proportions that urge the development of new management strategies. Totum-63 is a novel, plant-based polyphenol-rich active principle that has been shown to reduce body weight, fasting glycemia, glucose intolerance, and fatty liver index in obese subjects with prediabetes. Here, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism(s) of Totum-63 on metabolic homeostasis in insulin-resistant obese mice. Read More

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Assessing Rabies Vaccine Protection against a Novel Lyssavirus, Kotalahti Bat Lyssavirus.

Viruses 2021 05 20;13(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-Borne Diseases Research Group, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Weybridge, London KT15 3NB, UK.

Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by an important group of viruses within the genus. The prototype virus, rabies virus, is still the most commonly reported lyssavirus and causes approximately 59,000 human fatalities annually. The human and animal burden of the other lyssavirus species is undefined. Read More

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Diet-Induced Obesity Impairs Outcomes and Induces Multi-Factorial Deficiencies in Effector T Cell Responses Following Anti-CTLA-4 Combinatorial Immunotherapy in Renal Tumor-Bearing Mice.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 11;13(10). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL 35233, USA.

Associations between modifiable factors and the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies remain uncertain. We found previously that diet-induced obesity (DIO) reduces the efficacy of an immunotherapy consisting of adenovirus-encoded TRAIL plus CpG oligonucleotide (AdT/CpG) in mice with renal tumors. To eliminate confounding effects of diet and determine whether outcomes could be improved in DIO mice, we evaluated AdT/CpG combined with anti-CTLA-4 in diet-matched, obese-resistant (OB-RES) versus DIO tumor-bearing mice. Read More

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Skeletal Lipocalin-2 Is Associated with Iron-Related Oxidative Stress in ob/ob Mice with Sarcopenia.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 11;10(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Anatomy and Convergence Medical Science, Bio Anti-Aging Medical Research Center, Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52777, Gyeongnam, Korea.

Obesity and insulin resistance accelerate aging-related sarcopenia, which is associated with iron load and oxidative stress. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is an iron-binding protein that has been associated with skeletal muscle regeneration, but details regarding its role in obese sarcopenia remain unclear. Here, we report that elevated LCN2 levels in skeletal muscle are linked to muscle atrophy-related inflammation and oxidative stress in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Read More

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Cholecystokinin system is involved in the anorexigenic effect of peripherally applied palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide in fasted mice.

Physiol Res 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic,

Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) has been proposed to mediate the central satiating effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) through the vagal CCK1 receptor. PrRP acts as an endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor 10 (GPR10), which is expressed at the highest levels in brain areas related to food intake regulation, e.g. Read More

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An insulin-independent mechanism for transcriptional regulation of Foxo1 in type 2 diabetic mice.

J Biol Chem 2021 May 28;297(1):100846. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center for Molecular Metabolism, Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the major contributor to the hyperglycemia observed in both patients and animals with type 2 diabetes. The transcription factor FOXO1 plays a dominant role in stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. FOXO1 is mainly regulated by insulin under physiological conditions, but liver-specific disruption of Foxo1 transcription restores normal gluconeogenesis in mice in which insulin signaling has been blocked, suggesting that additional regulatory mechanisms exist. Read More

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Benefits of Sustained Upregulated Unimolecular GLP-1 and CCK Receptor Signalling in Obesity-Diabetes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 14;12:674704. Epub 2021 May 14.

Diabetes Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, United Kingdom.

Combined activation of GLP-1 and CCK1 receptors has potential to synergistically augment the appetite-suppressive and glucose homeostatic actions of the individual parent peptides. In the current study, pancreatic beta-cell benefits of combined GLP-1 and CCK1 receptor upregulation were established, before characterising bioactivity and antidiabetic efficacy of an acylated dual-acting GLP-1/CCK hybrid peptide, namely [LysPal]Ex-4/CCK. Both exendin-4 and CCK exhibited (p<0. Read More

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Normalizing glucose levels reconfigures the mammary tumor immune and metabolic microenvironment and decreases metastatic seeding.

Cancer Lett 2021 May 28;517:24-34. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; O'Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address:

Obesity and diabetes cumulatively create a distinct systemic metabolic pathophysiological syndrome that predisposes patients to several diseases including breast cancer. Moreover, diabetic and obese women with breast cancer show a significant increase in mortality compared to non-obese and/or non-diabetic women. We hypothesized that these metabolic conditions incite an aggressive tumor phenotype by way of impacting tumor cell-autonomous and tumor cell non-autonomous events. Read More

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A potential probiotic bacterium for antipsychotic-induced metabolic syndrome: mechanisms underpinning how Akkermansia muciniphila subtype improves olanzapine-induced glucose homeostasis in mice.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510282, Guangdong, China.

Background: Olanzapine (OLZ) is one of the most effective atypical antipsychotics but is associated with severe metabolic side effects, in which the gut microbiota plays an important role. Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila; Akk), a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium in the intestine, can potentially improve metabolic syndrome. Read More

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Obesity enhances the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells to visceral adipose tissue.

J Mol Endocrinol 2021 Jun 17;67(1):15-26. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcântara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

In obesity, high levels of TNF-α in the bone marrow microenvironment induce the bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) towards a pro-adipogenic phenotype. Here, we investigated the effect of obesity on the migratory potential of BM-MSCs and their fate towards the adipose tissues. BM-MSCs were isolated from male C57Bl/06 mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Read More

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Examination of BDNF Treatment on BACE1 Activity and Acute Exercise on Brain BDNF Signaling.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 4;15:665867. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada.

Perturbations in metabolism results in the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides, which is a pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate limiting enzyme responsible for beta-amyloid production. Obesogenic diets increase BACE1 while exercise reduces BACE1 activity, although the mechanisms are unknown. Read More

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Rapamycin delays allograft rejection in obese graft recipients through induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

Immunol Lett 2021 May 17;236:1-11. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Obesity has become a relevant problem in transplantation medicine with steadily increasing numbers of obese graft recipients. However, the effect of immunomodulatory drugs on transplant-related outcomes among obese patients are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of rapamycin on allograft rejection and alloimmune response in a murine model of diet-induced obesity and fully-mismatched skin transplantation. Read More

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Characterization of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in each region of the small intestine of lean and diet-induced obese mice in the response to dietary fat.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 05 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Nutrition Science, Purdue University West Lafayette, United States.

The absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, contribute to postprandial blood lipid levels by secreting dietary triacylglycerol in chylomicrons. The rate and amount of dietary triacylglycerol absorbed varies along the length of the small intestine. Excess dietary triacylglycerol not immediately secreted in chylomicrons can be temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) and repackaged in chylomicrons at later times. Read More

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Sexual dimorphism in adipose tissue mitochondrial function and metabolic flexibility in obesity.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS29JT, UK.

Objective: The prevalence of obesity is growing globally. Adiposity increases the risk for metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue distribution influences systemic metabolism and impacts metabolic disease risk. Read More

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Tamoxifen Treatment in the Neonatal Period Affects Glucose Homeostasis in Adult Mice in a Sex-Dependent Manner.

Endocrinology 2021 Jul;162(7)

Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, INSERM UMR-S1213, Lyon, France.

Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator used to activate the CREERT2 recombinase, allowing tissue-specific and temporal control of the somatic mutagenesis to generate transgenic mice. Studies integrating development and metabolism require a genetic modification induced by a neonatal tamoxifen administration. Here, we investigate the effects of a neonatal tamoxifen administration on energy homeostasis in adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. Read More

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Untargeted and targeted gingival metabolome in rodents reveal metabolic links between high-fat diet-induced obesity and periodontitis.

J Clin Periodontol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Periodontics, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Basic and Applied Research of Oral Regenerative Medicine, Affiliated Stomatology Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Aim: To characterize gingival metabolome in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice with/without periodontitis.

Methods: HFD-induced obesity mouse model was established by 16-week feeding, and a lean control group was fed with low-fat diet (n = 21/group). Both models were induced for periodontitis on the left sides by molar ligation for 10 days, whereas the right sides were used as controls. Read More

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Impaired soft and hard callus formation during fracture healing in diet-induced obese mice as revealed by 3D contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging.

Bone 2021 Sep 14;150:116008. Epub 2021 May 14.

Prometheus - Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Material Science and Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Biomechanics lab, Institute of Mechanics, Materials, and Civil Engineering, UCLouvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Institute for Experimental and Clinical Research, UCLouvain, Woluwe, Belgium. Electronic address:

The impact of diabetes mellitus on bone fracture healing is clinically relevant as the patients experience delayed fracture healing. Even though efforts have been made to understand the detrimental effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the fracture healing process, the exact mechanisms causing the pathophysiological outcomes remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess alterations in bone fracture healing (tibial fracture surgery, intramedullary pinning) of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, and to investigate the in vitro properties of osteochondroprogenitors derived from the diabetic micro-environment. Read More

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September 2021

Ischemia reperfusion injury induces pyroptosis and mediates injury in steatotic liver thorough Caspase 1 activation.

Apoptosis 2021 Jun 14;26(5-6):361-370. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 1760 Haygood Drive, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

A steatotic liver is increasingly vulnerable to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. Caspases are endo-proteases, which provide critical regulatory connections between cell death and inflammation. Caspase 1 is driven by inflammasomes which are key signaling platforms, that detect sterile stressors (DAMPs), releasing the highly pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin IL-8 and IL-1β. Read More

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ADP Induces Blood Glucose Through Direct and Indirect Mechanisms in Promotion of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Elevation of NADH.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 27;12:663530. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Extracellular ADP, a derivative of ATP, interacts with the purinergic receptors in the cell membrane to regulate cellular activities. This signaling pathway remains unknown in the regulation of blood glucose . We investigated the acute activity of ADP in mice through a peritoneal injection. Read More

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Therapeutic effects of an aspalathin-rich green rooibos extract, pioglitazone and atorvastatin combination therapy in diabetic db/db mice.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251069. Epub 2021 May 13.

Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform (BRIP), South African Medical Research Council (MRC), Tygerberg, South Africa.

Oral therapeutics used to treat type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease often fail to prevent the progression of disease and their comorbidities. Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), an endemic South African plant used as an herbal tea, has demonstrated positive effects on glycemia and hypercholesterolemia. However, the treatment efficacy of rooibos extract in combination with conventional hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic medications on blood glucose and lipid profiles has not been established. Read More

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Cryo-radiofrequency Stimulates Browning of Adipocytes in Mice.

Cryo Letters 2021 Mar-Apr;42(2):96-105

Department of Nutrition, Nursing School, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Local fat accumulation is a health risk and this has raised interest in the development of aesthetic treatments, such as cryo-radiofrequency (CRF).

Objective: To evaluate the consequences of CRF in adipose tissue remodeling in a model system.

Materials And Methods: Lean and high-fat diet-induced obese mice were assessed 7 days after one CRF application; and lean mice were assessed 0, 3, 6 and 12 h after one application of CRF. Read More

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