415,525 results match your criteria leads reduced

Piezoelectric polarization promoted spatial separation of photoexcited electrons and holes in two-dimensional g-CN nanosheets for efficient elimination of chlorophenols.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 22;421:126696. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Surface & Interface Science of Polymer Materials of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China. Electronic address:

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) has been proved to be a potential photocatalyst for environment purification, but the high recombination rate of photogenerated carriers leads to the low photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, we report the enhanced degradation of chlorophenols by 2D ultrathin g-CN nanosheets with intrinsic piezoelectricity through photopiezocatalysis strategy. Under the simultaneous visible-light irradiation and ultrasonic vibration, the 2D g-CN presented improved removal efficiency for elimination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) with an apparent rate constant of 6. Read More

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The protective effect of isoflurane pretreatment on liver IRI by suppressing noncanonical pyroptosis of liver macrophages.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 29;99:107977. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 40010, China. Electronic address:

Background: Liver ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in the perioperative period and often leads to liver failure and even systemic inflammation. Sufficient evidence has demonstrated that isoflurane has anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to determine whether isoflurane pretreatment protects against liver IRI and to investigate the mechanisms involved in this protection. Read More

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Identification of plant-based multitargeted leads for Alzheimer's disease: In-vitro and in-vivo validation of Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jul 21;91:153659. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Natural Products & Medicinal Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu-180001, India; Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201002, India. Electronic address:

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease with no availability of disease-modifying therapeutics. The complex etiology and recent failures in clinical trials indicate the need for multitargeted agents.

Purpose: The present study aims to discover new plant-based multitargeted anti-AD leads. Read More

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Evaluation of stiffness loss of reinforced concrete beams using the diffuse ultrasound method.

Ultrasonics 2021 Jul 24;117:106540. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, Trindade, CEP 88040-970, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address:

Flexural cracks are common in reinforced concrete (RC) beams. At service loads, the tensile stresses induced by the bending moments cause beam sections to crack, leading to loss of stiffness and a consequent increase in beam deflections. Serviceability limit states in RC beam design include maximum deflection and maximum crack widths. Read More

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Direct Reprogramming Induces Vascular Regeneration Post Muscle Ischemic Injury.

Mol Ther 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA, 10029; Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA, 10029; Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA, 10029. Electronic address:

Reprogramming non-cardiomyocytes (non-CMs) into cardiomyocyte (CM)-like cells is a promising strategy for cardiac regeneration in conditions such as ischemic heart disease. Here, we used a modified mRNA (modRNA) gene delivery platform to deliver a cocktail of four cardiac-reprogramming genes (Gata4 (G), Mef2c (M), Tbx5 (T) and Hand2 (H)) together with three reprogramming-helper genes (Dominant Negative (DN)-TGFβ, DN-Wnt8a and Acid ceramidase (AC)), termed 7G-modRNA, to induce CM-like cells. We showed that 7G-modRNA reprogrammed 57% of CM-like cells in vitro. Read More

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Mini Review: Biomaterials in Repair and Regeneration of Nerve in a Volumetric Muscle Loss.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 28:136145. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Bone Muscle Research Center, College of Nursing and Health Innovation, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019; Materials Science and Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019. Electronic address:

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) following a severe trauma or injury is beyond the intrinsic regenerative capacity of muscle tissues, and hence interventional therapy is required. Extensive muscle loss concomitant with damage to neuromuscular components overwhelms the muscles' remarkable regenerative capacity. The loss of nervous and vascular tissue leads to further damage and atrophy, so a combined treatment for neuromuscular junction (NMJ) along with the volumetric muscle regeneration is important. Read More

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Restoring lost nigrostriatal fibers in Parkinson's disease based on clinically-inspired design criteria.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, United States; Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Corporal Michael Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease affecting around 10 million people worldwide. The death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the axonal fibers that constitute the nigrostriatal pathway leads to a loss of dopamine in the striatum that causes the motor symptoms of this disease. Traditional treatments have focused on reducing symptoms, while therapies with human fetal or stem cell-derived neurons have centered on implanting these cells in the striatum to restore its innervation. Read More

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Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) PIAS1 inhibits innate immune response via interacting with STAT1.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jul 28:104216. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription (PIAS) family protein involved in gene transcriptional regulation acts as negative regulator in Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. But until now, the roles of PIAS in fish are not clear. In this study, we identified the two mammalian PIAS1 orthologs from Ctenopharyngodon idellus, namely CiPIAS1a and CiPIAS1b, respectively. Read More

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Maternal immune activation leads to atypical turning asymmetry and reduced DRD2 mRNA expression in a rat model of schizophrenia.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 28:113504. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Experimental and Molecular Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Preventive Medicine, LWL University Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Atypical asymmetries have been reported in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, linking higher symptom severity to weaker lateralization. Furthermore, both lateralization and schizophrenia are influenced by the dopaminergic system. However, whether a direct link between the etiology of schizophrenia and atypical asymmetries exists is yet to be investigated. Read More

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Myeloperoxidase-induced modification of HDL by isolevuglandins inhibits paraoxonase-1 activity.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 28:101019. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology. Electronic address:

Reduced activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme, has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Post-translational modifications of PON1 may represent important mechanisms leading to reduced PON1 activity. Under atherosclerotic conditions, myeloperoxidase (MPO) is known to associate with HDL. Read More

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A Review of the Evidence and Recommendations on Communication Skills and the Patient-Provider Relationship (PPR): A Rome Foundation Working Team Report.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Background And Aims: Over several decades, changes in health care have negatively impacted meaningful communication between the patient and provider and adversely affected their relationship. Under increasing time pressure, physicians rely more on technology than face-to-face time gathering data to make clinical decisions. As a result, they find it more challenging to understand the illness context and fully address patient needs. Read More

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Extracellular metabolism of 3',5'-cyclic AMP as a source of interstitial adenosine in the rat airways.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jul 28:114713. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Cellular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM/Unifesp), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

In the respiratory tract, intracellular 3',5'-cAMP mediates smooth muscle relaxation triggered by the β-adrenoceptor/ Gs protein/ adenylyl cyclase axis. More recently, we have shown that β-adrenoceptor agonists also increase extracellular 3',5'-cAMP levels in isolated rat trachea, which leads to contraction of airway smooth muscle. In many other tissues, extracellular 3',5'-cAMP is metabolized by ectoenzymes to extracellular adenosine, a catabolic pathway that has never been addressed in airways. Read More

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Targeting ER-stress in the hepatic tumor microenvironment.

FEBS J 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer. It currently ranks as one of the most aggressive and deadly cancers worldwide, with an increasing mortality rate and limited treatment options. An important hallmark of liver pathologies, such as liver fibrosis and HCC, is the accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which induces ER-stress and leads to the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Read More

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Targeting Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Signaling Pathway by Curcumin: Implications for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1291:41-53

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, which involves an auto-immune mechanism that leads to perivascular demyelination. The role of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of MS has been suggested by genome-wide association studies. Therefore, strategies targeting this pathway could be potentially beneficial. Read More

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January 2021

Peripheral Nerve Stimulation: A Review of Techniques and Clinical Efficacy.

Pain Ther 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Chronic pain is a common source of morbidity in many patient populations worldwide. There are growing concerns about the potential side effects of currently prescribed medications and a continued need for effective treatment. Related to these concerns, peripheral nerve stimulation has been regaining popularity as a potential treatment modality. Read More

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LIN28 coordinately promotes nucleolar/ribosomal functions and represses the 2C-like transcriptional program in pluripotent stem cells.

Protein Cell 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Basic Medical Sciences and the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

LIN28 is an RNA binding protein with important roles in early embryo development, stem cell differentiation/reprogramming, tumorigenesis and metabolism. Previous studies have focused mainly on its role in the cytosol where it interacts with Let-7 microRNA precursors or mRNAs, and few have addressed LIN28's role within the nucleus. Here, we show that LIN28 displays dynamic temporal and spatial expression during murine embryo development. Read More

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Whole-body Computed Tomography Versus Dual Energy X‑ray Absorptiometry for Assessing Heterotopic Ossification in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Departments of Radiology, Medicine and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an ultra-rare genetic disorder that leads to heterotopic ossification (HO), resulting in progressive restriction of physical function. In this study, low-dose, whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were evaluated to determine the preferred method for assessing total body burden of HO in patients with FOP. This was a non-interventional, two-part natural history study in patients with FOP (NCT02322255; date of registration: December 2014). Read More

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Dysautonomia in hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and hypermobility spectrum disorders is associated with exercise intolerance and cardiac atrophy.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Dysautonomia is a recognized manifestation in patients with joint hypermobility (JH) disorders. Symptoms can be highly debilitating and commonly include physical deconditioning and poor aerobic fitness. In this study, the prevalence of dysautonomia, range of associated symptoms, patient-reported physical activity levels, and echocardiographic features were assessed retrospectively in a cohort of 144 patients (94% female) with hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) or hypermobility spectrum disorder (HSD). Read More

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Morphological switch is associated with increase in cell-cell contacts, ALP, and confluence above a minimum island area to perimeter ratio.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

During osteogenic differentiation in vitro, stem-like cells seeded at a low-density spread and are isolated. As the cells proliferate and mature, they become more cuboidal in shape with more cell-cell contacts. However, the coordination of this switch in cell morphology from elongated to cuboidal, cell-cell contacts, and differentiation is not known. Read More

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Knockdown of ER-α36 expression inhibits glioma proliferation, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Genetics and Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Ministry of Education, School of Basic Medical Science, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Estrogen receptor-α36 (ER-α36), a subtype of the estrogen receptor, is reported to play roles in tumorigenesis and tamoxifen resistance in several tumors, especially breast cancer. However, the role of ER-α36 in glioma proliferation and invasion remains unknown. Here, we explored the function of ER-α36 in glioma cells, using U87 and U251 cell lines. Read More

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Multiplexed Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Imaging.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2350:299-312

FOCAS Research Institute, Technological University Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies are being increasingly employed for the label-free analysis of biochemical samples. Both are vibrational imaging techniques, but they provide complementary information about the chemical composition of the sample, and thus the integration of Raman and IR images leads to a comprehensive understanding of the samples. Here, we summarize the steps needed for performing multiplexed infrared and Raman imaging, identifying and overcoming the two main challenges: first, the technical difficulties caused by the incompatibilities of the techniques and, second, the necessity to extract the information from the large number of vibrational variables found in both IR and Raman spectra. Read More

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January 2021

An experimentally informed statistical elasto-plastic mineralised collagen fibre model at the micrometre and nanometre lengthscale.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15539. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK.

Bone is an intriguingly complex material. It combines high strength, toughness and lightweight via an elaborate hierarchical structure. This structure results from a biologically driven self-assembly and self-organisation, and leads to different deformation mechanisms along the length scales. Read More

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A fructose/H symporter controlled by a LacI-type regulator promotes survival of pandemic Vibrio cholerae in seawater.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 30;12(1):4649. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin, P. R. China.

The bacterium Vibrio cholerae can colonize the human intestine and cause cholera, but spends much of its life cycle in seawater. The pathogen must adapt to substantial environmental changes when moving between seawater and the human intestine, including different availability of carbon sources such as fructose. Here, we use in vitro experiments as well as mouse intestinal colonization assays to study the mechanisms used by pandemic V. Read More

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Plasmodium falciparum transcription in different clinical presentations of malaria associates with circulation time of infected erythrocytes.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 30;12(1):4711. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Centre of Infectious Diseases, Parasitology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Following Plasmodium falciparum infection, individuals can remain asymptomatic, present with mild fever in uncomplicated malaria cases, or show one or more severe malaria symptoms. Several studies have investigated associations between parasite transcription and clinical severity, but no broad conclusions have yet been drawn. Here, we apply a series of bioinformatic approaches based on P. Read More

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Skeletal stem and progenitor cells maintain cranial suture patency and prevent craniosynostosis.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 30;12(1):4640. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Cranial sutures are major growth centers for the calvarial vault, and their premature fusion leads to a pathologic condition called craniosynostosis. This study investigates whether skeletal stem/progenitor cells are resident in the cranial sutures. Prospective isolation by FACS identifies this population with a significant difference in spatio-temporal representation between fusing versus patent sutures. Read More

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Alternative splicing of mRNA in colorectal cancer: new strategies for tumor diagnosis and treatment.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 30;12(8):752. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Oncology, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Alternative splicing (AS) is an important event that contributes to posttranscriptional gene regulation. This process leads to several mature transcript variants with diverse physiological functions. Indeed, disruption of various aspects of this multistep process, such as cis- or trans- factor alteration, promotes the progression of colorectal cancer. Read More

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UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2, a regulator of glycogen synthesis and glycosylation, is critical for pancreatic cancer growth.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Helen Diller Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158;

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (UGP2), the enzyme that synthesizes uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose, rests at the convergence of multiple metabolic pathways, however, the role of UGP2 in tumor maintenance and cancer metabolism remains unclear. Here, we identify an important role for UGP2 in the maintenance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) growth in both in vitro and in vivo tumor models. We found that transcription of UGP2 is directly regulated by the Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP)-TEA domain transcription factor (TEAD) complex, identifying UGP2 as a bona fide YAP target gene. Read More

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Parental methylome reprogramming in human uniparental blastocysts reveals germline memory transition.

Genome Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Henan Key Laboratory of Reproduction and Genetics.

Uniparental embryos derived from only the mother (gynogenetic, GG) or the father (androgenetic, AG) are unique models for studying genomic imprinting and parental contributions to embryonic development. Human parthenogenetic embryos can be obtained following artificial activation of unfertilized oocytes, but the production of AG embryos by injection of two sperm into one denucleated oocyte leads to an extra centriole, resulting in multipolar spindles, abnormal cell division, and developmental defects. Here, we improved androgenote production by transferring the male pronucleus from one zygote into another haploid androgenote to prevent extra centrioles and successfully generated human diploid androgenetic embryos capable of developing into blastocysts with an identifiable inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE). Read More

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Neuronal activity in the premotor cortex of monkeys reflects both cue salience and motivation for action generation and inhibition.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy

Reward prospect weighs on motor decision processes, enhancing the selection of appropriate actions and the inhibition of others.While many studies have investigated the neuronal basis of reward representations and of cortical control of actions, the neuronal correlates of the influence of reward prospect on motor decisions are less clear.We recorded from the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of two male macaque monkeys performing a modified version of the stop-signal (countermanding) task. Read More

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J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada

Huntington's Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive motor impairment with no available disease-modifying treatments. Current evidence indicates that exacerbated postsynaptic glutamate signaling in the striatum plays a key role in the pathophysiology of HD. However, it remains unclear whether reducing glutamate release can be an effective approach to slow the progression of HD. Read More

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