168 results match your criteria leads imprecise

Density-independent plasmons for terahertz-stable topological metamaterials.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Beijing Computational Science Research Center, 100193 Beijing, China;

To efficiently integrate cutting-edge terahertz technology into compact devices, the highly confined terahertz plasmons are attracting intensive attention. Compared to plasmons at visible frequencies in metals, terahertz plasmons, typically in lightly doped semiconductors or graphene, are sensitive to carrier density () and thus have an easy tunability, which leads to unstable or imprecise terahertz spectra. By deriving a simplified but universal form of plasmon frequencies, here, we reveal a unified mechanism for generating unusual -independent plasmons (DIPs) in all topological states with different dimensions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficient CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Knock-In of Composite Tags in Zebrafish Using Long ssDNA as a Donor.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 11;8:598634. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Kochi, Japan.

Despite the unprecedented gene editing capability of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated targeted knock-in, the efficiency and precision of this technology still require further optimization, particularly for multicellular model organisms, such as the zebrafish (). Our study demonstrated that an ∼200 base-pair sequence encoding a composite tag can be efficiently "knocked-in" into the zebrafish genome using a combination of the CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complex and a long single-stranded DNA (lssDNA) as a donor template. Here, we targeted the , , and genes to evaluate the knock-in efficiency of lssDNA donors with different structures in somatic cells of injected embryos and for their germline transmission. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Heroin use cannot be measured adequately with a general population survey.

Addiction 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

University of Maryland, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, College Park, MD, USA.

Background: Globally, heroin and other opioids account for more than half of deaths and years-of-life-lost due to drug use and comprise one of the four major markets for illegal drugs. Having sound estimates of the number of problematic heroin users is fundamental to formulating sound health and criminal justice policies. Researchers and policymakers rely heavily upon general population surveys (GPS), such as the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), to estimate heroin use, without confronting their limitations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Unilateral macular serpiginous-like choroiditis as the initial manifestation of presumed ocular tuberculosis.

Int J Retina Vitreous 2021 Jan 4;7(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Retina and Vitreous Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Fluminense Federal University, Marques do Parana Avenue 303 Centro, Niterói, RJ, 24033-900, Brazil.

Background: Classic serpiginous choroiditis (SC) usually begins in the peripapillary area and spreads centrifugally, however, in some patients, the lesion can arise in the macular region. An association between lesions resembling classic SC and tuberculosis was recognized as a possibly distinct clinical entity and named as tuberculous serpiginous-like choroiditis. The differentiation of this tuberculous entity from SC is critical because the treatment of the former with immunosuppressive drugs leads to several potential adverse effects, and such treatment can have devastating consequences because of the worsening of a concomitant tuberculous infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Multi-modal biomarkers of low back pain: A machine learning approach.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 8;29:102530. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Meritas Health Neurosurgery, North Kansas City 64116, USA.

Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a very common health problem worldwide and a major cause of disability. Yet, the lack of quantifiable metrics on which to base clinical decisions leads to imprecise treatments, unnecessary surgery and reduced patient outcomes. Although, the focus of LBP has largely focused on the spine, the literature demonstrates a robust reorganization of the human brain in the setting of LBP. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Interventions for Post-Stroke Shoulder Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

Int J Gen Med 2020 7;13:1411-1426. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Rehabilitation, Aged and Extended Care, Flinders Health and Medical Research Institute, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: Shoulder pain following stroke leads to poorer quality of life and daily functioning. Whilst many treatment approaches exist, there is currently no systematic overview of the evidence base for these. This review addressed the question "What is the evidence for interventions for treating hemiplegic shoulder pain?"

Methods: An overview of systematic reviews was performed according to PROSPERO protocol (CRD42020140521). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

A computer-simulated mechanism of familial Alzheimer's disease: Mutations enhance thermal dynamics and favor looser substrate-binding to γ-secretase.

J Struct Biol 2020 12 21;212(3):107648. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:

The 4-subunit intramembrane protease complex γ-secretase cleaves many substrates including fragments of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), leading to formation of Aβ peptides, and Notch. Mutations in APP and the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, presenilin, cause familial Alzheimer's disease (fAD). Mutations are assumed to change the substrate-binding and cleavage and thereby the Aβ formed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Critical review and re-assessment of analyte protectants in gas chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2020 Nov 29;1632:461596. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Departamento de Química, Unidad Departamental de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL). Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez, s/n. 38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna (Tenerife), España.

Despite nearly 80 years of advancements in gas chromatography (GC), indirect chemical matrix effects (MEs), known as the matrix-induced response enhancement effect, still occur to cause a high bias in the GC analysis of susceptible analytes, unless precautions are taken. Matrix-matched calibration is one common option used in GC to compensate for the MEs, but this approach is usually inconvenient, imprecise, and inefficient. Other options, such as the method of standard additions, surface deactivation techniques, chemical derivatizations, priming the GC, and/or use of internal standards, also have flaws in practice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Design and Applicability of a Mechanical Impedance Sensor for Vein Penetration Detection.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2020 07;2020:4016-4019

Intravenous needle insertion is typically conducted manually, with needles guided into vessels by feel while looking for a brief flash of blood. This process is imprecise and leads to mispositioned needles, multiple reinsertion attempts, increased procedure time and higher costs for the hospital. We present a method for indicating that the needle has reached the vein by measuring the change in mechanical impedance of the needle as it passes through different tissue layers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CRISPR base editing and prime editing: DSB and template-free editing systems for bacteria and plants.

Synth Syst Biotechnol 2020 Dec 2;5(4):277-292. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

CRISPR-Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-CRISPR associated) has been extensively exploited as a genetic tool for genome editing. The RNA guided Cas nucleases generate DNA double-strand break (DSB), triggering cellular repair systems mainly Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ, imprecise repair) or Homology-directed repair (HDR, precise repair). However, DSB typically leads to unexpected DNA changes and lethality in some organisms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Do directional deep brain stimulation leads rotate after implantation?

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 01 11;163(1):197-203. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Neurology, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Background: The two middle contacts of directional leads (d-leads) for deep brain stimulation are split into three segments, allowing current steering toward desired axial directions. To facilitate programming, their final orientation needs to be reliably determined. However, it is currently unclear whether d-leads rotate after implantation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

High-performance portable graphene field-effect transistor device for detecting Gram-positive and -negative bacteria.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Nov 15;167:112514. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Infectious Disease Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea; Department of Nanobiotechnology, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Current techniques for Gram-typing and for diagnosing a pathogen at the early infection stage rely on Gram stains, cultures, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and gene microarrays, which are labor-intensive and time-consuming approaches. In addition, a delayed or imprecise diagnosis of clinical pathogenic bacteria leads to a life-threatening emergency or overuse of antibiotics and a high-rate occurrence of antimicrobial-resistance microbes. Herein, we report high-performance antibiotics (as bioprobes) conjugated graphene micropattern field-effect transistors (ABX-GMFETs) to facilitate on-site Gram-typing and help in the detection of the presence or absence of Gram-negative and -positive bacteria in the samples. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

[The definition of chronic kidney disease in a context of aging population].

G Ital Nefrol 2020 Aug 11;37(4). Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Struttura Complessa di Nefrologia e Dialisi, Policlinico di Modena; Dipartimento Chirurgico, Medico, Odontoiatrico e di Scienze Morfologiche con Interesse Trapiantologico, Oncologico e di Medicina Rigenerativa, Modena, Italia.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressively chronic disease that carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is associated with significant healthcare utilization and costs. Recent trends shown that the prevalence of CKD is stable in Europe and USA, whereas tends to decline in some countries with a high standard of care. According to international guidelines, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or a glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Apolipoprotein E knockout rabbit model of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

Animal Model Exp Med 2020 Jun 21;3(2):208-213. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences University of Utah Salt Lake City UT USA.

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is the most common cause of ischemic stroke. Poor understanding of the disease due to limited human data leads to imprecise treatment. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-KO) rabbits were compared to an existing model, the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit, and wild-type New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit controls. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

PIQMEE: Bayesian Phylodynamic Method for Analysis of Large Data Sets with Duplicate Sequences.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 10;37(10):3061-3075

Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zürich, Basel, Switzerland.

Next-generation sequencing of pathogen quasispecies within a host yields data sets of tens to hundreds of unique sequences. However, the full data set often contains thousands of sequences, because many of those unique sequences have multiple identical copies. Data sets of this size represent a computational challenge for currently available Bayesian phylogenetic and phylodynamic methods. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Confounding and effect measure modification in reproductive medicine research.

Hum Reprod 2020 05;35(5):1013-1018

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

The majority of research within reproductive and gynecologic health, or investigating ART, is observational in design. One of the most critical challenges for observational studies is confounding, while one of the most important for discovery and inference is effect modification. In this commentary, we explain what confounding and effect modification are and why they matter. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Hemolyzed Sample: To Analyse Or Not To Analyse.

Indian J Clin Biochem 2020 Apr 11;35(2):232-238. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Biochemistry, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi-60, India.

Preanalytical errors constitute about 40-65% of laboratory errors, of which 60% are due to hemolysis. This leads to imprecise reporting and misinterpretation of the actual concentration of analytes. Hence the aim of this study was to estimate the extent of different degrees of interference by visible hemolysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spatiotemporal signal detection using continuous shrinkage priors.

Stat Med 2020 Feb 27. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Periodontal disease (PD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the gum tissue and bone supporting the teeth. Although tooth-site level PD progression is believed to be spatio-temporally referenced, the whole-mouth average periodontal pocket depth (PPD) has been commonly used as an indicator of the current/active status of PD. This leads to imminent loss of information, and imprecise parameter estimates. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

High-Flow Oxygen Therapy Concepts: Time to Standardize Nomenclature and Avoid Confusion.

J Intensive Care Med 2020 May 27;35(5):519-523. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA.

High-flow nasal oxygen systems are rapidly being adopted as an initial noninvasive treatment for acute respiratory failure. However, the term "high-flow nasal cannula" is nonspecific and leads to imprecise communication between physicians, respiratory therapists, and nurses with the potential for patient harm. In this viewpoint and a brief review of the technology, we argue for a change in nomenclature in order to reduce the chance for future clinical, administrative, and research misunderstanding surrounding high-flow nasal oxygen systems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of water deficit stress in maize: Phenology and yield components.

Sci Rep 2020 02 19;10(1):2944. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha, India.

Fifteen million farmers in India engaged in Maize cultivation. India would require 45 MMT of Maize by 2022. But, only 15% of cultivated area of maize is under irrigation and water shortage has been a challenge for sustainability of maize production. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

The Yin and Yang of RNA surveillance in B lymphocytes and antibody-secreting plasma cells.

BMB Rep 2019 Dec;52(12):671-678

UMR CNRS 7276 - INSERM 1268 - Université de Limoges, Centre de Biologie et de Recherche en Santé, 2 rue du Dr Marcland, Limoges F-87025, France.

The random V(D)J recombination process ensures the diversity of the primary immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire. In two thirds of cases, imprecise recombination between variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments induces a frameshift in the open reading frame that leads to the appearance of premature termination codons (PTCs). Thus, many B lineage cells harbour biallelic V(D)J-rearrangements of Ig heavy or light chain genes, with a productively-recombined allele encoding the functional Ig chain and a nonproductive allele potentially encoding truncated Ig polypeptides. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2019

Optimizing Mycophenolic Acid Exposure in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Time for Target Concentration Intervention.

Transplantation 2019 10;103(10):2012-2030

Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The immunosuppressive agent mycophenolate is used extensively in kidney transplantation, yet dosing strategy applied varies markedly from fixed dosing ("one-dose-fits-all"), to mycophenolic acid (MPA) trough concentration monitoring, to dose optimization to an MPA exposure target (as area under the concentration-time curve [MPA AUC0-12]). This relates in part to inconsistent results in prospective trials of concentration-controlled dosing (CCD). In this review, the totality of evidence supporting mycophenolate CCD is examined: pharmacological characteristics, observational data linking exposure to efficacy and toxicities, and randomized controlled trials of CCD, with attention to dose optimization method and exposure achieved. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2019

Individual differences in subphonemic sensitivity and phonological skills.

J Mem Lang 2019 Aug 22;107:195-215. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1020, USA.

Many studies have established a link between phonological abilities (indexed by phonological awareness and phonological memory tasks) and typical and atypical reading development. Individuals who perform poorly on phonological assessments have been mostly assumed to have (or "fuzzy") phonological representations, with typical phonemic categories, but with greater category overlap due to imprecise encoding. An alternative posits that poor readers have phonological representations, with speech sounds perceived allophonically (phonetically distinct variants of a single phonemic category). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anaesthetic-analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT.

Health Technol Assess 2019 07;23(34):1-48

Primary Care and Population Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common reason for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing in children. Options for improved pain control may influence antibiotic prescribing and consumption.

Objective: The Children's Ear Pain Study (CEDAR) investigated whether or not providing anaesthetic-analgesic ear drops reduced antibiotic consumption in children with AOM. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Measuring bone defects for acetabular revision surgery for choosing an appropriate reconstruction strategy: A concept study on plastic models.

Comput Biol Med 2019 08 18;111:103336. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Orthopaedics - Experimental Orthopaedics, Innrain 36, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Bone defects can be filled with autografts, allografts and artificial bone-materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the digitization of known defect models with a navigation system is a reliable measurement method for estimating the size of a bone defect.

Methods: Six preformed, cylindrical and cone-shaped defects on an artificial hip-bone were digitalized by six different observers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mucolytic agents versus placebo for chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 05 20;5:CD001287. Epub 2019 May 20.

Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Individuals with chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may suffer recurrent exacerbations with an increase in volume or purulence of sputum, or both. Personal and healthcare costs associated with exacerbations indicate that therapies that reduce the occurrence of exacerbations are likely to be useful. Mucolytics are oral medicines that are believed to increase expectoration of sputum by reducing its viscosity, thus making it easier to cough it up. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ethical issues with testing and treatment for Krabbe disease.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 12 15;61(12):1358-1361. Epub 2019 May 15.

Children's Mercy Bioethics Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Early-infantile Krabbe disease (EIKD) is an autosomal recessive, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that usually leads to death in infancy. A study published in 2005 indicated that hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) was effective in the treatment for EIKD when used before the onset of symptoms. This finding suggested that newborn screening for EIKD, which would allow earlier diagnosis, might lead to earlier treatment and better outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2019

Top-down or bottom up: decreased stimulus salience increases responses to predictable stimuli of auditory thalamic neurons.

J Physiol 2019 05 21;597(10):2767-2784. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, , Department of Pharmacology, Springfield, IL, USA.

Key Points: Temporal imprecision leads to deficits in the comprehension of signals in cluttered acoustic environments, and the elderly are shown to use cognitive resources to disambiguate these signals. To mimic ageing in young rats, we delivered sound signals that are temporally degraded, which led to temporally imprecise neural codes. Instead of adaptation to repeated stimuli, with degraded signals, there was a relative increase in firing rates, similar to that seen in aged rats. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pain: A Precision Signal for Reinforcement Learning and Control.

Ben Seymour

Neuron 2019 03;101(6):1029-1041

Center for Information and Neural Networks, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 1-4 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; Computational and Biological Learning Lab, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK. Electronic address:

Since noxious stimulation usually leads to the perception of pain, pain has traditionally been considered sensory nociception. But its variability and sensitivity to a broad array of cognitive and motivational factors have meant it is commonly viewed as inherently imprecise and intangibly subjective. However, the core function of pain is motivational-to direct both short- and long-term behavior away from harm. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF