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Executive Functions in panic disorder: A mini-review.

J Affect Disord 2021 Apr 3;288:107-113. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Background: Panic disorder (PD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks whose aetiology might be associated with alterations of the prefrontal-amygdala circuitry. The prefrontal cortex is a key region involved in executive functioning (EF) whose disturbance may imply harsh consequences over personal, social, and working aspects of PD patients. Indeed, defining the real involvement of EF in PD could lead to early assessment, better treatment, and rehabilitation options. Read More

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Computational Saturation Screen Reveals the Landscape of Mutations in Human Fumarate Hydratase.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, U.K.

Single amino acid substitutions within protein structures often manifest with clinical conditions in humans. The mutation of a single amino can significantly alter protein folding and stability, or change protein dynamics to influence function. The chemical engineering field has developed a large toolset for predicting the influence of point mutations with the aim of guiding the design of improved and more stable proteins. Read More

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Genome Editing in Y. lipolytica Using TALENs.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2307:25-39

LISBP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INRA, INSA, Toulouse, France.

TALENs (Transcription Activator-Like EndoNuclease) are molecular scissors designed to recognize and introduce a double-strand break at a specific genome locus. They represent tools of interest in the frame of genome edition. Upon cleavage, two different pathways lead to DNA repair: Non-homologous End Joining (NHEJ) repair, leading to efficient introduction of short insertion/deletion mutations which can disrupt translational reading frame and Homology Recombination (HR)-directed repair that occurs when exogenous DNA is supplied. Read More

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January 2021

Molecular Insights into Myocilin and Its Glaucoma-Causing Misfolded Olfactomedin Domain Variants.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Dr. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400, United States.

ConspectusNumerous human disorders arise due to the inability of a particular protein to adopt its correct three-dimensional structure in the context of the cell, leading to aggregation. A new addition to the list of such protein conformational disorders is the inherited subtype of glaucoma. Different and rare coding mutations in myocilin, found in families throughout the world, are causal for early onset ocular hypertension, a key glaucoma risk factor. Read More

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Microdiscectomy compared with transforaminal epidural steroid injection for persistent radicular pain caused by prolapsed intervertebral disc: the NERVES RCT.

Health Technol Assess 2021 Apr;25(24):1-86

Liverpool Clinical Trials Centre, University of Liverpool (member of Liverpool Health Partners), Liverpool, UK.

Background: Sciatica is a common condition reported to affect > 3% of the UK population at any time and is most often caused by a prolapsed intervertebral disc. Currently, there is no uniformly adopted treatment strategy. Invasive treatments, such as surgery (i. Read More

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Bilateral tension pneumothorax during endoscopic submucosal dissection under general anesthesia diagnosed by point-of-care ultrasound - A case report.

Anesth Pain Med (Seoul) 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection has become popular. However, this can cause serious complications. In this case, esophageal perforation caused bilateral tension pneumothorax. Read More

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Accessing the Conduction Band Dispersion in CHNHPbI Single Crystals.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 12:3773-3778. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Photo-Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Japan.

The conduction band dispersion in methylammonium lead iodide (CHNHPbI) was studied by both angle-resolved two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-2PPE) with low photon intensity (∼0.0125 nJ/pulse) and angle-resolved low-energy inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-LEIPS). Clear energy dispersion of the conduction band along the Γ-M direction was first observed by these independent methods under different temperatures, and the dispersion was found to be consistent with band calculation under the cubic phase. Read More

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A Deferred-Vaccination Design to Assess Durability of COVID-19 Vaccine Effect After the Placebo Group Is Vaccinated.

Ann Intern Med 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (K.M.N.).

Multiple candidate vaccines to prevent COVID-19 have entered large-scale phase 3 placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials, and several have demonstrated substantial short-term efficacy. At some point after demonstration of substantial efficacy, placebo recipients should be offered the efficacious vaccine from their trial, which will occur before longer-term efficacy and safety are known. The absence of a placebo group could compromise assessment of longer-term vaccine effects. Read More

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Design, Synthesis, and Structural Analysis of Cladosporin-Based Inhibitors of Malaria Parasites.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India.

Here we have described a systematic structure activity relationship (SAR) of a set of compounds inspired from cladosporin, a tool compound that targets parasite () lysyl tRNA synthetase (KRS). Four sets of analogues, synthesized based on point changes in the chemical scaffold of cladosporin and other logical modifications and hybridizations, were assessed using high throughput enzymatic and parasitic assays along with pharmacokinetics. Co-crystallization of the most potent compound in our series () with KRS revealed its structural basis of enzymatic binding and potency. Read More

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Fluorinated Polymer Membranes as Advanced Substrates for Portable Analytical Systems and Their Proof of Concept for Colorimetric Bioassays.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

CMEMS-UMinho, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Azurém, Guimarães 4800-058, Portugal.

Portable analytical systems are increasingly required for clinical analysis or environmental monitoring, among others, being materials with tailored physicochemical properties among the main needs for successful functional implementation. This article describes the processing of fluorinated poly(vinylidene--trifluorethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), membranes with tailored morphological and physicochemical properties to be used as microfluidic substrates for portable analytical systems, commonly called point-of-care systems in the medical field. The morphology of the developed membranes includes spherulitic, porous, randomly oriented, and oriented fibers. Read More

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Multithreshold change plane model: Estimation theory and applications in subgroup identification.

Stat Med 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Biotatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

We propose a multithreshold change plane regression model which naturally partitions the observed subjects into subgroups with different covariate effects. The underlying grouping variable is a linear function of observed covariates and thus multiple thresholds produce change planes in the covariate space. We contribute a novel two-stage estimation approach to determine the number of subgroups, the location of thresholds, and all other regression parameters. Read More

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Utilization of a training portfolio in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery: the example of the French platform-EPIFORM.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Mar;13(3):2054-2057

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France.

Thoracic and cardiovascular surgery requires learning both theoretical knowledge and technical skills. In this surgical field, several disparities exist between the different training programs around the world. This report describes the implementation of a portfolio in the teaching and assessment of French trainees in Thoracic and Cardiovascular surgery, following an electronic logbook model, aiming to improve the training program. Read More

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Piezoelectric tools versus traditional oscillating saw for distal linear osteotomy in hallux valgus correction: Triple-blinded, randomized controlled study.

Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

II Clinic of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The main goal of the surgical correction of the hallux valgus is the morphological correction associated with the functional rebalancing of the first ray. The aim of this triple-blinded, randomized controlled study was to show the efficacy of piezosurgery in performing distal linear osteotomy of the first metatarsal bone in HV correction, in terms of clinical and radiological outcomes at 1-year final follow up.

Methods And Materials: This study was performed collecting prospectively pre-operative and post-operative data for all patients. Read More

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Vergence, accommodation, and visual tracking in children and adolescents evaluated in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic.

Vision Res 2021 Apr 7;184:30-36. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States.

Many patients with concussion experience visual symptoms following injury that lead to a diagnosis of convergence insufficiency, accommodative insufficiency, or saccadic dysfunction. However, these diagnostic categories are based on aggregates of clinical tests developed from a non-concussed population and therefore may not accurately describe visual deficits in the concussed population. Thus, we sought to understand individual metrics of visual dysfunction in chronically symptomatic post-concussion patients. Read More

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Universal Toxicity Gene Signatures for Early Identification of Drug-Induced Tissue Injuries in Rats.

Toxicol Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Safety Assessment and Laboratory Animal Resources, Merck & Co., Inc., West Point, PA, 19486, USA.

A new safety testing paradigm that relies on gene expression biomarker panels was developed to easily and quickly identify drug-induced injuries across tissues in rats prior to drug candidate selection. Here we describe the development, qualification, and implementation of gene expression signatures that diagnose tissue degeneration/necrosis for use in early rat safety studies. Approximately 400 differentially expressed genes were first identified that were consistently regulated across 4 prioritized tissues (liver, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle), following injuries induced by known toxicants. Read More

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Spatial and temporal scales of dopamine transmission.

Nat Rev Neurosci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Dopamine is a prototypical neuromodulator that controls circuit function through G protein-coupled receptor signalling. Neuromodulators are volume transmitters, with release followed by diffusion for widespread receptor activation on many target cells. Yet, we are only beginning to understand the specific organization of dopamine transmission in space and time. Read More

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