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Quantifying intraepithelial lymphocytes and subepithelial collagen band in microscopic colitis, extracting insights into the interrelationship of lymphocytic and collagenous colitis.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 Mar 31;52:151741. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Medical Gastroenterology, Zealand University Hospital Koege, Lykkebækvej 1, 4600 Koege, Denmark.

Microscopic colitis (MC) is the umbrella term for the conditions termed lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). LC with thickening of the subepithelial collagen band or CC with increased number of intraepithelial T- lymphocytes (IELs) is often seen in MC and may lead to difficulties in correct histological classification. We investigated the extent of overlapping features of CC and LC in 60 cases of MC by measuring the exact thickness of the subepithelial collagen band in Van Gieson stained slides and quantifying number of IELs in CD3 stained slides by digital image analysis. Read More

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Remodelling of trabecular bone in human distal tibia: A model based on an in-vivo HR-pQCT study.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Apr 14;119:104506. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.

An abnormal remodelling process of bones can lead to various bone disorders, such as osteoporosis, making them prone to fracture. Simulations of load-induced remodelling of trabecular bone were used to investigate its response to mechanical signal. However, the role of mechanostat in trabecular-bone remodelling has not yet been investigated in simulations underpinned by a longitudinal in-vivo study in humans. Read More

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Metabolome and lipidome derangements during a severe mast cell activation event in a patient with indolent systemic mastocytosis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Background: The number of mast cells in various organs is manifold elevated in individuals with systemic mastocytosis. Degranulation can lead to life-threatening symptomatology. No data have been published about the alterations of the metabolome and lipidome during an attack. Read More

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Immune profiling of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei and successful management with anti-TNF therapy.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology, most often seen in young adults. Although many treatment modalities exist for LMDF, treatment guidelines have not been developed and response to therapy is generally unpredictable. Herein, we present transcriptomic analysis of LMDF lesional skin, which revealed a variety of differentially expressed genes linking LMDF to alterations in innate and adaptive Th1 immunity. Read More

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Arsenic and Human Health: Genotoxicity, Epigenomic Effects, and Cancer Signaling.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Graduate School of Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, 1-1 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, 808-0135, Japan.

Arsenic is a well-known element because of its toxicity. Humans as well as plants and animals are negatively affected by its exposure. Some countries suffer from high levels of arsenic in their tap water and soils, which is considered a primary arsenic-linked risk factor for living beings. Read More

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Cancer Treatment-Induced Bone Loss (CTIBL): State of the Art and Proper Management in Breast Cancer Patients on Endocrine Therapy.

Curr Treat Options Oncol 2021 Apr 16;22(5):45. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Medical Oncology, Department of Precision Medicine, School of Medicine, "Luigi Vanvitelli" University of Campania, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Opinion Statement: About 70-80% of early breast cancer (BC) patients receive adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) for at least 5 years. ET includes in the majority of cases the use of aromatase inhibitors, as upfront or switch strategy, that lead to impaired bone health. Given the high incidence and also the high prevalence of BC, cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) represents the most common long-term adverse event experimented by patients with hormone receptor positive tumours. Read More

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Contrasting associations between nestling telomere length and pre and postnatal helpers' presence in a cooperatively breeding bird.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Research Centre On Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, CIBIO-InBio, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Studies on cooperative breeders have addressed the effects of non-breeding 'helpers' on reproduction and parental care, but the consequences for offspring physiology and long-term survival are less understood. Helpers are expected to benefit offspring, but their presence can also lead to decreased pre- or post-natal parental reproductive effort. To examine whether prenatal and postnatal helpers influence offspring condition, we conducted a whole-clutch cross-fostering experiment in sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) that altered the nestlings' social environment (presence/absence of helpers). Read More

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Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide positively regulates neuropeptide secretion during diet-induced activation of the oxidative stress response.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 16;12(1):2304. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Mitochondria play a pivotal role in the generation of signals coupling metabolism with neurotransmitter release, but a role for mitochondrial-produced ROS in regulating neurosecretion has not been described. Here we show that endogenously produced hydrogen peroxide originating from axonal mitochondria (mtHO) functions as a signaling cue to selectively regulate the secretion of a FMRFamide-related neuropeptide (FLP-1) from a pair of interneurons (AIY) in C. elegans. Read More

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Reorganization of auditory-visual network interactions in long-term unilateral postlingual hearing loss.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 May 19;87:97-102. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, China; Neurosurgical Institute of Fudan University, China; Shanghai Clinical Medical Center of Neurosurgery, China. Electronic address:

Long-term unilateral hearing loss could reorganize the functional network association between the bilateral auditory cortices, while alterations of other functional networks need to be further explored. We attempted to investigate the pattern of the reorganization of functional network associations between the auditory and visual cortex caused by long-term postlingual unilateral hearing loss (UHI) and its relationship with clinical characteristics. Therefore, 48 patients with hearing loss caused by unilateral acoustic tumors and 52 matched healthy controls were enrolled, and their high-resolution structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI data were also collected to depict the brain network. Read More

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Infections in Older Adults.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2021 May 23;39(2):379-394. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Divisions of Emergency Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, 4523 Clayton Avenue, Campus Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Infections in elderly patients can prove diagnostically challenging. Age-related factors affecting the immune system in older individuals contribute to nonspecific presentations. Other age-related factors and chronic conditions have symptoms that may or may not point to an infectious diagnosis. Read More

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Randomized pilot study of a special education advocacy program for Latinx/minority parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism 2021 Apr 16:1362361321998561. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Fiesta Educativa, Inc., USA.

Lay Abstract: Persistent racial and ethnic disparities in obtaining an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and services have been documented for Latinx children and other racial/ethnic minorities. This study reports on an educational intervention examining the effectiveness and feasibility of a low-intensity (i.e. Read More

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Dysfunction of the Klotho-miR-30s/TRPC6 axis confers podocyte injury.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 13;557:90-96. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Klotho deficiency was observed in virtually all kinds of kidney disease and is thought to play a critical role in podocyte injury. However, the underline mechanisms involved in podocyte injury remain unknown. miRNAs have diverse regulatory roles, and miR-30 family members were essential for podocyte homeostasis. Read More

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Circulating sFasL Levels Predict the Severity and Outcome of Burn Injury: A Prospective Observational Study.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 13;265:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Burn and Trauma, Fujian Burn Institute, Fujian Burn Medical Center, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Background: Severe burn injury activates shock, inflammation, and blood cell system, but inappropriate reactions may lead to adverse outcomes. Soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) participates in apoptosis and inflammatory response. The circulating sFasL levels we investigated in association with the burn severity, shock, inflammation, blood cells, and mortality in patients with severe burns. Read More

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Effect of organosilicone and mineral silicon fertilizers on chemical forms of cadmium and lead in soil and their accumulation in rice.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 9;283:117107. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pollution in soil and their accumulation in edible parts possess a worldwide eco-environmental and health risk, especially in developing countries. Recently, organosilicone fertilizer (OSiF) has been reported to reduce uptake of heavy metals, but the effectiveness has not been verified and its associated mechanisms are not fully understood. This work investigated whether and how OSiF and mineral silicon fertilizer (MSiF) affect mitigation of Cd and Pb stress in rice (Oryza sativa). Read More

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Induction of cellular senescence as a late effect and BDNF-TrkB signaling-mediated ameliorating effect on disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis after developmental exposure to lead acetate in rats.

Toxicology 2021 Apr 13:152782. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Cooperative Division of Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

Lead (Pb) exposure causes cognitive deficits in children. The present study investigated the effect of developmental exposure to Pb acetate (PbAc) on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis. Pregnant rats were administered drinking water containing 0, 2000, or 4000 ppm PbAc from gestational day 6 until day 21 post-delivery (weaning), and offspring were maintained without PbAc exposure until adulthood on postnatal day (PND) 77. Read More

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The influence of skin barrier impairment on the iontophoretic transport of low and high molecular weight permeants.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 13:120607. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, CMU - 1 rue Michel Servet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland; Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Western Switzerland, University of Geneva, CMU - 1 rue Michel Servet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The effect of skin barrier impairment on the iontophoretic transport of low (acetaminophen (ACM), lidocaine (LD), ketorolac (KT)) and high molecular weight permeants, (cytochrome c (Cyt c) and ribonuclease T1 (RNase T1)), was evaluated using tape-stripping (TS) and fractional laser ablation for "large-scale" and "localized" barrier disruption. Interestingly, removal of the stratum corneum did not invariably lead to an increase in iontophoretic delivery of the permeants. Decrease of electroosmotic (EO) flow and facilitated transport of Cl ions in the cathode-to-anode direction, which reduced cation electromigration (EM), both impacted cation delivery by anodal iontophoresis but the effects were partly offset by enhanced passive diffusion. Read More

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Introduction of the orthogeriatric co-management model increases the quality of care : a pilot study.

Acta Orthop Belg 2020 Dec;86(4):580-587

Traditionally, geriatric patients with musculoskeletal or osteoarticular problems will be admitted to an orthopedic ward and will be treated by sur- geons. However, these patients often suffer from comorbidities requiring geriatric management. In this study, the orthogeriatric co-management (OG- CM) model is compared to traditional orthopedic care model in a retrospective pilot study. Read More

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December 2020

Emulative, coherent, and causal dynamics between large-scale brain networks are neurobiomarkers of Accelerated Cognitive Ageing in epilepsy.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0250222. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Accelerated cognitive ageing (ACA) is an ageing co-morbidity in epilepsy that is diagnosed through the observation of an evident IQ decline of more than 1 standard deviation (15 points) around the age of 50 years old. To understand the mechanism of action of this pathology, we assessed brain dynamics with the use of resting-state fMRI data. In this paper, we present novel and promising methods to extract brain dynamics between large-scale resting-state networks: the emulative power, wavelet coherence, and granger causality between the networks were extracted in two resting-state sessions of 24 participants (10 ACA, 14 controls). Read More

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Effect of smoking status and programmed death-ligand 1 expression on the microenvironment and malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: A retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0250359. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan.

Tobacco smoking is associated with an increased risk of oral leukoplakia and head and neck cancer. Although it has recently been reported that the establishment of an immunosuppressive microenvironment in oral potentially malignant disorders may lead to malignant transformation, it is unclear whether the microenvironments of oral potentially malignant disorders differ according to smoking status. We examined differences in programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and subepithelial CD163+ TAM and CD8+ cell/lymphocyte counts in the microenvironment of oral leukoplakia of smoking and non-smoking patients and investigated their associations with malignant transformation. Read More

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Association of Sedation, Coma, and In-Hospital Mortality in Mechanically Ventilated Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019-Related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Crit Care Med 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

1 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. 2 Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. 3 Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. 4Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. 5 Department of Anesthesiology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

Objectives: In patients with coronavirus disease 2019-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, sedatives and opioids are commonly administered which may lead to increased vulnerability to neurologic dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that patients with coronavirus disease 2019-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome are at higher risk of in-hospital mortality due to prolonged coma compared with other patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome matched for disease severity.

Design: Propensity-matched cohort study. Read More

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Reduction of small dense LDL and Il-6 after intervention with Plantago psyllium in adolescents with obesity: a parallel, double blind, randomized clinical trial.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Glycation, Oxidation and Disease Laboratory, Dept. of Research, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University California, Vallejo, CA, USA.

Obesity can lead children and adolescents to an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. A diet supplemented with Plantago psyllium has been shown to be effective in reducing LDL-C and IL-6 in adolescents. However, there are no studies that have explored small-dense LDL (sdLDL) or HDL subclasses. Read More

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Premedication prior to PEG-asparaginase is cost-effective in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Apr 16:e29051. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: PEG-asparaginase is critical in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy but is highly immunogenic. Severe allergic reactions lead to substitution of further PEG-asparaginase with Erwinia. Erwinia is associated with more frequent dosing, increased expense, and limited availability. Read More

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The effects of ACE2 expression mediating pharmacotherapy in COVID-19 patients.

Neth Heart J 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: There has been debate on the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme‑2 (ACE2) expression mediating pharmacotherapy in COVID-19 infected patients. Although it has been suggested that these drugs might lead to a higher susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection, experimental data suggest these agents may reduce acute lung injury via blocking angiotensin-II-mediated pulmonary permeability, inflammation and fibrosis.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed to answer the question: What is the effect of medications that influence ACE2 expression (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and thiazolidinediones) on the outcomes of COVID-19? Relevant outcome measures were mortality (crucial), hospital admission, length of stay, thromboembolic complications (pulmonary embolism, stroke, transient ischaemic attack), need for mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury and use of renal replacement therapy. Read More

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A narrative review of chronic alcohol-induced atrial fibrillation.

Future Cardiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Penn State Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is highly prevalent and can lead to many cardiovascular complications, including arrhythmias. Chronic alcohol use has a dose-dependent relationship with incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF), where higher alcohol intake (>3 drinks a day) is associated with higher risk of AF. Meanwhile, low levels of chronic alcohol intake (<1 drink a day) is not associated with increased risk of AF. Read More

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[Impact of breast dimension in one-stage augmentation mastopexies on implant selection: review of 103 consecutive breast augmentations with nanotextured silicone implants].

Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 2021 Apr 15;53(2):130-143. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Sektion für Plastische, Rekonstruktive und Ästhetische Chirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Bonn.

Introduction: According to current studies, one-stage augmentation mastopexy (AM) is associated with only minor complications and a lower reoperation rate compared with a staged procedure. In AM, breast dimension can differ notably compared with those cases without simultaneous mastopexy. However, these differences have only been insufficiently investigated. Read More

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Roflumilast and tadalafil improve learning and memory deficits in intracerebroventricular Aβ1-42 rat model of Alzheimer's disease through modulations of hippocampal cAMP/cGMP/BDNF signaling pathway.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi, 110062, India.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent age-dependent neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive impairment of memory and cognitive functions. Cyclic nucleotides like cAMP and cGMP are well-known to play an important role in learning and memory functions. Enhancement of cAMP and cGMP levels in the hippocampus by phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors might be a novel therapeutic approach for AD. Read More

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Selective Endocannabinoid Reuptake Inhibitor WOBE437 Reduces Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 26;4(2):765-779. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) TransCure, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

The modulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has shown positive results in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and immune and inflammatory disorders. However, chronic administration of CB1 receptor agonists and degrading enzyme inhibitors can lead to CB1 receptor desensitization and sedation. WOBE437 is the prototype of a new class of ECS modulators named selective endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitors (SERIs), which mildly and selectively increase central endocannabinoid levels with a self-limiting mode of action. Read More

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Smoking and stress in the general population in Denmark.

Tob Prev Cessat 2021 12;7:27. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Introduction: The social pressure placed on smokers today might potentially lead to an increasing level of stress. We investigated if the proportion of persons with high stress level had increased over time more in smokers than in non-smokers.

Methods: Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys of The Capital Region Health Survey conducted in 2010, 2013 and 2017. Read More

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Identification and Validation of a Tumor Microenvironment-Related Gene Signature for Prognostic Prediction in Advanced-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Biomed Res Int 2021 30;2021:8864436. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

The development of immunotherapy has greatly changed the advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment landscape. The complexity and heterogeneity of tumor microenvironment (TME) lead to discrepant immunotherapy effects among patients at the same pathologic stages. This study is aimed at exploring potential biomarkers of immunotherapy and accurately predicting the prognosis for advanced NSCLC patients. Read More

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A Rare Thrombophilic Occurrence: Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis in a Patient with Significant Family History of Protein S Deficiency.

Cureus 2021 Mar 13;13(3):e13866. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Internal Medicine, St. Luke's University Health Network, Easton, USA.

Protein S is a potent anticoagulant that downregulates thrombin formation and is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein which is primarily synthesized in the liver. A deficiency in this protein or decreased activity, as seen in hereditary protein S deficiency, can lead to life-threatening thrombosis. Hereditary protein S deficiency is a rare disease as listed by the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). Read More

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