667,538 results match your criteria lead 'avr'


Molecular mechanisms and highly functional development for stress tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Authors:
Hiroshi Takagi

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, Japan.

In response to environmental stress, microorganisms adapt to drastic changes while exerting cellular functions by controlling gene expression, metabolic pathways, enzyme activities, and protein-protein interactions. Microbial cells that undergo a fermentation process are subjected to stresses, such as high temperature, freezing, drying, changes in pH and osmotic pressure, and organic solvents. Combinations of these stresses that continue over long terms often inhibit cells' growth and lead to their death, markedly limiting the useful functions of microorganisms (eg their fermentation ability). Read More

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February 2021

An anti-biofilm material: polysaccharides prevent the precipitation reaction of silver ions and chloride ions and lead to the synthesis of nano silver chloride.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Shandong University, Qingdao, 266700, CHINA.

The formation of biofilm is one of the causes of bacterial pathogenicity and drug resistance. Recent studies have reported a variety of anti-biofilm materials and achieved good results. However, it is still very important to develop some materials with wider application scenarios or higher biofilm resistance. Read More

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24 h urinary creatinine excretion during pregnancy and its application in appropriate estimation of 24 h urinary iodine excretion.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Mar 26;66:126751. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, National Health and Family Planning Commission & Education Bureau of Heilongjiang Province, Key Laboratory of Etiology and Epidemiology (23618504), Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Human Health, Harbin, 150086 Heilongjiang, China. Electronic address:

Background: Urinary creatinine can be used to adjust urinary iodine to evaluate iodine nutritional status during pregnancy. However, the reference intervals and impact factors of urinary creatinine are unknown.

Methods: 24 h urine creatinine concentration (24 hUCr) and spot UCr at four different time periods of the day of pregnant women from Part 1 (n = 743) were measured. Read More

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Impact and consequences of COVID-19 pandemic on complicated grief and persistent complex bereavement disorder.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Mar 31;300:113916. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

University of Siena, Department of Medical Sciences, Surgery and Neurosciences, Italy.

Mourning is a coping-with-loss stage that prevents grief from becoming pathologic, i.e., complicated grief (CG) syndrome and persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), recently included in international classification systems. Read More

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Diffusion weighted imaging in acute ischemic stroke: A review of its interpretation pitfalls and advanced diffusion imaging application.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 3;425:117435. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Neurology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a widely used imaging technique to evaluate patients with stroke. It can detect brain ischemia within minutes of stroke onset. However, DWI has few potential pitfalls that should be recognized during interpretation. Read More

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Ureolytic bacteria from electronic waste area, their biological robustness against potentially toxic elements and underlying mechanisms.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 6;289:112517. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Environmental Engineering Program, Guangdong Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Shantou, 515063, China. Electronic address:

Ureolytic bacteria can be a promising mediator used for the immobilization of potentially toxic elements via microbially-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) process from biodegradable ions to carbonate form. Electronic waste (E-waste) environment is very complex compared to general metal contaminated soil, however, MICP has not been studied under such an environment. In this study, three bacterial strains were successfully isolated from an E-waste area in Guiyu, China, and indicated to have positive ureolytic behavior with significant heavy metal resistance (specific to Cu and Pb), among which, a strain of Lysinibacillus sp. Read More

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Phagocytosis is coupled to the formation of phagosome-associated podosomes and a transient disruption of podosomes in human macrophages.

Eur J Cell Biol 2021 Mar 31;100(4):151161. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Institut de Pharmacologie et Biologie Structurale, IPBS, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Phagocytosis consists in ingestion and digestion of large particles, a process strictly dependent on actin re-organization. Using synchronized phagocytosis of IgG-coated latex beads (IgG-LB), zymosan or serum opsonized-zymosan, we report the formation of actin structures on both phagocytic cups and closed phagosomes in human macrophages. Their lifespan, size, protein composition and organization are similar to podosomes. Read More

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Insights into the metabolic mechanism of PBDEs catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4: A QM/MM study.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 31;278:130430. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, PR China.

Elucidating the metabolic mechanism and the derivatives of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is significant to risk assessment. This study delineated the metabolic mechanism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) catalyzed by P450 enzymes using a combination of molecular dynamic (MD), quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and density functional theory (DFT). The calculation results reveal that the electrophilic addition is the main pathway for the biotransformation of BDE-47 catalyzed by P450 enzymes. Read More

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Social culture and the bullying of midwifery students whilst on clinical placement: A qualitative descriptive exploration.

Nurse Educ Pract 2021 Mar 30;52:103045. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Sciences, CQUniversity Australia, 90 Goodchap Street, Noosaville 4566, Australia. Electronic address:

The context within which midwifery students are professionally socialised is thought to impact upon the development of their sense of belongingness, their attitudes and values, and their commitment to the midwifery profession. Negative forms of socialisation are known to lead to undesirable outcomes including desensitisation about humanistic needs. This has potential to extend to an acceptance of workplace bullying and unfair treatment of others, including midwifery students whilst on clinical placement. Read More

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Pholedrine is a marker of direct disposal of methamphetamine.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 30;782:146839. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Health and Biomedical Innovation, UniSA: Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

Consumption of methamphetamine has primarily been estimated in wastewater-based epidemiology by measuring the parent compound. However, this could lead to overestimation when methamphetamine is directly disposed into the sewer system. In this respect, it would be advantageous to measure a specific metabolite of methamphetamine instead. Read More

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Phenylpropanoid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpenoids from the whole plants of Leptopus lolonum induced cell apoptosis via MAPK and Akt pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 1;111:104886. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design and Discovery of Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Our present and previous phytochemical investigations on Leptopus lolonum have resulted in the isolation of almost 30 phenylpropanoid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpenoids (PCPTs). During the continuous study on PCPTs, this kind of triterpenoid ester is considered as a natural product with low toxicity because of it's widely distribution in natural plants and edible fruits including kiwi fruit, durian, jujube, pawpaw, apple and pear. In the present work, we report the isolation, structural elucidation and cytotoxic evaluation of four new PCPTs (1-4) which obtained from L. Read More

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Toxic effects of cadmium and lead exposure on intestinal histology, oxidative stress response, and microbial community of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 6;167:112220. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Ecology and Environment, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are two hazardous pollutants that threaten shrimp farming. The intestine is an important organ for digestion and immunity. We separately exposed Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to 500 μg/L Cd or 500 μg/L Pb seawater for 7 days, and 45 shrimp from each group were used to evaluate the changes of intestinal histopathological, oxidative stress, and microbiota composition. Read More

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Influence of reduction quality on functional outcome and quality of life in the surgical treatment of tibial plateau fractures: a retrospective cohort study.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Apr 6:102922. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

MINTOS - Medical Imaging and Navigation in Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen, Heidelberg University Hospital, Ludwig-Guttmann-Str. 13, 67071 Ludwigshafen, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Despite a substantial improvement in the operative treatment of tibial plateau fractures, the surgical procedure remains controversial and is generally challenging, as patients may develop postoperative arthritis and functional impairment of the knee joint.

Hypothesis: In the surgical treatment of tibial plateau fractures the intraoperative reposition quality has the greatest influence on the postoperative outcome, whereby misalignments of >/= 2 mm lead to a worse result.

Patients And Methods: 41 patients with tibial plateau fractures were postoperatively examined. Read More

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Reinstatement of Item-Specific Contextual Details During Retrieval Supports Recombination-Related False Memories.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 6:118033. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University.

Flexible retrieval mechanisms that allow us to infer relationships across events may also lead to memory errors or distortion when details of one event are misattributed to the related event. Here, we tested how making successful inferences alters representation of overlapping events, leading to false memories. Participants encoded overlapping associations ('AB' and 'BC'), each of which was superimposed on different indoor and outdoor scenes that were pre-exposed prior to associative learning. Read More

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Connections between endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated unfolded protein response, mitochondria, and autophagy in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, 259 Mack Avenue, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA. Electronic address:

Arsenic exposure in contaminated drinking water is a global health issue, as more than 200 million people are affected globally. Arsenic has been known to cause skin, liver, lung, bladder and prostate cancers. Accordingly, it has been categorized as a group I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 presented moderately during two episodes of the infection with lack of antibody responses.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 6:198421. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The world has gone through the critical phase of SARS-CoV-2 crisis caused by the new variants of the virus. The globally concerted effort to characterize viral genomic mutations across different clades has revealed several changes in the coding and also non-coding regions which might lead to a violent presentation or re-infection occurrence. Here, we studied a COVID-19 subject who represented the symptoms following the full recovery of the first infection. Read More

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Efficient development of silk fibroin membranes on liquid surface for potential use in biomedical materials.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, College of Sericulture, Textile and Biomass Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

Silk fibroin (SF) protein is versatile for the application of biomaterials due to its excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the efficient way to fabricate SF membranes with special structure is still challenging. Here, we develop an efficient and simple way to create SF membranes on the liquid (i. Read More

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Uncertainties in synthetic DNA-based data storage.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096, China.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has evolved to be a naturally selected, robust biomacromolecule for gene information storage, and biological evolution and various diseases can find their origin in uncertainties in DNA-related processes (e.g. replication and expression). Read More

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Association between Quantitative MR Markers of Cortical Evolving Organization and Gene Expression during Human Prenatal Brain Development.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

The relationship between structural changes of the cerebral cortex revealed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and gene expression in the human fetal brain has not been explored. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that relative regional thickness (a measure of cortical evolving organization) of fetal cortical compartments (cortical plate [CP] and subplate [SP]) is associated with expression levels of genes with known cortical phenotype. Mean regional SP/CP thickness ratios across age measured on in utero MRI of 25 healthy fetuses (20-33 gestational weeks [GWs]) were correlated with publicly available regional gene expression levels (23-24 GW fetuses). Read More

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Chlamydomonas POLQ is necessary for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Biology, Experimental Biophysics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany, D-10099.

The use of CRISPR/Cas endonucleases has revolutionized gene editing techniques for research on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. To better utilize the CRISPR/Cas system, it is essential to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the DNA repair pathways involved in genome editing. In this study, we have analyzed contributions from canonical KU80/KU70-dependent non-homologous end-joining and polymerase theta (POLQ)-mediated end-joining on SpCas9-mediated untemplated mutagenesis and homology-directed repair/gene inactivation in Chlamydomonas. Read More

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Significance of extended sports cardiology screening of elite handball referees.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249923. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

The significance of cardiology screening of referees is not well established. Cardiovascular risk factors and diseases were examined in asymptomatic Hungarian elite handball referees undergoing extended screening: personal/family history, physical examination, 12-lead ECG, laboratory tests, body-composition analysis, echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Holter-ECG (n = 8), blood pressure monitorization (n = 10), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR; n = 27) and computer tomography (CCT; n = 4) were also carried out if needed. Read More

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Knowledge, preventive behaviors and risk perception of the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study in Turkish health care workers.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0250017. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Private Gynecologic Oncology Clinic, Ankara, Turkey.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak spread to over 100 countries with a total of 100,000 cases during the first week of March 2020. Health care workers, as those on the frontline of the COVID-19 pandemic, are more susceptible to infection. Inadequate related knowledge and preventive behaviors among health care workers might lead to delayed treatment and result in the rapid spread of the infection. Read More

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Comprehensive profiling of the gut microbiota in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of varying severity.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249944. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease that reduces lung and respiratory function, with a high mortality rate. Severe and acute deterioration of COPD can easily lead to respiratory failure, resulting in personal, social, and medical burden. Recent studies have shown a high correlation between the gut microbiota and lung inflammation. Read More

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Egg nutritional modulation with amino acids improved performance in zebrafish larvae.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0248356. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Aquaculture Research Group, Centro de Ciências do Mar do Algarve (CCMAR), Faro, Portugal.

New and more efficient methods to sustainably intensify Aquaculture production are essential to attain the seafood demand for direct human consumption in the near future. Nutrition has been identified as one strategy of early exposure that might affect animal early development and later phenotype. This strategy may have positive consequences in the modulation of fish digestive physiology, which will correlate with higher performance outputs. Read More

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Weight, BMI and stability are risk factors associated with lateral ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability: a meta-analysis.

J ISAKOS 2019 Nov 23;4(6):313-327. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Orthopaedic surgery, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Importance: Lateral ankle sprains (LAS) are common in the general population and may lead to chronic ankle instability (CAI). If patients at risk could be identified, they could receive adequate and on-time treatment.

Objective: The purpose of the current review was to identify all reported intrinsic factors associated with sustaining a LAS or progressing to CAI after an initial sprain. Read More

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November 2019

Overexpression of Efflux Pumps Mediate Pan Resistance of Sequence Type 11.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, China.

A clinically isolated pan-resistant strain (ST11), KPN142 was subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Genomic sequence of KPN142 showed that limited antibiotic resistances (β-lactams [], sulfonamides [ and ], bacitracin [], tetracycline [], aminoglycosides [, , , , and ], and chloramphenicol []) were mediated by enzymes, and efflux pumps contributed most to pan resistance. Five types of multidrug resistance efflux pump families were identified, including the resistance nodulation division superfamily (AcrAB-TolC, AcrD, MdtABC, and KexD), the ATP-binding cascade superfamily (MacAB), the small multidrug resistance family (KpnEF), the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family (KdeA), and the major facilitator superfamily (EmrAB). Read More

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Radiofrequency vs. Cryoballoon Catheter Ablation for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Durability of Pulmonary Vein Isolation and Effect on AF Burden: The RACE-AF Randomized Controlled Trial.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte Hospitalsvej 1, Hellerup, Denmark.

- Recurrent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) after catheter ablation is presumably caused by failure to achieve durable pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). The primary methods of PVI are radiofrequency (RF) and cryoballoon (CRYO) catheter ablation, but these methods have not been directly compared with respect to PVI durability and the effect thereof on AF burden (% of time in AF). - Accordingly, we performed a randomized trial including 98 patients (68% male, 61 [55-67] years) with PAF assigned 1:1 to PVI by contact-force sensing, irrigated RF catheter or second-generation CRYO catheter. Read More

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Prodrugs of a 1'-CN-4-Aza-7,9-dideazaadenosine -Nucleoside Leading to the Discovery of Remdesivir (GS-5734) as a Potent Inhibitor of Respiratory Syncytial Virus with Efficacy in the African Green Monkey Model of RSV.

J Med Chem 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Gilead Sciences, Inc., 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, California 94404, United States.

A discovery program targeting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) identified -nucleoside (RSV A2 EC = 530 nM) as a phenotypic screening lead targeting the RSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Prodrug exploration resulted in the discovery of remdesivir (, GS-5734) that is >30-fold more potent than against RSV in HEp-2 and NHBE cells. Metabolism studies in vitro confirmed the rapid formation of the active triphosphate metabolite, -, and in vivo studies in cynomolgus and African Green monkeys demonstrated a >10-fold higher lung tissue concentration of following molar normalized IV dosing of compared to that of . Read More

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Targeting Chikungunya Virus Replication by Benzoannulene Inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Drug Discovery Division, Southern Research, 2000 Ninth Avenue South, Birmingham, Alabama 35205, United States.

A benzo[6]annulene, 4-(-butyl)--(3-methoxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl) benzamide (), was identified as an inhibitor against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) with antiviral activity EC = 1.45 μM and viral titer reduction (VTR) of 2.5 log at 10 μM with no observed cytotoxicity (CC = 169 μM) in normal human dermal fibroblast cells. Read More

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