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Competition between RSV and influenza: Limits of modelling inference from surveillance data.

Epidemics 2021 Mar 26;35:100460. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Influenza cause a large burden of disease. Evidence of their interaction via temporary cross-protection implies that prevention of one could inadvertently lead to an increase in the burden of the other. However, evidence for the public health impact of such interaction is sparse and largely derives from ecological analyses of peak shifts in surveillance data. Read More

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Novel 1,2,4-oxadiazole-chalcone/oxime hybrids as potential antibacterial DNA gyrase inhibitors: Design, synthesis, ADMET prediction and molecular docking study.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 1;111:104885. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag, Egypt. Electronic address:

New antibacterial drugs are urgently needed to tackle the rapid rise in multi-drug resistant bacteria. DNA gyrase is a validated target for the development of new antibacterial drugs. Thus, in the present investigation, a novel series of 1,2,4-oxadiazole-chalcone/oxime (6a-f) and (7a-f) were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR (H and C) and elemental analyses. Read More

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DNA damage response and PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in ovarian cancer.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Apr 1;102:103112. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No. 154 Anshan Road, Tianjin, 300052, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Health and Eugenics, Tianjin, 300052, China. Electronic address:

Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis due to drug resistance, relapse and metastasis. In recent years, immunotherapy has been applied in numerous cancers clinically. However, the effect of immunotherapy monotherapy in ovarian cancer is limited. Read More

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Vergence, accommodation, and visual tracking in children and adolescents evaluated in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic.

Vision Res 2021 Apr 7;184:30-36. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States.

Many patients with concussion experience visual symptoms following injury that lead to a diagnosis of convergence insufficiency, accommodative insufficiency, or saccadic dysfunction. However, these diagnostic categories are based on aggregates of clinical tests developed from a non-concussed population and therefore may not accurately describe visual deficits in the concussed population. Thus, we sought to understand individual metrics of visual dysfunction in chronically symptomatic post-concussion patients. Read More

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Cervical elongation caused by big cervical fibroid resembling malignant cervical prolapse? Management via vaginal surgery.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Mar 29;82:105847. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Urogynecology Division Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Introduction: Cervical elongation could lead to cervical elongation thus worsen the descent of uterine prolapse. In certain cases, this hypertrophic and hyperplastic mass could have fragile surface with some bleeding and necrotic, resembling cervical cancer. As case of cervical elongation due to cervical fibroid is quite rare, such cases are valuable to be reported. Read More

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The impact of prenatal stressful life events on adverse birth outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 31;287:406-416. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, No. 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China; Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Anhui Medical University, No. 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Background: Stressful life events as important stressors have gradually been recognized as the potential etiology that may lead to adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA). However, researches on this topic have shown relatively inconsistent results. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to synthesize available data on the association between prenatal stressful life events and increased risks of PTB, LBW, and SGA. Read More

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Sharing and Teaching Electrocardiograms to Minimize Infarction (STEMI): reducing diagnostic time for acute coronary occlusion in the emergency department.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Mar 25;48:18-32. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Emergency Department, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Limits to ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) criteria may lead to prolonged diagnostic time for acute coronary occlusion. We aimed to reduce ECG-to-Activation (ETA) time through audit and feedback on STEMI-equivalents and subtle occlusions, without increasing Code STEMIs without culprit lesions.

Methods: This multi-centre, quality improvement initiative reviewed all Code STEMI patients from the emergency department (ED) over a one-year baseline and one-year intervention period. Read More

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Integrating column leaching experiments and geochemical modelling to predict the long-term alkaline stability during erosion process for gypsum amended bauxite residue.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 7;289:112479. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China. Electronic address:

Gypsum amendment is widely used to resolve alkalinity issues and implement sustainable management for bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs). Amended BRDAs under natural conditions suffer from long-term erosion processes. Nevertheless, the effect of erosion on amendment efficacy is rarely assessed. Read More

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Evaluating teamwork among medical staff: How to measure and compare aspects of the team mental models of doctors and nurses.

Appl Ergon 2021 Apr 7;94:103418. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Obstetric and Gynecology Division, Shamir Medical Center, Assaf Harofeh Campus, Tzrifin, 730000, Israel. Electronic address:

Shared perceptions of a task among those responsible for its completion are important for achieving successful outcomes. This study proposes a framework for eliciting various aspects of team members' "mental models" (TMMs) of complex medical tasks. The intention is to provide 'proof of concept' for a methodology to measure similarities and differences between team members' perceptions of selected attributes of the task. Read More

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Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular dynamics of LAR inhibitors.

Comput Biol Chem 2021 Mar 30;92:107481. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Tianjin Key Laboratory on Technologies Enabling Development of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnostics (Theranostics), School of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

In this study, firstly, the pharmacophore model was established based on LAR inhibitors. ZINC database and drug-like database were screened by Hypo-1-LAR model, and the embryonic compound ZINC71414996 was obtained. Based on this compound, we designed 9 compounds. Read More

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Sporadic High Pacing and Shock Impedance at Remote Monitoring in Hybrid Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Systems: Clinical Impact and Management.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrological, Aenesthesiological and Geriatric Sciences "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome.

Background: Sporadic high impedance values without other anomalies have been recently described by remote monitoring for hybrid cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) systems. The clinical significance and related hazard of this phenomenon are not fully understood.

Objective: To describe prevalence, management and outcomes associated with hybrid implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) systems. Read More

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Discovery of effective phosphodiesterase 2 inhibitors with antioxidant activities for the treatment of alzheimer's disease.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Apr 7:128016. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, PR China.

The multi-target-directed-ligand (MTDL) strategy has been widely applied in the discovery of novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because of the multifactorial pathological mechanisms of AD. Phosphodiesterase-2 (PDE2) has been identified to be a novel and promising target for AD. However, MTDL combining with the inhibitory activity against PDE2A and other anti-AD factors such as antioxidants has not been developed yet. Read More

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Serotonin pretreatment abolishes sex-specific NMDA-induced seizure behavior in developing rats.

Neuroscience 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Graduate Program in Developmental and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125, USA; Psychology Department, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125, USA. Electronic address:

Neuronal excitability and susceptibility to excitotoxic damage can be sex-specific, with neurons from males usually being more 'easily excitable' compared to neurons from females, especially during development. Increased excitability at an individual neuronal level can lead to the formation of hyperexcitable neuronal networks, which, consequently can make the brain more seizure prone. Both animal and clinical data suggest that males experience more frequent and severe seizures than do females. Read More

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In vivo evaluation of heme and non-heme iron content and neuronal density in human basal ganglia.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 7:118012. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Non-heme iron is an important element supporting the structure and functioning of biological tissues. Imbalance in non-heme iron can lead to different neurological disorders. Several MRI approaches have been developed for iron quantification relying either on the relaxation properties of MRI signal or measuring tissue magnetic susceptibility. Read More

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Prenatal exposure to nicotine in mice is associated with alterations in development and cellular and synaptic effects of alcohol in a brainstem arousal nucleus.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Apr 7:106980. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen,Copenhagen, Denmark 2100. Electronic address:

Using drugs of abuse while pregnant has tremendous negative consequences for the offspring, including an enhanced risk for substance use disorder (SUD). This vulnerability suggests that gestational exposure to drugs alters the developmental trajectory of neurons important in SUD processes, which could lead to later life changes in responsiveness to motivationally salient stimuli. The laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) gates the behaviorally relevant firing pattern signaling stimuli saliency in mesoaccumbal circuits. Read More

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Environmental enrichment applied with sensory components prevents age-related decline in synaptic dynamics: Evidence from the zebrafish model organism.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 7:111346. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Aysel Sabuncu Brain Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey; National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Zebrafish Facility, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Psychology, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Progression of cognitive decline with or without neurodegeneration varies among elderly subjects. The main aim of the current study was to illuminate the molecular mechanisms that promote and retain successful aging in the context of factors such as environment and gender, both of which alter the resilience of the aging brain. Environmental enrichment (EE) is one intervention that may lead to the maintenance of cognitive processing at older ages in both humans and animal subjects. Read More

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Effect of sub-lethal doses of nisin on Staphylococcus aureus toxin production and biofilm formation.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Applied Microbiology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the commonest food-borne pathogens that can cause gastroenteritis owing to having several enterotoxins. Also, biofilm formation can complicate infections caused by this microorganism. Nisin is a safe food bio preservative which is usually used as an agent to prevent pathogen growth; however, it is important to identify the exact impact of nisin on the growth of S. Read More

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Clusterin overexpression as a potential neuroprotective response to the pathological effects of high fat dieting on the brain reward system.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 7:112186. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Facultad de Farmacia and Instituto de Estudios de las Adicciones, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Campus Montepríncipe, 28925, Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain.

High-fat diets (HFDs) can lead to pathological changes in the brain underlying several behavioral disturbances (e.g., reward deficiency). Read More

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Logic and lineage impacts on functional transcription factor deployment for T-cell fate commitment.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Biology & Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA. Electronic address:

Transcription factors are the major agents that read the regulatory sequence information in the genome to initiate changes in expression of specific genes, both in development and in physiological activation responses. Their actions depend on site-specific DNA binding and are largely guided by their individual DNA target sequence specificities. However, their action is far more conditional in a real developmental context than would be expected for simple reading of local genomic DNA sequence, which is common to all cells in the organism. Read More

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Long-term postoperative opioid prescription after cholecystectomy or gastric by-pass surgery: a retrospective observational study.

Scand J Pain 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objectives: Opioids are commonly prescribed post-surgery. We investigated the proportion of patients who were prescribed any opioids 6-12 months after two common surgeries - laparoscopic cholecystectomy and gastric by-pass (GBP) surgery. A secondary aim was to examine risk factors prior to surgery associated with the prescription of any opioids after surgery. Read More

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Birth prevalence of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency in China: data from the national newborn screening program, 2013-2019.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

National Center for Birth Defects Monitoring of China, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, P. R. China.

Background: Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency (BH4D), a less common form of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA), can lead to severe developmental retardation if untreated. Little has been reported on the prevalence of BH4D among live births worldwide. This study examined its prevalence across China and between geographical areas within the country. Read More

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Crystal structure of a novel homodimeric L-ribulose 3-epimerase from Methylomonus sp.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun Kagawa, 761-0793, Japan.

D-allulose has potential as a low calorie sweetener which can suppress fat accumulation. Several enzymes capable of D-allulose production have been isolated, including D-tagatose 3-epimerases. Here, we report the isolation of a novel protein from Methylomonas sp. Read More

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Bifunctional Spatiotemporal Metasurfaces for Incident Angle-Tunable and Ultrafast Optically Switchable Electromagnetically Induced Transparency.

Small 2021 Apr 10:e2006489. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Beijing Interdisciplinary Research Center, National University of Defense Technology, Beijing, 100010, China.

Advances in tunable metamaterials/metasurfaces facilitates their utilization in novel optical components, and lead to many breakthroughs in light tailoring by giving birth to diverse spatiotemporal dynamics. In the ascendant field of terahertz (THz) photonics, the ultrafast modulation is the fundamental process of technological advancements in high-speed wireless communications, sensing, and imaging. However, the current research efforts have been mainly devoted to studies of single functionality under the control of one stimulus, which has plateaued in terms of innovative new features. Read More

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Translocation factor of heavy metals by elephant grass grown with varying concentrations of landfill leachate.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Center of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Ceará, Av. Mister Hull s/n Antônio Bezerra, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

The aim of this study is to obtain the translocation factor by application of landfill leachate (LL) diluted in public irrigation water (IW). Pennisetum purpureum Schum (elephant grass) was cultivated for 83 days in an experimental water reuse unit. The present work was developed at the Experimental Water Reuse Unit (UERA), on the UFERSA campus in Mossoró, RN, Brazil. Read More

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Association Between Low-Level Blood Cadmium Exposure and Hyperuricemia in the American General Population: a Cross-sectional Study.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Oncology, Hainan General Hospital, Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Heavy metals, including cadmium, are suspected to increase serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia in both gender, but the evidences about this are inconclusive. To determine whether serum cadmium in American adults(≥19 years old) is associated with uric acid levels and risk of hyperuricemia, 2620 participants from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were recruited. Hyperuricemia was defined as a serum UA concentration ≥ 416. Read More

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Bruxism in Acute Neurologic Illness.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2021 Apr 10;25(6):41. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Neurocritical Care, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York Presbyterian, 525 East 68th St, RM F610, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Purpose Of Review: While traditionally encountered in ambulatory settings, bruxism occurs in patients with a variety of acute neurologic illnesses including encephalitis, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and acute ischemic stroke. Untreated bruxism in acute neurologic illness can lead to tooth loss, difficulty in mouth care resulting in recurrent aspiration pneumonia, endotracheal tube dislodgement, and even tongue laceration or amputation. Inpatient clinicians should be aware of the etiologies and management strategies for bruxism secondary to acute neurologic illness. Read More

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Feasibility of P wave Centric Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Monitoring in Infants and Young Children.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

P wave centric ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring has emerged as an important tool aiding the diagnosis of arrhythmias. However, their efficacy and user experience in infants and young children are not well established. A retrospective study was performed to detail clinical and user experience of ECG monitoring using the Carnation Ambulatory Monitor (CAM) patch (Bardy Diagnostics Inc. Read More

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Gluten-degrading bacteria: availability and applications.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Gluten is a mixture of storage proteins in wheat and occurs in smaller amounts in other cereal grains. It provides favorable structure to bakery products but unfortunately causes disease conditions with increasing prevalence. In the human gastrointestinal tract, gluten is cleaved into proline and gluten rich peptides that are not degraded further. Read More

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Uncertainty in protein-ligand binding constants: asymmetric confidence intervals versus standard errors.

Eur Biophys J 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biothermodynamics and Drug Design, Institute of Biotechnology, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio 7, 10257, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Equilibrium binding constants (K) between chemical compounds and target proteins or between interacting proteins provide a quantitative understanding of biological interaction mechanisms. Reported uncertainties of measured experimental parameters are critical for decision-making in many scientific areas, e.g. Read More

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Sisyphus observed: Unraveling the high ATP usage of an RNA chaperone.

J Biol Chem 2021 Feb 10;296:100265. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Chemistry and Center for RNA Biomedicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. Electronic address:

DEAD-box proteins are nonprocessive RNA helicases that can function as RNA chaperones by coupling ATP binding and hydrolysis to structural reorganization of RNA. Here, Jarmoskaite et al. quantify the ATP utilization of an RNA chaperone during refolding of a misfolded ribozyme substrate. Read More

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February 2021