20,715 results match your criteria latent infection


Immunity to EBV as revealed by immunedeficiencies.

Curr Opin Immunol 2021 May 11;72:107-115. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratory of Lymphocyte Activation and Susceptibility to EBV Infection, INSERM UMR 1163, Imagine Institute, Paris, France; Université de Paris, F75006 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Epstein-Barr virus infection is the most common viral latent infection in humans and represents one prototypical model to study immunity to viral infections. In that respect, inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) or primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) predisposing to severe and chronic EBV infections provide peculiar examples to decipher-specific molecular and cellular components involved in the immune control of EBV-infected cells. Herein, we discuss the recent knowledge and concepts arising from these studies, with a particular focus on 'atypical' EBV infections when EBV enters T, NK and smooth muscle cells, instead of the common 'typical' infection of B cells. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness analysis of 3 months of weekly rifapentine and isoniazid compared to isoniazid monotherapy in a Canadian arctic setting.

BMJ Open 2021 May 13;11(5):e047514. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To assess the cost effectiveness of once weekly rifapentine and isoniazid for 12 weeks (3HP) to the current standard care for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

Design: A cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model reflecting local practices for LTBI treatment.

Setting: A remote Canadian arctic community with a high incidence of TB. Read More

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Acute Liver Failure Due to Toxoplasmosis After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2021 Jan-Dec;9:23247096211014691

Department of Pathology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA.

Solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for a wide range of opportunistic infections, the most common being cytomegalovirus. These infections may occur as reactivation of latent disease, donor-derived, or de novo. In this article, we present a case of acute liver failure secondary to toxoplasmosis following orthotopic liver transplantation. Read More

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Latent leprosy infection identified by dual RLEP and anti-PGL-I positivity: Implications for new control strategies.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251631. Epub 2021 May 13.

Colorado State University, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Mycobacteria Research Laboratories, Fort Collins, CO, Unites States of America.

The number of new cases of leprosy reported worldwide has remained essentially unchanged for the last decade despite continued global use of free multidrug therapy (MDT) provided to any diagnosed leprosy patient. In order to more effectively interrupt the chain of transmission, new strategies will be required to detect those with latent disease who contribute to furthering transmission. To improve the ability to diagnose leprosy earlier in asymptomatic infected individuals, we examined the combined use of two well-known biomarkers of M. Read More

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PMN-MDSC Frequency Discriminates Active Versus Latent Tuberculosis and Could Play a Role in Counteracting the Immune-Mediated Lung Damage in Active Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:594376. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Cellular Immunology and Pharmacology, National Institute for infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani"-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Tuberculosis (TB), due to infection, is still the principal cause of death caused by a single infectious agent. The balance between the bacillus and host defense mechanisms reflects the different manifestations of the pathology. Factors defining this variety are unclear and likely involve both mycobacterial and immunological components. Read More

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Forecasting the SARS COVID-19 pandemic and critical care resources threshold in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries: population analysis of aggregate data.

BMJ Open 2021 05 11;11(5):e044102. Epub 2021 May 11.

Social Statistics and Demography, and Centre for Global Health and Policy, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK

Objective: To generate cross-national forecasts of COVID-19 trajectories and quantify the associated impact on essential critical care resources for disease management in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.

Design: Population-level aggregate analysis.

Setting: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia. Read More

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Association between depression and HIV treatment outcomes in a US military population with HIV infection.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 May 12;18(1):29. Epub 2021 May 12.

Brooke Army Medical Center, 3551 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234-6200, USA.

Background: Depression is common among HIV-infected individuals and may contribute to suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and subsequent inability to attain viral load (VL) suppression. We evaluated associations between depression, self-reported adherence, and longitudinal HIV treatment outcomes in US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) participants with and without depression.

Methods: Male NHS participants with available ICD-9 data for mental health diagnoses, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) measures, and self-reported adherence (SRA) were included. Read More

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Gaps in TB preventive therapy for persons initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: an explanatory sequential cascade analysis.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2021 May;25(5):388-394

Department of Epidemiology and Department of Social & Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, NY, USA.

The WHO recommends TB symptom screening and TB preventive therapy (TPT) for latent TB infection (LTBI) in persons living with HIV (PLWH). However, TPT uptake remains limited. We aimed to characterize and contextualize gaps in the TPT care cascade among persons enrolling for antiretroviral therapy (ART). Read More

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Viruses infecting a warm water picoeukaryote shed light on spatial co-occurrence dynamics of marine viruses and their hosts.

ISME J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, USA.

The marine picoeukaryote Bathycoccus prasinos has been considered a cosmopolitan alga, although recent studies indicate two ecotypes exist, Clade BI (B. prasinos) and Clade BII. Viruses that infect Bathycoccus Clade BI are known (BpVs), but not that infect BII. Read More

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Shocking HIV-1 with immunomodulatory latency reversing agents.

Semin Immunol 2021 May 7:101478. Epub 2021 May 7.

Service of Molecular Virology, Department of Molecular Virology (DBM), Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Gosselies, Belgium. Electronic address:

The "shock-and-kill" strategy is one of the most explored HIV-1 cure approaches to eliminate latent virus. This strategy is based on HIV-1 reactivation using latency reversing agents (LRAs) to reactivate latent proviruses (the "shock" phase) and to induce subsequent elimination of the reactivated cells by immune responses or virus-induced cytopathic effects (the "kill" phase). Studies using immunomodulatory LRAs such as blockers of immune checkpoint molecules, toll-like receptor agonists, cytokines and CD8 T cell depleting antibodies showed promising potential as LRAs inducing directly or indirectly cellular pathways known to control HIV transcription. Read More

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[Frequency Distribution and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis in Contact Persons: Cologne 2012-2016].

Pneumologie 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Gesundheitsamt der Stadt Köln, Abteilung Infektions- und Umwelthygiene, Tuberkulose-Beratungsstelle.

Background:  As part of tuberculosis control and the WHO end-TB strategy, contact persons of tuberculosis patients in Germany are examined for a possible infection with latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Activation of LTBI contributes a considerable proportion of newly reported tuberculosis cases in low-incidence countries such as Germany. Therefore, the aim is to detect cases of LTBI and, through chemopreventive treatment of these cases, prevent future, post-primary, active tuberculosis. Read More

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Management of childhood and adolescent latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0250387. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, Immunology and Critical Care Medicine, Charité -Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Majority of active tuberculosis (TB) cases in children in low-incidence countries are due to rapid progression of infection (latent TB infection (LTBI)) to disease. We aimed to assess common practice for managing paediatric LTBI in Austria, Germany and Switzerland prior to the publication of the first joint national guideline for paediatric TB in 2017.

Methods: Online-based survey amongst pediatricians, practitioners and staff working in the public health sector between July and November 2017. Read More

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Stochastic Episodes of Latent Cytomegalovirus Transcription Drive CD8 T-Cell "Memory Inflation" and Avoid Immune Evasion.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:668885. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute for Virology, Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI) at the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Acute infection with murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) is controlled by CD8 T cells and develops into a state of latent infection, referred to as latency, which is defined by lifelong maintenance of viral genomes but absence of infectious virus in latently infected cell types. Latency is associated with an increase in numbers of viral epitope-specific CD8 T cells over time, a phenomenon known as "memory inflation" (MI). The "inflationary" subset of CD8 T cells has been phenotyped as KLRG1CD62L effector-memory T cells (iTEM). Read More

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IgG4-Related Disease With Tuberculosis: A Case Report and Retrospective Review of Patients in a Single Center.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:652985. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized systemic fibro-inflammatory disease of unknown cause involving many organs including pancreas, salivary glands, and lymph nodes. Chronic tuberculosis (TB) infection has been reported in IgG4-RD, but the prevalence of TB infection has not been evaluated in IgG4-RD.

Methods: Characterization of a patient with IgG4-RD by physical examination, laboratory tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological examination. Read More

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Novel Insights Into Rheumatoid Arthritis Through Characterization of Concordant Changes in DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in Synovial Biopsies of Patients With Differing Numbers of Swollen Joints.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:651475. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

R&D GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, United Kingdom.

In this study, we sought to characterize synovial tissue obtained from individuals with arthralgia and disease-specific auto-antibodies and patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA), by applying an integrative multi-omics approach where we investigated differences at the level of DNA methylation and gene expression in relation to disease pathogenesis. We performed concurrent whole-genome bisulphite sequencing and RNA-Sequencing on synovial tissue obtained from the knee and ankle from 4 auto-antibody positive arthralgia patients and thirteen RA patients. Through multi-omics factor analysis we observed that the latent factor explaining the variance in gene expression and DNA methylation was associated with Swollen Joint Count 66 (SJC66), with patients with SJC66 of 9 or more displaying separation from the rest. Read More

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Decreases in reported Sexually Transmitted Infections during the time of COVID-19 in King County, WA: Decreased transmission or screening?

Sex Transm Dis 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Public Health - Seattle and King County, Seattle, WA Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Background: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Washington State's Stay Home, Stay Healthy (SHSH) order was implemented on 3/24/2020. We hypothesized that pandemic mitigation measures might reduce sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening and/or transmission.

Methods: We used King County, WA STI surveillance and sexual health clinic (SHC) data from 1/1/2019-7/31/2020. Read More

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Latent and active tuberculosis infection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a prospective cohort study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

HSCT Program - Amaral Carvalho Foundation, Jaú, Brazil.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients in countries with high TB prevalence. Identifying and treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) helps to prevent TB reactivation after transplantation. Few studies have compared the tuberculin skin test (TST) with interferon Gamma release assays (IGRA) to diagnose LTBI in HSCT candidates. Read More

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Mental health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic: a latent class trajectory analysis using longitudinal UK data.

Lancet Psychiatry 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Centre for Women's Mental Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Division of Psychology and Mental Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Background: The mental health of the UK population declined at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Convenience sample surveys indicate that recovery began soon after. Using a probability sample, we tracked mental health during the pandemic to characterise mental health trajectories and identify predictors of deterioration. Read More

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Wnt antagonists suppress herpes simplex virus type 1 productive infection.

Antiviral Res 2021 May 4:105082. Epub 2021 May 4.

Oklahoma State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Stillwater, OK 74078. Electronic address:

Following acute infection of mucosal surfaces, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes life-long latent infections within neurons, including sensory neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG). Periodically, reactivation from latency occurs resulting in virus transmission and recurrent disease. In the absence of lytic cycle viral transcriptional proteins, host factors are predicted to mediate early stages of reactivation from latency. Read More

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A Novel Jumbo Phage PhiMa05 Inhibits Harmful sp.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:660351. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand.

poses a concern because of its potential contribution to eutrophication and production of microcystins (MCs). Phage treatment has been proposed as a novel biocontrol method for . Here, we isolated a lytic cyanophage named PhiMa05 with high efficiency against MCs-producing strains. Read More

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The prevalence of enteroviral RNA and protein in mitral valves of chronic rheumatic heart disease.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 Apr 30;15(4):566-572. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Microbiology, Kidwai Cancer Institute, Bangalore, India.

Introduction: Acute Rheumatic Fever/ Rheumatic Heart Disease (ARF/RHD), a sequel of group A streptococcal (GAS) infection, even today constitutes a public health issue in developing countries including India. Differences in the prevalence of ARF/RHD in countries with a similar prevalence of GAS infections indicate the role of other cofactors in pathogenesis of RHD.

Methodology: We investigated the prevalence of enterovirus (EV) in RHD by probing for both EV RNA and VP1 protein using Nonisotopic In Situ Hybridization (NISH) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively in 75 valvectomy specimens obtained from RHD cases. Read More

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Lymphocyte Non-Specific Function Detection Facilitating the Stratification of Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:641378. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Inadequate tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics, especially for discrimination between active TB (ATB) and latent TB infection (LTBI), are major hurdle in the reduction of the disease burden. The present study aims to investigate the role of lymphocyte non-specific function detection for TB diagnosis in clinical practice.

Methods: A total of 208 participants including 49 ATB patients, 64 LTBI individuals, and 95 healthy controls were recruited at Tongji hospital from January 2019 to October 2020. Read More

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Exaggerated IL-17A activity in human in vivo recall responses discriminates active tuberculosis from latent infection and cured disease.

Sci Transl Med 2021 May;13(592)

University College London, London, UK.

Host immune responses at the site of infection can mediate pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) and onward transmission of infection. We hypothesized that pathological immune responses would be enriched at the site of host-pathogen interactions modeled by a standardized tuberculin skin test (TST) challenge in patients with active TB compared to those without disease, and interrogated immune responses by genome-wide transcriptional profiling. We show exaggerated interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and T helper 17 (T17) responses among 48 individuals with active TB compared to 191 with latent TB infection, associated with increased neutrophil recruitment and matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression, both involved in TB pathogenesis. Read More

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The roseoloviruses downregulate the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC (CD45).

J Virol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI

Like all herpesviruses, the roseoloviruses (HHV6A, -6B, and -7) establish lifelong infection within their host, requiring these viruses to evade host anti-viral responses. One common host-evasion strategy is the downregulation of host-encoded, surface-expressed glycoproteins. Roseoloviruses have been shown to evade the host immune response by downregulating NK-activating ligands, class I MHC, and the TCR/CD3 complex. Read More

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Specificity of tuberculin skin test improved by BCG immunization schedule change in Japan.

J Infect Chemother 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, National Defense Medical College, 3-2, Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan.

Introduction: Tuberculin skin test (TST) has been used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated patients, TST tends to produce false-positive results. According to the previous vaccination schedule, Japanese people were mandated to receive up to three doses of BCG-vaccine. Read More

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Characterization of a lytic EBP bacteriophage with large size genome against Enterobacter cloacae.

APMIS 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that had acquired antibiotic resistance against multiple classes of antibiotics. The current study was aimed to isolate and characterize lytic bacteriophage against E. Read More

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Comparisons of Serologic Responses of Early Syphilis to Treatment with a Single-Dose Benzathine Penicillin G Between HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, Taiwan.

Introduction: Poorer serologic responses of early syphilis to treatment have been inconsistently reported in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, but the interpretation of previous studies is limited by discrepant study designs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the treatment response to a single dose of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) for early syphilis.

Methods: From January 2015 to March 2020, adult patients with early syphilis who received a single dose of BPG were enrolled and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers were periodically determined. Read More

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Clinical polymorphism in patients with infection in the Western Siberia.

IDCases 2021 10;24:e01064. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

First Moscow Medical University "I.M. Sechenov", 119991, St. Trubetskaya, 8, b. 2, Moscow, Russia.

Clinical symptoms of chronic opisthorchiasis superinvasion the inhabitants of the Western Siberia, which is hyperendemic for this parasites, are presented. The polymorphism of manifestations from many organs and systems (liver, respiratory, immune, musculoskeletal, and digestive, etc.) with the development of eosinophilic hepatitis, according to histological studies, are shown. Read More

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CpG Methylation Profiles of HIV-1 Pro-Viral DNA in Individuals on ART.

Viruses 2021 04 29;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02129, USA.

The latent HIV-1 reservoir is comprised of stably integrated and intact proviruses with limited to no viral transcription. It has been proposed that latent infection may be maintained by methylation of pro-viral DNA. Here, for the first time, we investigate the cytosine methylation of a replication competent provirus (AMBI-1) found in a T cell clone in a donor on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Read More

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Occurrence of Canker and Wood Rot Pathogens on Stone Fruit Propagation Material and Nursery Trees in the Western Cape of South Africa.

Plant Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Stellenbosch University, Plant Pathology, Private BagX1, Matieland, Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa, 7602.

Dieback and canker of young stone fruit trees can cause suboptimal growth and even death under severe conditions. One source of inoculum of canker pathogens could be through nursery trees harboring latent infections that would not be visible to inspections done according to the deciduous fruit scheme. The objectives of this study were to identify the canker and wood rot fungal pathogens present in nursery stone fruit trees as well as propagation material and to evaluate their pathogenicity. Read More

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