3,493 results match your criteria latency absence

Acute Transverse Myelitis (ATM):Clinical Review of 43 Patients With COVID-19-Associated ATM and 3 Post-Vaccination ATM Serious Adverse Events With the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine (AZD1222).

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:653786. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Neurosurgery Service, Complejo Hospitalario Metropolitano, CSS, Panama City, Panama.

Introduction: Although acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare neurological condition (1.34-4.6 cases per million/year) COVID-19-associated ATM cases have occurred during the pandemic. Read More

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5-HT Receptors Are Not Involved in the Effects of Fluoxetine in the Corticosterone Model of Depression.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria, IBBTEC (Universidad de Cantabria, CSIC, SODERCAN), Departamento de Fisiología y Farmacología, Universidad de Cantabria, 39011 Santander, Spain.

Clinical and preclinical studies report the implication of 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptors (5-HTRs) in depression and anxiety. Here, we tested whether the absence of 5-HT4Rs influences the response to the antidepressant fluoxetine in mice subjected to chronic corticosterone administration, an animal model of depression and anxiety. Therefore, the effects of chronic administration of fluoxetine in corticosterone-treated wild-type (WT) and 5-HTR knockout (KO) mice were evaluated in the open-field and novelty suppressed feeding tests. Read More

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Stochastic Episodes of Latent Cytomegalovirus Transcription Drive CD8 T-Cell "Memory Inflation" and Avoid Immune Evasion.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:668885. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute for Virology, Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI) at the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Acute infection with murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) is controlled by CD8 T cells and develops into a state of latent infection, referred to as latency, which is defined by lifelong maintenance of viral genomes but absence of infectious virus in latently infected cell types. Latency is associated with an increase in numbers of viral epitope-specific CD8 T cells over time, a phenomenon known as "memory inflation" (MI). The "inflationary" subset of CD8 T cells has been phenotyped as KLRG1CD62L effector-memory T cells (iTEM). Read More

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Influence of Cochlear Implantation on Vestibular Function in Children With an Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct.

Front Neurol 2021 21;12:663123. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shandong Provincial ENT Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Cochlear implantation (CI) is becoming increasingly used in the rehabilitation of hearing-impaired patients. Children with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) need CI for severe or profound hearing loss, with excellent outcomes in hearing rehabilitation. However, vestibular function influenced by CI in children with EVA has not been clarified. Read More

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Digital Approaches to Music-Making for People With Dementia in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Current Practice and Recommendations.

Front Psychol 2021 23;12:625258. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Before COVID-19, dementia singing groups and choirs flourished, providing activity, cognitive stimulation, and social support for thousands of people with dementia in the UK. Interactive music provides one of the most effective psychosocial interventions for people with dementia; it can allay agitation and promote wellbeing. Since COVID-19 has halted the delivery of in-person musical activities, it is important for the welfare of people with dementia and their carers to investigate what alternatives to live music making exist, how these alternatives are delivered and how their accessibility can be expanded. Read More

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Comparison of Scalp ERP to Faces in Macaques and Humans.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 16;15:667611. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Translational Neuroscience Division, Center for Biological Imaging and Neuromodulation, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, United States.

Face recognition is an essential activity of social living, common to many primate species. Underlying processes in the brain have been investigated using various techniques and compared between species. Functional imaging studies have shown face-selective cortical regions and their degree of correspondence across species. Read More

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Wnt antagonists suppress herpes simplex virus type 1 productive infection.

Antiviral Res 2021 May 4:105082. Epub 2021 May 4.

Oklahoma State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Stillwater, OK 74078. Electronic address:

Following acute infection of mucosal surfaces, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes life-long latent infections within neurons, including sensory neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG). Periodically, reactivation from latency occurs resulting in virus transmission and recurrent disease. In the absence of lytic cycle viral transcriptional proteins, host factors are predicted to mediate early stages of reactivation from latency. Read More

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Improved Functional Outcome After Peripheral Nerve Stimulation of the Impaired Forelimb Post-stroke.

Front Neurol 2021 20;12:610434. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, United States.

Lack of blood flow to the brain, i.e., ischemic stroke, results in loss of nerve cells and therefore loss of function in the effected brain regions. Read More

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Sleep and its Association With Pain and Depression in Nursing Home Patients With Advanced Dementia - a Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:633959. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Previous research suggests a positive association between pain, depression and sleep. In this study, we investigate how sleep correlates with varying levels of pain and depression in nursing home (NH) patients with dementia. Cross-sectional study ( = 141) with sleep-related data, derived from two multicenter studies conducted in Norway. Read More

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Microsleep versus Sleep Onset Latency during Maintenance Wakefulness Tests: Which One Is the Best Marker of Sleepiness?

Clocks Sleep 2021 Apr 30;3(2):259-273. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Sleep Medicine and Respiratory Diseases, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69004 Lyon, France.

The interpretation of the Maintenance Wakefulness Test (MWT) relies on sleep onset detection. However, microsleeps (MSs), i.e. Read More

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iTIME.219: An Immortalized KSHV Infected Endothelial Cell Line Inducible by a KSHV-Specific Stimulus to Transition From Latency to Lytic Replication and Infectious Virus Release.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 14;11:654396. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and two B cell lymphoproliferative disorders: primary effusion lymphoma and KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman's disease. These distinct pathologies involve different infected cell types. In Kaposi's sarcoma, the virus is harbored in spindle-like tumor cells of endothelial origin, in contrast with the two pathologies of B cells. Read More

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Identification of UL69 Gene and Protein in Cytomegalovirus-Transformed Human Mammary Epithelial Cells.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:627866. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department Pathogens & Inflammation-EPILAB EA4266, University of Bourgogne France-Comté, Besançon, France.

A growing body of evidence addressing the involvement of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in malignancies had directed attention to the oncomodulation paradigm. HCMV-DB infected human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) in culture showed the emergence of clusters of rapidly proliferating, spheroid-shaped transformed cells named CTH (CMV-Transformed HMECs) cells. CTH cells assessment suggests a direct contribution of HCMV to oncogenesis, from key latent and lytic genes activating oncogenic pathways to fueling tumor evolution. Read More

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Xiaoyao Pills Ameliorate Depression-like Behaviors and Oxidative Stress Induced by Olfactory Bulbectomy in Rats via the Activation of the PIK3CA-AKT1-NFE2L2/BDNF Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 15;12:643456. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Numerous studies have revealed that oxidative stress is closely associated with the occurrence and development of depression. Xiaoyao Pills (XYW) are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and are frequently used for treating anxiety and depression by smoothing the liver, strengthening the spleen, and nourishing the blood. However, the antidepressant effects of XYW have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Read More

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Magnetoencephalography Responses to Unpredictable and Predictable Rare Somatosensory Stimuli in Healthy Adult Humans.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 14;15:641273. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Jyväskylä Centre for Interdisciplinary Brain Research, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Mismatch brain responses to unpredicted rare stimuli are suggested to be a neural indicator of prediction error, but this has rarely been studied in the somatosensory modality. Here, we investigated how the brain responds to unpredictable and predictable rare events. Magnetoencephalography responses were measured in adults frequently presented with somatosensory stimuli (FRE) that were occasionally replaced by two consecutively presented rare stimuli [unpredictable rare stimulus (UR) and predictable rare stimulus (PR); = 0. Read More

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Effects of Perturbation Velocity, Direction, Background Muscle Activation, and Task Instruction on Long-Latency Responses Measured From Forearm Muscles.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 16;15:639773. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Human Robotics Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.

The central nervous system uses feedback processes that occur at multiple time scales to control interactions with the environment. The long-latency response (LLR) is the fastest process that directly involves cortical areas, with a motoneuron response measurable 50 ms following an imposed limb displacement. Several behavioral factors concerning perturbation mechanics and the active role of muscles prior or during the perturbation can modulate the long-latency response amplitude (LLRa) in the upper limbs, but the interactions among many of these factors had not been systematically studied before. Read More

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Anticonvulsive profile of two GABA receptor antagonists on acute seizure mice models.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Apr 20;174:106644. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Inserm, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, HMNO, CBP, CHRU Lille & EA 7364 - RADEME, North France University Lille, 2, Bld Prof Jules Leclercq, 59037, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: DL-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpentanamide (HEPP) and DL-3-hydroxy-3-(4'chlorophenyl)-pentanamide (Cl-HEPP) are phenyl-alcohol-amides that are metabotropic GABAB receptor (MGBR) antagonists and protective against absence seizures. This study aims to further characterize the anticonvulsant profile of these drugs.

Methods: HEPP and Cl-HEPP were evaluated in various standardized acute seizure and toxic tests in female Swiss-OF1 mice. Read More

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Latent Cytomegalovirus-Driven Recruitment of Activated CD4+ T Cells Promotes Virus Reactivation.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:657945. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology and Infectious Disease and Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is not cleared by the initial immune response but persists for the lifetime of the host, in part due to its ability to establish a latent infection in cells of the myeloid lineage. HCMV has been shown to manipulate the secretion of cellular proteins during both lytic and latent infection; with changes caused by latent infection mainly investigated in CD34+ progenitor cells. Whilst CD34+ cells are generally bone marrow resident, their derivative CD14+ monocytes migrate to the periphery where they briefly circulate until extravasation into tissue sites. Read More

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The efficacy of three on-farm euthanasia methods for broiler chickens throughout the production cycle.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

University of Saskatchewan, Animal and Poultry Science, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

There is a need for humanely killing moribund or injured broiler birds on-farm with no reasonable chance of recovery. Two experiments evaluated the efficacy of three commercially applicable killing methods; manual cervical dislocation (CD), mechanical cervical dislocation with the Koechner Euthanizing Device (KED) and a non-penetrative captive bolt device (Zephyr-EXL; ZEXL), at 7, 21 or 35 d of age, on their ability to induce insensibility (unconsciousness and loss of brain stem reflexes) and death.Experiment one assessed the damage to the cranial-cervical region resulting from the methods applied to cadavers of cull birds (n=180) by radiography and gross pathology observation. Read More

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Immune Subtyping in Latent Tuberculosis.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:595746. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) poses a major roadblock in the global effort to eradicate tuberculosis (TB). A deep understanding of the host responses involved in establishment and maintenance of TB latency is required to propel the development of sensitive methods to detect and treat LTBI. Given that LTBI individuals are typically asymptomatic, it is challenging to differentiate latently infected from uninfected individuals. Read More

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The Interplay of HIV-1 and Macrophages in Viral Persistence.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:646447. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States.

HIV-1 has evolved mechanisms to evade host cell immune responses and persist for lifelong infection. Latent cellular reservoirs are responsible for this persistence of HIV-1 despite the powerful effects of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) to control circulating viral load. While cellular reservoirs have been extensively studied, much of these studies have focused on peripheral blood and resting memory CD4+ T cells containing latent HIV-1 provirus; however, efforts to eradicate cellular reservoirs have been stunted by reservoirs found in tissues compartments that are not easily accessible. Read More

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Reflexive and Intentional Saccadic Eye Movements in Migraineurs.

Front Neurol 2021 7;12:669922. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders-DSGZ, University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Migraine has been postulated to lead to structural and functional changes of different cortical and subcortical areas, including the frontal lobe, the brainstem, and cerebellum. The (sub-)clinical impact of these changes is a matter of debate. The spectrum of possible clinical differences include domains such as cognition but also coordination. Read More

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Blockade of Motor Cortical Long-Term Potentiation Induction by Glutamatergic Dysfunction Causes Abnormal Neurobehavior in an Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Model.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 9;15:670189. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening condition that can also lead to permanent paralysis. However, the mechanisms that underlying neurobehavioral deficits after SAH have not been fully elucidated. As theta burst stimulation (TBS) can induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in the motor cortex, we tested its potential as a functional evaluation tool after experimentally induced SAH. Read More

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Freely Behaving Mice Can Brake and Turn During Optogenetic Stimulation of the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 9;15:639900. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Département de pharmacologie-physiologie, Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

A key function of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is to control the speed of forward symmetrical locomotor movements. However, the ability of freely moving mammals to integrate environmental cues to brake and turn during MLR stimulation is poorly documented. Here, we investigated whether freely behaving mice could brake or turn, based on environmental cues during MLR stimulation. Read More

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Visual Perception and Visuomotor Reaction Speed Are Independent of the Individual Alpha Frequency.

Front Neurosci 2021 8;15:620266. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, LUNEX International University of Health, Exercise and Sports, Differdange, Luxembourg.

While the resting-state individual alpha frequency (IAF) is related to the cognitive performance and temporal resolution of visual perception, it remains unclear how it affects the neural correlates of visual perception and reaction processes. This study aimed to unravel the relation between IAF, visual perception, and visuomotor reaction time. One hundred forty-eight (148) participants (28 non-athletes, 39 table tennis players, and 81 badminton players) investigated in three previous studies were considered. Read More

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Humanized Mice for the Evaluation of Novel HIV-1 Therapies.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:636775. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States.

With the discovery of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 infection has transitioned into a manageable but chronic illness, which requires lifelong treatment. Nevertheless, complete eradication of the virus has still eluded us. This is partly due to the virus's ability to remain in a dormant state in tissue reservoirs, 'hidden' from the host's immune system. Read More

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Towards a Functional Cure of HIV-1: Insight Into the Chromatin Landscape of the Provirus.

Front Microbiol 2021 18;12:636642. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Despite potent combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 infection persists due to irreversible integration of the virus in long-living cells of the immune system. The main focus of HIV-1 cure strategies has been on HIV-1 eradication, yet without great success so far. Therefore, HIV-1 remission or a functional cure, whereby the virus is silenced rather than eradicated, is considered as an alternative strategy. Read More

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Associations Between Smoking Abstinence, Inhibitory Control, and Smoking Behavior: An fMRI Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 1;12:592443. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States.

Nicotine addiction is associated with dysregulated inhibitory control (IC), mediated by corticothalamic circuitry including the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG). Among sated smokers, worse IC task performance and greater IC-related rIFG activity have been shown to be associated with greater relapse vulnerability. The present study investigated the effects of smoking abstinence on associations between IC task performance, rIFG activation, and smoking behavior. Read More

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Causes of Death After Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis: A Population-Based Study.

Front Oncol 2021 30;11:647179. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Non-cancer causes of death in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have not received much attention until now. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the non-cancer causes of death in patients with CRC at different periods of latency. Eligible patients with CRC were included from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using the SEER*Stat software 8. Read More

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The ENE of polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA is not required for productive lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).

J Virol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada, USA

KSHV is an oncogenic human gammaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multi-centric Castleman's disease (MCD). During reactivation, viral genes are expressed in a temporal manner. These lytic genes encode for transactivators, core replication proteins, or structural proteins. Read More

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