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EEG measures for clinical research in major vascular cognitive impairment: recommendations by an expert panel.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jul 10;103:78-97. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CHeBA), School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales; Neuropsychiatric Institute, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Vascular contribution to cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia is related to etiologies that may affect the neurophysiological mechanisms regulating brain arousal and generating electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. A multidisciplinary expert panel reviewed the clinical literature and reached consensus about the EEG measures consistently found as abnormal in VCI patients with dementia. As compared to cognitively unimpaired individuals, those VCI patients showed (1) smaller amplitude of resting state alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms dominant in posterior regions; (2) widespread increases in amplitude of delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms; and (3) delayed N200/P300 peak latencies in averaged event-related potentials, especially during the detection of auditory rare target stimuli requiring participants' responses in "oddball" paradigms. Read More

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Equal performance but distinct behaviors: sex differences in a novel object recognition task and spatial maze in a highly social cichlid fish.

Anim Cogn 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, 1 University Station C0990, Austin, TX, 78712, USA.

Sex differences in behavior and cognition can be driven by differential selection pressures from the environment and in the underlying neuromolecular mechanisms of decision-making. The highly social cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni exhibits dynamic and complex social hierarchies, yet explicit cognitive testing (outside of social contexts) and investigations of sex differences in cognition have yet to be fully explored. Here we assessed male and female A. Read More

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Noninvasive neuromagnetic single-trial analysis of human neocortical population spikes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Neurophysics Group, Department of Neurology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 12203 Berlin, Germany.

Neuronal spiking is commonly recorded by invasive sharp microelectrodes, whereas standard noninvasive macroapproaches (e.g., electroencephalography [EEG] and magnetoencephalography [MEG]) predominantly represent mass postsynaptic potentials. Read More

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Effects of positive reinforcement training for heifers on responses to a subcutaneous injection.

J Dairy Sci 2021 May 6;104(5):6146-6158. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Animal Welfare Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4. Electronic address:

Cattle are subjected to routine procedures that require restraint and close contact to humans, which are both potentially aversive to the animal. Positive reinforcement training techniques may affect how animals perceive and respond to these procedures. The objectives of the current study were to describe a positive reinforcement regimen used to train cattle to stand still for a sham injection, and to assess the effects of this training on the responses to an actual injection. Read More

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Experimental sleep restriction increases latency jitter in pain elicited cortical responses.

Heliyon 2021 Feb 12;7(2):e06188. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

National Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Work Psychology and Physiology, Gydas vei 8, 0363, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: Previous studies have shown increased pain scores to painful stimulation after experimental sleep restriction, but reduced or unchanged magnitude of the event related potentials (ERPs) when averaged in the time-domain. However, some studies found increased response magnitude when averaging in the time-frequency domain. The aim of this study was to determine whether ERP-latency jitter may contribute to this discrepancy. Read More

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February 2021

Characterizing the impact of advancing age on 500 Hz tone-burst evoked ocular-vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Audiology, All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mansagangothri, Mysore, 570006, India.

Purpose: Ageing is process that brings about steady decline in most of the systems, and vestibular system is no different. Although the effects of advancing age on the functioning of the semicircular canals and saccule has been well explored, its impact on the utricle remains the least studied component. While some researchers have investigated the effect of advancing age on the utricular functioning by virtue of studying ocular-vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP), the use of smaller sample sizes would hamper the generalization of their results. Read More

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January 2021

Cochlear Implant and Hearing Aid: Objective Measures of Binaural Benefit.

Front Neurosci 2020 14;14:586119. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

Cochlear implants (CI) improve hearing for the severely hearing impaired. With an extension of implantation candidacy, today many CI listeners use a hearing aid on their contralateral ear, referred to as bimodal listening. It is uncertain, however, whether the brains of bimodal listeners can combine the electrical and acoustical sound information and how much CI experience is needed to achieve an improved performance with bimodal listening. Read More

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December 2020

Shifting Attention in Feature Space: Fast Facilitation of the To-Be-Attended Feature Is Followed by Slow Inhibition of the To-Be-Ignored Feature.

J Cogn Neurosci 2021 Apr 30;33(4):651-661. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

University of Leipzig.

In an explorative study, we investigated the time course of attentional selection shifts in feature-based attention in early visual cortex by means of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs). To this end, we presented four flickering random dot kinematograms with red/blue, horizontal/vertical bars, respectively. Given the oscillatory nature of SSVEPs, we were able to investigate neural temporal dynamics of facilitation and inhibition/suppression when participants shifted attention either within (i. Read More

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The cutaneous silent period in motor neuron disease.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Feb 9;132(2):660-665. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Instituto de Fisiologia, Instituto de Medicina Molecular João Lobo Antunes, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the cutaneous silent period (CSP) by measuring its onset latency, duration and amount signal suppression in patients with motor neuron disease (MND) grouped according to the intensity of upper motor neuron involvement (UMN), and to test the effect of contralateral hand contraction.

Methods: Painful stimulation was applied at the V finger, and contraction recorded from the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle (baseline condition). Afterwards, CSP was studied during strong contralateral ADM contraction (test condition). Read More

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February 2021

Reliability of P3 Event-Related Potential During Working Memory Across the Spectrum of Cognitive Aging.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 19;12:566391. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States.

Event-related potentials (ERPs) offer unparalleled temporal resolution in tracing distinct electrophysiological processes related to normal and pathological cognitive aging. The stability of ERPs in older individuals with a vast range of cognitive ability has not been established. In this test-retest reliability study, 39 older individuals (age 74. Read More

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October 2020

Axono-cortical evoked potentials as a new method of IONM for preserving the motor control network: a first study in three cases.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 04 7;163(4):919-935. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Frontlab, Institut du Cerveau, CNRS UMR 7225, INSERM U1127, Paris, France.

Background: White matter stimulation in an awake patient is currently the gold standard for identification of functional pathways. Despite the robustness and reproducibility of this method, very little is known about the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the functional disruption. Axono-cortical evoked potentials (ACEPs) provide a reliable technique to explore these mechanisms. Read More

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Artifact reduction by using alternating polarity stimulus pairs in intraoperative peripheral nerve action potential recording.

J Clin Monit Comput 2020 Nov 4. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Intraoperative nerve action potential (NAP) recording permits direct study of an injured nerve for functional assessment of lesions in continuity. Stimulus artifact contamination often hampers NAP recording and interferes with its interpretation. In the present study, we evaluated the artifact reduction method using alternating polarity in peripheral nerve recording. Read More

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November 2020

Normative Study of the Binaural Interaction Component of the Human Auditory Brainstem Response as a Function of Interaural Time Differences.

Ear Hear 2020 Oct 30;42(3):629-643. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Objectives: The binaural interaction component (BIC) of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) is obtained by subtracting the sum of the monaural right and left ear ABRs from the binaurally evoked ABR. The result is a small but prominent negative peak (herein called "DN1"), indicating a smaller binaural than summed ABR, which occurs around the latency of wave V or its roll-off slope. The BIC has been proposed to have diagnostic value as a biomarker of binaural processing abilities; however, there have been conflicting reports regarding the reliability of BIC measures in human subjects. Read More

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October 2020

Single-trial averaging improves the physiological interpretation of contact heat evoked potentials.

Neuroimage 2021 01 21;225:117473. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

ICORD, University of British Columbia, 818W 10th Ave, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 818W 10th Ave, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, University of British Columbia, 818W 10th Ave, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Laser and contact heat evoked potentials (LEPs and CHEPs, respectively) provide an objective measure of pathways and processes involved in nociception. The majority of studies analyzing LEP or CHEP outcomes have done so based on conventional, across-trial averaging. With this approach, evoked potential components are potentially confounded by latency jitter and ignore relevant information contained within single trials. Read More

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January 2021

Electrophysiological Dynamics of Visual-Tactile Temporal Order Perception in Early Deaf Adults.

Front Neurosci 2020 23;14:544472. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, United States.

Studies of compensatory plasticity in early deaf (ED) individuals have mainly focused on unisensory processing, and on spatial rather than temporal coding. However, precise discrimination of the temporal relationship between stimuli is imperative for successful perception of and interaction with the complex, multimodal environment. Although the properties of cross-modal temporal processing have been extensively studied in neurotypical populations, remarkably little is known about how the loss of one sense impacts the integrity of temporal interactions among the remaining senses. Read More

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September 2020

Perception of saccadic reaction time.

Sci Rep 2020 10 14;10(1):17192. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

UMR 9193-SCALab, CNRS, Univ. Lille, 59000, Lille, France.

That saccadic reaction times (SRTs) may depend on reinforcement contingencies has been repeatedly demonstrated. It follows that one must be able to discriminate one's latencies to adequately assign credit to one's actions, which is to connect behaviour to its consequence. To quantify the ability to perceive one's SRT, we used an adaptive procedure to train sixteen participants in a stepping visual target saccade paradigm. Read More

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October 2020

Electrophysiological testing in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin: The Polyneuropathy And Treatment with Hizentra (PATH) study.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jan 14;132(1):226-231. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

CSL Behring, Marburg, Germany.

Objective: To assess electrophysiology parameters that can reflect patients' clinical status and show changes in nerve function with treatment, in a study of subcutaneous immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

Methods: Nerve conduction studies (latency, conduction velocity, conduction block and compound muscle action potential [CMAP] on upper limb median, ulnar, and lower limb peroneal motor nerves) were conducted in the placebo-controlled PATH (Polyneuropathy And Treatment with Hizentra) study of two doses of maintenance subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) IgPro20 in CIDP.

Results: Averaged proximal latency substantially increased with placebo (+1. Read More

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January 2021

Awake state-specific suppression of primary somatosensory evoked response correlated with duration of temporal lobe epilepsy.

Sci Rep 2020 09 28;10(1):15895. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Epileptology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575, Japan.

Epilepsy is a network disease. The primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is usually considered to be intact, but could be subclinically disturbed based on abnormal functional connectivity in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We aimed to investigate if the S1 of TLE is abnormally modulated. Read More

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September 2020

A multi-metric approach to characterizing mouse peripheral auditory nerve function using the auditory brainstem response.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 12 7;346:108937. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Ave, MSC 550, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The auditory brainstem response (ABR), specifically wave I, is widely used to noninvasively measure auditory nerve (AN) function. Recent work in humans has introduced novel electrocochleographic measures to comprehensively characterize AN function that emphasize suprathreshold processing and estimate neural synchrony.

New Method: This study establishes new tools for evaluating AN function in vivo in adult mice using tone-evoked ABRs obtained from young-adult CBA/CaJ mice, adapting the approach previously introduced in humans. Read More

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December 2020

Predicting Neural Response Latency of the Human Early Visual Cortex from MRI-Based Tissue Measurements of the Optic Radiation.

eNeuro 2020 Jul/Aug;7(4). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Center for Information and Neural Networks (CiNet), National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, and Osaka University, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Although the non-invasive measurement of visually evoked responses has been extensively studied, the structural basis of variabilities in latency in healthy humans is not well understood. We investigated how tissue properties of optic radiation could predict interindividual variability in the latency of the initial visually evoked component (C1), which may originate from the primary visual cortex (V1). We collected C1 peak latency data using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and checkerboard stimuli, and multiple structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 20 healthy subjects. Read More

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Short-Term Test-Retest Reliability of Electrically Evoked Cortical Auditory Potentials in Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients.

Front Neurol 2020 28;11:305. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Late latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) provide objective evidence of an individual's central auditory processing abilities. Electrically evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (eCAEPs) are a type of LLAEP that provides an objective measure of aided speech perception and auditory processing abilities in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. To determine the short-term test-retest reliability of eCAEPs in adult CI recipients. Read More

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Computer data simulator to assess the accuracy of estimates of visual N2/N2pc event-related potential components.

J Neural Eng 2020 06 22;17(3):036024. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Information Engineering-DEI, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Objective: Event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by visual stimulations comprise several components, with different amplitudes and latencies. Among them, the N2 and N2pc components have been demonstrated to be a measure of subjects' allocation of visual attention to possible targets and to be involved in the suppression of irrelevant items. Unfortunately, the N2 and N2pc components have smaller amplitudes compared with those of the background electroencephalogram (EEG), and their measurement requires employing techniques such as conventional averaging, which in turn necessitates several sweeps to provide acceptable estimates. Read More

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Vestibular Migraine Patients Show Lack of Habituation in Auditory Middle Latency Responses to Repetitive Stimuli: Comparison With Meniere's Disease Patients.

Front Neurol 2020 20;11:24. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Otolaryngology, Teikyo University School of Medicine Mizonokuchi Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan.

To compare habituation in auditory middle latency response (AMLR) to repetitive stimuli of vestibular migraine (VM) patients with Meniere's disease (MD) patients and healthy controls (HC) and to assess usefulness of AMLR for diagnosis of VM. Thirteen unilateral definite MD patients (2 men, 11 women, mean age 50.6), 13 definite VM patients (3 men, 10 women, mean age 45. Read More

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February 2020

Single-Trial Mechanisms Underlying Changes in Averaged P300 ERP Amplitude and Latency in Military Service Members After Combat Deployment.

Front Hum Neurosci 2019 25;13:377. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Attenuation in P300 amplitude has been characterized in a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as dementia, schizophrenia, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unclear whether the attenuation observed in the averaged event-related potential (ERP) is due to the reduction of neural resources available for cognitive processing, the decreased consistency of cognitive resource allocation, or the increased instability of cognitive processing speed. In this study, we investigated this problem by estimating single-trial P300 amplitude and latency using a modified Woody filter and examined the relation between amplitudes and latencies from the single-trial level to the averaged ERP level. Read More

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October 2019

Discriminating Fake From True Brain Injury Using Latency of Left Frontal Neural Responses During Old/New Memory Recognition.

Front Neurosci 2019 25;13:988. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, United States.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health concern that affects 69 million individuals each year worldwide. Neuropsychologists report that up to 40% of individuals undergoing evaluations for TBI may be malingering neurocognitive deficits for a compensatory reward. The memory recognition test of malingering detection is effective but can be coached behaviorally. Read More

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September 2019

Increased Intra-Subject Variability of Reaction Times and Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Components in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 02 30;13(2):221-229. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

School of Interactive Arts and Technology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 1 in 59 children. The cognitive profiles of individuals with ASD are varied, and the neurophysiological underpinnings of these developmental difficulties are unclear. While many studies have focused on overall group differences in the amplitude or latency of event related potential (ERP) responses, recent research suggests that increased intra-subject neural variability may also be a reliable indicator of atypical brain function in ASD. Read More

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February 2020

High-frequency component in flash visual evoked potentials in type 3 Gaucher disease.

Brain Dev 2020 Jan 24;42(1):19-27. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Division of Child Neurology, Department of Brain and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: To characterize the visual evoked potentials (VEP) in patients with type 3 Gaucher disease (GD) with or without progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

Methods: Three young adults with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (type 3a GD) and two children without progressive myoclonus epilepsy (type 3b GD) were enrolled. Flash visual and somatosensory evoked potentials (F-VEP and SEP, respectively) were retrospectively reviewed in all patients under enzyme replacement therapy. Read More

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January 2020

The latency of a visual evoked potential tracks the onset of decision making.

Neuroimage 2019 08 24;197:93-108. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; Institute of Mathematical Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

Encoding of a sensory stimulus is believed to be the first step in perceptual decision making. Previous research has shown that electrical signals recorded from the human brain track evidence accumulation during perceptual decision making (Gold and Shadlen, 2007; O'Connell et al., 2012; Philiastides et al. Read More

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Cortical auditory evoked potentials and hemispheric specialization of speech in individuals with learning disability and healthy controls: A preliminary study.

F1000Res 2018 17;7:1939. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Dichotic listening (DL) technique is a behavioral non-invasive tool which is used in studying hemispheric lateralization. Previous studies using behavioral DL have hypothesized that individuals with learning disabilities (LD) exhibit a lack of cortical specialization for processing speech stimulus. However, there is no event related potential (ERP) evidence, hence the main objective of the study is to explore hemispheric asymmetry using cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEPs) in normal hearing adults and also to compare the same in children with LD and healthy controls. Read More

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September 2019

Adrenergic Modulation of Visually-Guided Behavior.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2019 20;11. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Laboratorio de Plasticidad Cortical y Aprendizaje Perceptual, Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, México.

Iontophoretic application of norepinephrine (NE) into the primary visual cortex (V1) reduces spontaneous and evoked activity, without changing the functional selectivity of cortical units. One possible consequence of this phenomenon is that adrenergic receptors (ARs) regulate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of neural responses in this circuit. However, despite such strong inhibitory action of NE on neuronal firing patterns in V1, its specific action on visual behavior has not been studied. Read More

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