186 results match your criteria late paleozoic

A revision of Fritsch, 1899 with comparison to other highly paedomorphic belinurids.

PeerJ 2021 8;9:e10980. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Palaeoscience Research Centre, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.

Xiphosurida is an ingroup of marine Euchelicerata often referred to as "living fossils". However, this oxymoronic term is inapplicable for Paleozoic and early Mesozoic forms, as during these periods the group experienced notable evolutionary radiations; particularly the diverse late Palaeozoic clade Belinurina. Despite the iconic nature of the group, select species in this clade have been left undescribed in the light of recent geometric morphometric and phylogenetic considerations and methodologies. Read More

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A high-resolution record of early Paleozoic climate.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Feb;118(6)

Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139.

The spatial coverage and temporal resolution of the Early Paleozoic paleoclimate record are limited, primarily due to the paucity of well-preserved skeletal material commonly used for oxygen-isotope paleothermometry. Bulk-rock [Formula: see text] datasets can provide broader coverage and higher resolution, but are prone to burial alteration. We assess the diagenetic character of two thick Cambro-Ordovician carbonate platforms with minimal to moderate burial by pairing clumped and bulk isotope analyses of micritic carbonates. Read More

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February 2021

Phanerozoic radiation of ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 22;11(1):2070. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

The modern nitrogen cycle consists of a web of microbially mediated redox transformations. Among the most crucial reactions in this cycle is the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, an obligately aerobic process performed by a limited number of lineages of bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). As this process has an absolute requirement for O, the timing of its evolution-especially as it relates to the Great Oxygenation Event ~ 2. Read More

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January 2021

Characteristics of the In Situ Stress Field in the Yadian Coal Mine, Central China: Implications for Roadway Differential Deformation.

ACS Omega 2021 Jan 24;6(1):739-746. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Bin County Coal Co., Ltd., Xianyang 712000, China.

To study the in situ stress mechanism for different deformations of roadways in different directions, in this paper, we used the method of stress relief with a hollow core to measure the in situ stress of roadways with different degrees of deformation in the Yadian coal mine. The results showed that the in situ stress field was generally σ > σ > σ, indicating a typical reverse faulting stress regime. The present in situ stress field was the main factor for roadway differential deformation. Read More

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January 2021

A new constraint on the antiquity of ancient haloalkaliphilic green algae that flourished in a ca. 300 Ma Paleozoic lake.

Geobiology 2021 03 16;19(2):147-161. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

It is established that green algae and land plants progressively colonized freshwater and terrestrial habitats throughout the Paleozoic Era, but little is known about the ecology of Paleozoic saline lakes. Here, we report lipid biomarker and petrographic evidence for the occurrence of a green alga as a major primary producer in a late Paleozoic alkaline lake (Fengcheng Formation; 309-292 Ma). A persistently saline and alkaline lacustrine setting is supported by mineralogical and lipid biomarker evidence alongside extremely enriched δ N values (+16 to +24‰) for the lake depocenter. Read More

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Late Pennsylvanian carbonate platform facies and coral reef: new insights from southern China (Guizhou Province).

Facies 2021 10;67(1). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Geneva, Rue des Maraîchers, 13, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

The Pennsylvanian is characterized by intense paleoenvironmental changes related to glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations and major tectonic events, which affected the evolution of biocommunities. Most known Pennsylvanian tropical reefs and mounds are predominantly composed of calcareous algae (e.g. Read More

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November 2020

Micro-Nanopore Structure and Fractal Characteristics of Tight Sandstone Gas Reservoirs in the Eastern Ordos Basin, China.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Jan;21(1):234-245

Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics, College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

The complex pore system in tight sandstone reservoirs controls the storage and transport of natural gas. Thus, quantitatively characterizing the micro-nanopore structure of tight sandstone reservoirs is of great significance to determining the accumulation and distribution of tight gas. The pore structure of reservoirs was determined through polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the combination of mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments on Late Paleozoic conventional and tight sandstone samples from the Linxing Block, Ordos Basin. Read More

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January 2021

Paleozoic-Mesozoic Eustatic Changes and Mass Extinctions: New Insights from Event Interpretation.

Dmitry A Ruban

Life (Basel) 2020 Nov 14;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 14.

K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management (the First Cossack University), Zemlyanoy Val Street 73, 109004 Moscow, Russia.

Recent eustatic reconstructions allow for reconsidering the relationships between the fifteen Paleozoic-Mesozoic mass extinctions (mid-Cambrian, end-Ordovician, Llandovery/Wenlock, Late Devonian, Devonian/Carboniferous, mid-Carboniferous, end-Guadalupian, end-Permian, two mid-Triassic, end-Triassic, Early Jurassic, Jurassic/Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and end-Cretaceous extinctions) and global sea-level changes. The relationships between eustatic rises/falls and period-long eustatic trends are examined. Many eustatic events at the mass extinction intervals were not anomalous. Read More

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November 2020

Distribution characteristics and main influencing factors of selenium in surface soil of natural selenium-rich area: a case study in Langao County, China.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jan 9;43(1):333-346. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing, 100101, China.

In order to study the distribution of selenium in surface soil and its main influencing factor, we collected 360 surface soil samples and four groups of soil profiles with 210 corresponding parent rock samples in Langao County, Shaanxi Province (a typical high-selenium area of Daba Mountain). Samples were analyzed for trace elements by using ICP-MS, ICP-OES and HG-AFS. The results show the following. Read More

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January 2021

A Total-Evidence Dated Phylogeny of Echinoidea Combining Phylogenomic and Paleontological Data.

Syst Biol 2021 Apr;70(3):421-439

Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Darwin Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Phylogenomic and paleontological data constitute complementary resources for unraveling the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of lineages, yet few studies have attempted to fully integrate them. Several unique properties of echinoids (sea urchins) make them especially useful for such synthesizing approaches, including a remarkable fossil record that can be incorporated into explicit phylogenetic hypotheses. We revisit the phylogeny of crown group Echinoidea using a total-evidence dating approach that combines the largest phylogenomic data set for the clade, a large-scale morphological matrix with a dense fossil sampling, and a novel compendium of tip and node age constraints. Read More

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Quantifying ecospace utilization and ecosystem engineering during the early Phanerozoic-The role of bioturbation and bioerosion.

Sci Adv 2020 Aug 14;6(33):eabb0618. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Eastern Energy Resources, United States Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, VA 20192, USA.

The Cambrian explosion (CE) and the great Ordovician biodiversification event (GOBE) are the two most important radiations in Paleozoic oceans. We quantify the role of bioturbation and bioerosion in ecospace utilization and ecosystem engineering using information from 1367 stratigraphic units. An increase in all diversity metrics is demonstrated for the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition, followed by a decrease in most values during the middle to late Cambrian, and by a more modest increase during the Ordovician. Read More

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mutant zebrafish accommodate jaw joint loss through a phenocopy of the head shapes of Paleozoic jawless fish.

J Exp Biol 2020 08 5;223(Pt 15). Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E9

The vertebrate jaw is a versatile feeding apparatus. To function, it requires a joint between the upper and lower jaws, so jaw joint defects are often highly disruptive and difficult to study. To describe the consequences of jaw joint dysfunction, we engineered two independent null alleles of a single jaw joint marker gene, , in zebrafish. Read More

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Arborescent lycopsid periderm production was limited.

New Phytol 2020 10 10;228(2):741-751. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, 450 Jane Stanford Way, Building 320, Stanford, CA, 94305-2115, USA.

Late Paleozoic arborescent lycopsids have been thought to have grown from sporelings into large trees through the production of a periderm cylinder, particularly massive in the proximal portion of the trunk and tapering distally, with this rind of bark providing most of their structural support. Here, we argue that physiological limitations would have prohibited the production of thick periderm and test this hypothesis using multiple independent lines of evidence derived from anatomical permineralization and surface impression fossils that allow both direct and indirect measurement of periderm radial thickness. Across all six genera of Pennsylvanian arborescent lycopsids that were investigated, all evidence indicates limited periderm production: typically < 5 cm, always < 15 cm, even in trunks that would have reached 1 m or more in diameter. Read More

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October 2020

A Triassic stem-salamander from Kyrgyzstan and the origin of salamanders.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 05 11;117(21):11584-11588. Epub 2020 May 11.

Urweltmuseum GEOSKOP/Burg Lichtenberg (Pfalz), D-66871 Thallichtenberg, Germany.

The origin of extant amphibians remains largely obscure, with only a few early Mesozoic stem taxa known, as opposed to a much better fossil record from the mid-Jurassic on. In recent time, anurans have been traced back to Early Triassic forms and caecilians have been traced back to the Late Jurassic , both of which exemplify the stepwise acquisition of apomorphies. Yet the most ancient stem-salamanders, known from mid-Jurassic rocks, shed little light on the origin of the clade. Read More

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Male postabdomen reveals ancestral traits of Megasecoptera among winged insects.

Arthropod Struct Dev 2020 Jul 30;57:100944. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden, Museum of Zoology, Königsbrücker Landstrasse 159, 01109 Dresden, Germany.

External male genitalia of insects are greatly diverse in form and frequently used in evolutionary context and taxonomy. Therefore, our proper recognition of homologous structures among various groups from Paleozoic and extant insect taxa is of crucial interest, allowing to understand the key steps in insect evolution. Here, we reveal structural details of two Late Carboniferous representatives of Megasecoptera (families Bardohymenidae and Brodiopteridae), such as the presence of separated coxal plates VIII and ventral expansions of coxal lobes IX. Read More

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The coupling of Phanerozoic continental weathering and marine phosphorus cycle.

Sci Rep 2020 04 2;10(1):5794. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, MOE & School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

Organic matter production and decomposition primarily modulate the atmospheric O and CO levels. The long term marine primary productivity is controlled by the terrestrial input of phosphorus (P), while the marine P cycle would also affect organic matter production. In the past 540 million years, the evolution of terrestrial system, e. Read More

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On the morphology of the Late Paleozoic insect families Bardohymenidae and Aspidothoracidae (Palaeodictyopterida: Megasecoptera).

Arthropod Struct Dev 2020 Mar 13;55:100916. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, CZ 128 00, Praha 2, Czech Republic.

Megasecoptera is a late Paleozoic order of herbivorous insects with rostrum-like mouthparts and slender homonomous outstretched wings. Our knowledge of their morphology is mainly based on wings while other body parts are scarcely documented. Here we focus on the families Bardohymenidae and Aspidothoracidae. Read More

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Geochemistry of Gold Ores Mined During Celtic Times from the North-Western French Massif Central.

Sci Rep 2019 11 28;9(1):17816. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 5276, 69364, Lyon, Cedex 07, France.

The Celtic culture of Western Europe left magnificent gold objects, such as jewellery and weapons from nobility graves and hoarded coins, as well as field evidence of pre-Roman gold mining and metallurgical workshops that attest to the mining of local ores. This is the case of Central France where many precious metallic ores have been mined throughout the ages from the Prehistoric times onwards. One of the lingering problems in assessing the provenance of gold artefacts and coins is the lack of relevant data on the isotope geochemistry and mineralogy of ore sources. Read More

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November 2019

Exploring cycad foliage as an archive of the isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrogen.

Geobiology 2020 03 26;18(2):152-166. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Earth & Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Molecular nitrogen (N ) constitutes the majority of Earth's modern atmosphere, contributing ~0.79 bar of partial pressure (pN ). However, fluctuations in pN may have occurred on 10 -10  year timescales in Earth's past, perhaps altering the isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrogen. Read More

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A left-handed fern twiner in a Permian swamp forest.

Curr Biol 2019 11;29(22):R1172-R1173

State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The twining habit is a climbing strategy that helps slender plants grow upward by using circumnutation around other plants. In geological history, climbing may have already been present in the first Middle Devonian forests, as indicated by possible climbers among aneurophytalean progymnosperms [1] and lycopsids [2]. By the late Carboniferous, climbing was both more common and diverse - preserved in swamp forests with modes of attachment ranging from aerial roots to appendages modified into hooks and tendrils on the leaves [3]. Read More

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November 2019

Oribatid mites show that soil food web complexity and close aboveground-belowground linkages emerged in the early Paleozoic.

Commun Biol 2019 22;2:387. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

1School of Biological Sciences and Institute for Global Food Security, Queen's University Belfast, 19 Chlorine Gardens, BT9 5DL Belfast, UK.

The early evolution of ecosystems in Palaeozoic soils remains poorly understood because the fossil record is sparse, despite the preservation of soil microarthropods already from the Early Devonian (~410 Mya). The soil food web plays a key role in the functioning of ecosystems and its organisms currently express traits that have evolved over 400 my. Here, we conducted a phylogenetic trait analysis of a major soil animal group (Oribatida) to reveal the deep time story of the soil food web. Read More

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Resource partitioning among brachiopods and bivalves at ancient hydrocarbon seeps: A hypothesis.

PLoS One 2019 5;14(9):e0221887. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Universität Hamburg, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Institute for Geology, Hamburg, Germany.

Brachiopods were thought to have dominated deep-sea hydrothermal vents and hydrocarbon seeps for most of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and were believed to have been outcompeted and replaced by chemosymbiotic bivalves during the Late Cretaceous. But recent findings of bivalve-rich seep deposits of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age have questioned this paradigm. By tabulating the generic diversity of the dominant brachiopod and bivalve clades-dimerelloid brachiopods and chemosymbiotic bivalves-from hydrocarbon seeps through the Phanerozoic, we show that their evolutionary trajectories are largely unrelated to one another, indicating that they have not been competing for the same resources. Read More

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The Most Extensive Devonian Fossil Forest with Small Lycopsid Trees Bearing the Earliest Stigmarian Roots.

Curr Biol 2019 08 8;29(16):2604-2615.e2. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Science Press, China Science Publishing and Media Ltd., Beijing 100717, China.

Since the Late Paleozoic, forests have become distributed worldwide and significantly changed the Earth's climate and landscapes, but the record of forests is rare in the Devonian (419-359 Ma in age) when they first appeared. From the Upper Devonian (Famennian with the age of 372-359 Ma) of Xinhang, Anhui, China, we report a very large in situ forest, which includes locally dense stands of lycopsid plants. The Xinhang forest is monospecific with a small tree lycopsid Guangdedendron gen. Read More

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Multiple Independent Recruitment of Sodefrin Precursor-Like Factors in Anuran Sexually Dimorphic Glands.

Mol Biol Evol 2019 09;36(9):1921-1930

Amphibian Evolution Lab, Biology Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Chemical signaling in animals often plays a central role in eliciting a variety of responses during reproductive interactions between males and females. One of the best-known vertebrate courtship pheromone systems is sodefrin precursor-like factors (SPFs), a family of two-domain three-finger proteins with a female-receptivity enhancing function, currently only known from salamanders. The oldest divergence between active components in a single salamander species dates back to the Late Paleozoic, indicating that these proteins potentially gained a pheromone function earlier in amphibian evolution. Read More

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September 2019

Actuopaleoichnology of a modern Bay of Fundy macro-tidal flat: analogy with a Mississippian tidal flat deposit (Hartselle Sandstone) from Alabama.

PeerJ 2019 21;7:e6975. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Geology & Geological Engineering, University of Mississippi, University, MS, USA.

Trace fossil zonation in the Hartselle Sandstone of Mississippian age (Chesterian: Visean-Serpukhovian) exposed on Fielder Ridge, Alabama is compared with modern macro-tidal flat ichnocoenoses on the Bay of Fundy at Lubec, Maine, and demonstrated to be analogous by sedimentologic and ichnotaxonomic criteria. The modern flat has minimal influence from either waves or freshwater influx, and can be divided into five distinct ichnocoenoses, characterized by surface traces (epichnia) and four sedimentologic facies defined by gross grain texture or hydrodynamic characteristics, but lacking significant surface traces. Several characteristics of tidal flat deposits in a fetch-limited, marine (i. Read More

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Using GIS to examine biogeographic and macroevolutionary patterns in some late Paleozoic cephalopods from the North American Midcontinent Sea.

PeerJ 2019 13;7:e6910. Epub 2019 May 13.

Biodiversity Institute, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, United States of America.

Geographic range is an important macroevolutionary parameter frequently considered in paleontological studies as species' distributions and range sizes are determined by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors well known to affect the differential birth and death of species. Thus, considering how distributions and range sizes fluctuate over time can provide important insight into evolutionary dynamics. This study uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and analyses of evolutionary rates to examine how in some species within the Cephalopoda, an important pelagic clade, geographic range size and rates of speciation and extinction changed throughout the Pennsylvanian and early Permian in the North American Midcontinent Sea. Read More

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Phylogenomic interrogation resolves the backbone of the Pseudoscorpiones tree of life.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2019 10 24;139:106509. Epub 2019 May 24.

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Pseudoscorpiones, with nearly 3700 described species, are an ancient and globally distributed group of arachnids with a fossil record dating back to the Middle Devonian. Previous attempts to reconstruct their phylogenetic history have used morphology or a few amplicons, mostly of rRNAs and mitochondrial genes, which have not been able to completely resolve family-level relationships nor the earliest nodes in the pseudoscorpion tree-those which are most informative about the origins of key characters like venoms and silk. Here we undertake a phylogenetic approach using 41 pseudoscorpion transcriptomes and a series of analyses that account for many of the common pitfalls faced in large phylogenomic analyses. Read More

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October 2019

Neoproterozoic to early Phanerozoic rise in island arc redox state due to deep ocean oxygenation and increased marine sulfate levels.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 04 11;116(18):8746-8755. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125

A rise in atmospheric O levels between 800 and 400 Ma is thought to have oxygenated the deep oceans, ushered in modern biogeochemical cycles, and led to the diversification of animals. Over the same time interval, marine sulfate concentrations are also thought to have increased to near-modern levels. We present compiled data that indicate Phanerozoic island arc igneous rocks are more oxidized (Fe/ΣFe ratios are elevated by 0. Read More

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Cascading trend of Early Paleozoic marine radiations paused by Late Ordovician extinctions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 04 25;116(15):7207-7213. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The greatest relative changes in marine biodiversity accumulation occurred during the Early Paleozoic. The precision of temporal constraints on these changes is crude, hampering our understanding of their timing, duration, and links to causal mechanisms. We match fossil occurrence data to their lithostratigraphical ranges in the Paleobiology Database and correlate this inferred taxon range to a constructed set of biostratigraphically defined high-resolution time slices. Read More

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First description of subglacial megalineations from the late Paleozoic ice age in southern Africa.

PLoS One 2019 30;14(1):e0210673. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Geology and Geography, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America.

We identify late Paleozoic ice age (LPIA) subglacial megalineations from field and geospatial imagery of the Twyfelfontein area of northern Namibia, and present the results of a geomorphometric analysis of those data. Asymmetric 0.1-1. Read More

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October 2019