988 results match your criteria late holocene

Changes of lake organic carbon sinks from closed basins since the Last Glacial Maximum and quantitative evaluation of human impacts.

Carbon Balance Manag 2021 Sep 17;16(1):28. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Center for Hydrologic Cycle and Water Resources in Arid Region, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Background: Closed basins occupy 21% of the world's land area and can substantially affect global carbon budgets. Conventional understanding suggests that the terminal areas of closed basins collect water and carbon from throughout the entire basin, and changes in lake organic carbon sinks are indicative of basin-wide organic carbon storages. However, this hypothesis lacks regional and global validation. Read More

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September 2021

Giant Tree Frog diversification in West and Central Africa: isolation by physical barriers, climate, and reproductive traits.

Mol Ecol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

Secondary sympatry among sister lineages is strongly associated with genetic and ecological divergence. This pattern suggests that for closely related species to coexist in secondary sympatry, they must accumulate differences in traits that mediate ecological and/or reproductive isolation. Here, we characterized inter- and intra-specific divergence in three giant tree frog species whose distributions stretch across West and Central Africa. Read More

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September 2021

Anthropogenic climate change has altered lake state in the Sierra Nevada (California, USA).

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Climatic changes threaten freshwater resources and aquatic ecosystem health in the Sierra Nevada (California, USA), which has important consequences for millions of people and the world's fifth largest economy. However, the timing and magnitude of ecological changes driven by hydroclimate oscillations remain poorly understood in California's headwater region. Here, we develop a precisely dated, annually to decadally resolved lake sediment record of ecological change from the eastern Sierra Nevada that spans the last three millennia. Read More

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September 2021

More data on ancient human mitogenome variability in Italy: new mitochondrial genome sequences from three Upper Palaeolithic burials.

Ann Hum Biol 2021 May;48(3):213-222

Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Firenze, Firenze, Italy.

Background: Recently, the study of mitochondrial variability in ancient humans has allowed the definition of population dynamics that characterised Europe in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Despite the abundance of sites and skeletal remains few data are available for Italy.

Aim: We reconstructed the mitochondrial genomes of three Upper Palaeolithic individuals for some of the most important Italian archaeological contexts: Paglicci (South-Eastern Italy), San Teodoro (South-Western Italy) and Arene Candide (North-Western Italy) caves. Read More

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Late Holocene climate anomaly concurrent with fire activity and ecosystem shifts in the eastern Australian Highlands.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 12;802:149542. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Australia.

The alpine area of the Australian mainland is highly sensitive to climate and environmental change, and potentially vulnerable to ecosystem tipping points. Over the next two decades the Australian alpine region is predicted to experience temperature increases of at least 1 °C, coupled with a substantial decrease in snow cover. Extending the short instrumental record in these regions is imperative to put future change into context, and potentially provide analogues of warming. Read More

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67,000 years of coastal engagement at Panga ya Saidi, eastern Africa.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(8):e0256761. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

The antiquity and nature of coastal resource procurement is central to understanding human evolution and adaptations to complex environments. It has become increasingly apparent in global archaeological studies that the timing, characteristics, and trajectories of coastal resource use are highly variable. Within Africa, discussions of these issues have largely been based on the archaeological record from the south and northeast of the continent, with little evidence from eastern coastal areas leaving significant spatial and temporal gaps in our knowledge. Read More

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Breastfeeding and weaning in Late Holocene hunter-gatherers of the lower Paraná wetland, South America.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

CONICET-Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, CABA, Argentina.

Objective: In this study, we analyze breastfeeding and weaning practices in pre-Columbian complex hunter-gatherers from the lower Paraná River basin (South America).

Materials And Methods: We carried out bone isotope analyses concerning δ C in collagen and apatite, the spacing between both carbon sources and δ N in a sample of 23 subadult and adult individuals of both sexes recovered from Late Holocene archaeological sites, ranging from 1665 ± 45 to 680 ± 80 C years BP.

Results And Discussion: The results indicate that exclusive breastfeeding continued until the age of ~2 years, and weaning probably until 4 years of age. Read More

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Vulnerability of the North Water ecosystem to climate change.

Nat Commun 2021 07 22;12(1):4475. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Lake Group & Arctic Research Centre, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Silkeborg, Denmark.

High Arctic ecosystems and Indigenous livelihoods are tightly linked and exposed to climate change, yet assessing their sensitivity requires a long-term perspective. Here, we assess the vulnerability of the North Water polynya, a unique seaice ecosystem that sustains the world's northernmost Inuit communities and several keystone Arctic species. We reconstruct mid-to-late Holocene changes in sea ice, marine primary production, and little auk colony dynamics through multi-proxy analysis of marine and lake sediment cores. Read More

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Late Holocene spread of pastoralism coincides with endemic megafaunal extinction on Madagascar.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 07 21;288(1955):20211204. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Anthropology, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Recently expanded estimates for when humans arrived on Madagascar (up to approximately 10 000 years ago) highlight questions about the causes of the island's relatively late megafaunal extinctions (approximately 2000-500 years ago). Introduced domesticated animals could have contributed to extinctions, but the arrival times and past diets of exotic animals are poorly known. To conduct the first explicit test of the potential for competition between introduced livestock and extinct endemic megafauna in southern and western Madagascar, we generated new radiocarbon and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data from the bone collagen of introduced ungulates (zebu cattle, ovicaprids and bushpigs, = 66) and endemic megafauna (pygmy hippopotamuses, giant tortoises and elephant birds, = 68), and combined these data with existing data from endemic megafauna ( = 282, including giant lemurs). Read More

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Long-term decrease in Asian monsoon rainfall and abrupt climate change events over the past 6,700 years.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(30)

Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway

Asian summer monsoon (ASM) variability and its long-term ecological and societal impacts extending back to Neolithic times are poorly understood due to a lack of high-resolution climate proxy data. Here, we present a precisely dated and well-calibrated tree-ring stable isotope chronology from the Tibetan Plateau with 1- to 5-y resolution that reflects high- to low-frequency ASM variability from 4680 BCE to 2011 CE. Superimposed on a persistent drying trend since the mid-Holocene, a rapid decrease in moisture availability between ∼2000 and ∼1500 BCE caused a dry hydroclimatic regime from ∼1675 to ∼1185 BCE, with mean precipitation estimated at 42 ± 4% and 5 ± 2% lower than during the mid-Holocene and the instrumental period, respectively. Read More

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A multi-proxy record of hurricanes, tsunami, and post-disturbance ecosystem changes from coastal southern Baja California.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 14;796:149011. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Indiana Geological and Water Survey, Indiana University, 420 N Walnut St., Bloomington, IN 47404, USA.

Tsunamis and hurricanes are two earth surface processes that can dramatically impact coastal landforms and ecosystems. This study uses a combination of palynological, grain-size, X-ray fluorescence, and loss-on-ignition analyses, short-lived isotopic and radiocarbon dating, and statistical analysis to differentiate the tsunami and hurricane deposits, establish a Late-Holocene record of extreme events, and document the landscape and vegetation transformation in response to disturbance events and environmental changes from a small coastal lagoon in Baja California, Mexico. Prior to ~530 cal yr BP, Playa Los Cocos was occupied by a short-hydroperiod tidal marsh bounded by desert vegetation on the surrounding hillslopes. Read More

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November 2021

Considering Pleistocene North American wolves and coyotes in the eastern origin story.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 5;11(13):9137-9147. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Biology Department Trent University Peterborough ON Canada.

The evolutionary origins and hybridization patterns of species in North America have been hotly debated for the past 30 years. Disentangling ancestry and timing of hybridization in Great Lakes wolves, eastern Canadian wolves, red wolves, and eastern coyotes are most often partitioned into a 2-species model that assigns all ancestry to gray wolves and/or coyotes, and a 3-species model that includes a third, North American evolved eastern wolf genome. The proposed models address recent or sometimes late Holocene hybridization events but have largely ignored potential Pleistocene era progenitors and opportunities for hybridization that may have impacted the current mixed genomes in eastern Canada and the United States. Read More

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Solar forcing of early Holocene droughts on the Yucatán peninsula.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 6;11(1):13885. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany.

A speleothem record from the north-eastern Yucatán peninsula (Mexico) provides new insights into the tropical hydro-climate of the Americas between 11,040 and 9520 a BP on up to sub-decadal scale. Despite the complex atmospheric reorganization during the end of the last deglaciation, the dominant internal leading modes of precipitation variability during the late Holocene were also active during the time of record. While multi-decadal variations were not persistent, Mesoamerican precipitation was dominated by changes on the decadal- and centennial scale, which may be attributed to ENSO activity driven by solar forcing. Read More

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Fossil dermal denticles reveal the preexploitation baseline of a Caribbean coral reef shark community.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(29)

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Republic of Panama.

Preexploitation shark baselines and the history of human impact on coral reef-associated shark communities in the Caribbean are tpoorly understood. We recovered shark dermal denticles from mid-Holocene (∼7 ky ago) and modern reef sediments in Bocas del Toro, Caribbean Panama, to reconstruct an empirical shark baseline before major human impact and to quantify how much the modern shark community in the region had shifted from this historical reference point. We found that denticle accumulation rates, a proxy for shark abundance, declined by 71% since the mid-Holocene. Read More

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How did modern morphology evolve in the human mandible? The relationship between static adult allometry and mandibular variability in Homo sapiens.

J Hum Evol 2021 08 30;157:103026. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Key to understanding human origins are early Homo sapiens fossils from Jebel Irhoud, as well as from the early Late Pleistocene sites Tabun, Border Cave, Klasies River Mouth, Skhul, and Qafzeh. While their upper facial shape falls within the recent human range of variation, their mandibles display a mosaic morphology. Here we quantify how mandibular shape covaries with mandible size and how static allometry differs between Neanderthals, early H. Read More

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Precise date for the Laacher See eruption synchronizes the Younger Dryas.

Nature 2021 07 30;595(7865):66-69. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

The Laacher See eruption (LSE) in Germany ranks among Europe's largest volcanic events of the Upper Pleistocene. Although tephra deposits of the LSE represent an important isochron for the synchronization of proxy archives at the Late Glacial to Early Holocene transition, uncertainty in the age of the eruption has prevailed. Here we present dendrochronological and radiocarbon measurements of subfossil trees that were buried by pyroclastic deposits that firmly date the LSE to 13,006 ± 9 calibrated years before present (BP; taken as AD 1950), which is more than a century earlier than previously accepted. Read More

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Strong links between Saharan dust fluxes, monsoon strength, and North Atlantic climate during the last 5000 years.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 25;7(26). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Geodynamics, Stratigraphy, and Paleontology, Faculty of Geological Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Despite the multiple impacts of mineral aerosols on global and regional climate and the primary climatic control on atmospheric dust fluxes, dust-climate feedbacks remain poorly constrained, particularly at submillennial time scales, hampering regional and global climate models. We reconstruct Saharan dust fluxes over Western Europe for the last 5000 years, by means of speleothem strontium isotope ratios (Sr/Sr) and karst modeling. The record reveals a long-term increase in Saharan dust flux, consistent with progressive North Africa aridification and strengthening of Northern Hemisphere latitudinal climatic gradients. Read More

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sp. nov. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae): evidence of beetle extinction in the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Chilean Northern Patagonia.

Zookeys 2021 15;1043:133-145. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Scuola di Biodiversità, Polo universitario Asti Studi Superiori, Asti, Italy Polo universitario Asti Studi Superiori Asti Italy.

The South American Pleistocene-Holocene transition has been characterized by drastic climatic and diversity changes. These rapid changes induced one of the largest and most recent extinctions in the megafauna at the continental scale. However, examples of the extinction of small animals (e. Read More

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Climate and the latitudinal limits of subtropical reef development.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 22;11(1):13044. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Ocean Engineering and Marine Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL, USA.

Climate plays a central role in coral-reef development, especially in marginal environments. The high-latitude reefs of southeast Florida are currently non-accreting, relict systems with low coral cover. This region also did not support the extensive Late Pleistocene reef development observed in many other locations around the world; however, there is evidence of significant reef building in southeast Florida during the Holocene. Read More

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Ancient mitochondrial genomes from the Argentinian Pampas inform the early peopling of the Southern Cone of South America.

iScience 2021 Jun 19;24(6):102553. Epub 2021 May 19.

UCSC Paleogenomics Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.

The Southern Cone of South America (SCSA) is a key region for investigations about the peopling of the Americas. However, little is known about the eastern sector, the Argentinian Pampas. We analyzed 18 mitochondrial genomes-7 of which are novel-from human skeletal remains from 3 Early to Late Holocene archaeological sites. Read More

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Late Holocene environmental change and anthropogenic: Ecosystem interaction on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya.

Ambio 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3DZ, UK.

East African ecosystems have been shaped by long-term socio-ecological-environmental interactions. Although much previous work on human-environment interrelationships have emphasised the negative impacts of human interventions, a growing body of work shows that there have also often been strong beneficial connections between people and ecosystems, especially in savanna environments. However, limited information and understanding of past interactions between humans and ecosystems of periods longer than a century hampers effective management of contemporary environments. Read More

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Peopling of the Americas as inferred from ancient genomics.

Nature 2021 06 16;594(7863):356-364. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Lundbeck Foundation GeoGenetics Centre, GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

In less than a decade, analyses of ancient genomes have transformed our understanding of the Indigenous peopling and population history of the Americas. These studies have shown that this history, which began in the late Pleistocene epoch and continued episodically into the Holocene epoch, was far more complex than previously thought. It is now evident that the initial dispersal involved the movement from northeast Asia of distinct and previously unknown populations, including some for whom there are no currently known descendants. Read More

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The transition from hunting-gathering to agriculture in Nubia: dental evidence for and against selection, population continuity and discontinuity.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 06 9;288(1952):20210969. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Centro Studi Sudanesi e Sub-Sahariani ONLUS, Strada Canizzano, 128/D, 31100, Treviso, Italy.

Some researchers posit population continuity between Late Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers of the late Pleistocene and Holocene agriculturalists from Lower (northern) Nubia, in northeast Africa. Substantial craniodental differences in these time-successive groups are suggested to result from evolution. Specifically, these populations are considered a model example for subsistence-related selection worldwide in the transition to agriculture. Read More

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Abrupt climatic shift at ~4000 cal. yr B.P. and late Holocene climatic instability in arid Central Asia: Evidence from Lop Nur saline lake in Xinjiang, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;784:147202. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China.

Although the trends and driving mechanisms of Holocene climate change in arid Central Asia (ACA) on various timescales have attracted much research interest over the past few decades, a major question remains regarding whether the changes were gradual or abrupt. We reconstructed the pattern of Holocene climate change at Lop Nur saline lake in northwestern China, ACA, using multiple climatic proxies (grain size, TOC, sediment color, and magnetic properties). The results demonstrate that the Holocene climatic pattern in the Lop Nur region during the past 8400 years can be divided into two distinct stages, with the boundary dated to ~4000 cal. Read More

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Can species distribution models and molecular tools help unravel disjunct distribution of ?

J Genet 2021 ;100

Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and Environment (ATREE), Royal Enclave, Srirampura, Jakkur Post, Bengaluru 560 064, India.

The apparent absence of Himalayan low-elevation taxa in the central Indian region and resumption of their distribution in the high elevation of Western Ghats has puzzled biogeographers for several decades. Many theories have been proposed to explain this but attempts remain futile owing to insufficient empirical support. Here, we have employed a montane tree species, to investigate this pattern by integrating past ecological niche modelling with molecular signatures. Read More

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The deep population history of northern East Asia from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene.

Cell 2021 Jun 27;184(12):3256-3266.e13. Epub 2021 May 27.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China; Shanghai Qi Zhi Institute, Shanghai 200232, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Northern East Asia was inhabited by modern humans as early as 40 thousand years ago (ka), as demonstrated by the Tianyuan individual. Using genome-wide data obtained from 25 individuals dated to 33.6-3. Read More

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Abandonment and rapid infilling of a tide-dominated distributary channel at 0.7 ka in the Mekong River Delta.

Sci Rep 2021 May 26;11(1):11040. Epub 2021 May 26.

Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba, 305-8567, Japan.

The Ba Lai distributary channel of the Mekong River Delta was abandoned and infilled with sediment during the Late Holocene, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the sediment fill, timing and mechanisms of channel abandonment in tide-dominated deltaic systems. Based on analysis and age dating of four sediment cores, we show that the channel was active since 2.6 ka and was abandoned at 0. Read More

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A standardised classification scheme for the Mid-Holocene Toalean artefacts of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(5):e0251138. Epub 2021 May 26.

Australian Research Centre for Human Evolution, School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

The archaeology of Sulawesi is important for developing an understanding of human dispersal and occupation of central Island Southeast Asia. Through over a century of archaeological work, multiple human populations in the southwestern region of Sulawesi have been identified, the most well-documented being that of the Mid- to Late Holocene 'Toalean' technological period. Archaeological models for this period describe a population with a strong cultural identity, subdivided into groups living on the coastal plains around Maros as well as dispersed upland forest dwellers, hunting endemic wildlife with bow-and-arrow technology. Read More

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Global acceleration in rates of vegetation change over the past 18,000 years.

Science 2021 05;372(6544):860-864

Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Global vegetation over the past 18,000 years has been transformed first by the climate changes that accompanied the last deglaciation and again by increasing human pressures; however, the magnitude and patterns of rates of vegetation change are poorly understood globally. Using a compilation of 1181 fossil pollen sequences and newly developed statistical methods, we detect a worldwide acceleration in the rates of vegetation compositional change beginning between 4.6 and 2. Read More

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Distinguishing African bovids using Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS): New peptide markers and insights into Iron Age economies in Zambia.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(5):e0251061. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Archaeology, Max-Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

Assessing past foodways, subsistence strategies, and environments depends on the accurate identification of animals in the archaeological record. The high rates of fragmentation and often poor preservation of animal bones at many archaeological sites across sub-Saharan Africa have rendered archaeofaunal specimens unidentifiable beyond broad categories, such as "large mammal" or "medium bovid". Identification of archaeofaunal specimens through Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS), or peptide mass fingerprinting of bone collagen, offers an avenue for identification of morphologically ambiguous or unidentifiable bone fragments from such assemblages. Read More

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