JACC CardioOncol 2021 Mar 12;3(1):35-47. Epub 2021 Jan 12.
Cardiovascular Imaging Research Center (CIRC), Department of Radiology and Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are newer therapies being applied to an increasing number of patients with cancer. Data suggest that up to 36% of cancer patients may be eligible for immunotherapy and, in late 2019, there were more than 3,362 clinical trials initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of immunotherapy, either as single agents or in combination with other immunotherapy, targeted therapies, or traditional cytotoxic or radiation therapy. With the combination of both immune and non-immune treatment approaches, the complexity in making the diagnosis of cardiotoxicity related to an ICI will increase substantially. Read More