2,704 results match your criteria larval zebrafish


Occurrence of foamy macrophages during the innate response of zebrafish to trypanosome infections.

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cell Biology and Immunology Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

A tightly regulated innate immune response to trypanosome infections is critical to strike a balance between parasite control and inflammation-associated pathology. In this study, we make use of the recently established Trypanosoma carassii infection model in larval zebrafish to study the early response of macrophages and neutrophils to trypanosome infections in vivo. We consistently identified high- and low-infected individuals and were able to simultaneously characterize their differential innate response. Read More

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Early inflammation dysregulates neuronal circuit formation via upregulation of IL-1β.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurobiology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Canada H3A 2B4

Neuro-immune interaction during development is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders, but the mechanisms that cause neuronal circuit dysregulation are not well understood. We performed imaging of the developing retinotectal system in the larval zebrafish to characterize the effects of immune system activation on refinement of an archetypal sensory processing circuit. Acute inflammatory insult induced hyper-dynamic remodeling of developing retinal axons in larval fish and increased axon arbor elaboration over days. Read More

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The tectum/superior colliculus as the vertebrate solution for spatial sensory integration and action.

Curr Biol 2021 Jun;31(11):R741-R762

The Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

The superior colliculus, or tectum in the case of non-mammalian vertebrates, is a part of the brain that registers events in the surrounding space, often through vision and hearing, but also through electrosensation, infrared detection, and other sensory modalities in diverse vertebrate lineages. This information is used to form maps of the surrounding space and the positions of different salient stimuli in relation to the individual. The sensory maps are arranged in layers with visual input in the uppermost layer, other senses in deeper positions, and a spatially aligned motor map in the deepest layer. Read More

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Spherical arena reveals optokinetic response tuning to stimulus location, size, and frequency across entire visual field of larval zebrafish.

Elife 2021 Jun 8;10. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Institute of Neurobiology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Many animals have large visual fields, and sensory circuits may sample those regions of visual space most relevant to behaviours such as gaze stabilisation and hunting. Despite this, relatively small displays are often used in vision neuroscience. To sample stimulus locations across most of the visual field, we built a spherical stimulus arena with 14,848 independently controllable LEDs. Read More

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A Novel Lysolecithin Model for Visualizing Damage in the Larval Zebrafish Spinal Cord.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:654583. Epub 2021 May 20.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Lysolecithin is commonly used to induce demyelinating lesions in the spinal cord and corpus callosum of mammalian models. Although these models and clinical patient samples are used to study neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), they do not allow for direct visualization of disease-related damage . To overcome this limitation, we created and characterized a focal lysolecithin injection model in zebrafish that allows us to investigate the temporal dynamics underlying lysolecithin-induced damage . Read More

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A novel inhibitor rescues cerebellar defects in a zebrafish model of Down Syndrome-associated kinase Dyrk1A overexpression.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 3:100853. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Zoological Institute, Spielmannstraße 7, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig Germany. Electronic address:

The highly conserved dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) plays crucial roles during central nervous system development and homeostasis. Furthermore, its hyperactivity is considered responsible for some neurological defects in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). We set out to establish a zebrafish model expressing human Dyrk1A that could be further used to characterize the interaction between Dyrk1A and neurological phenotypes. Read More

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Leptin receptor-deficient (knockout) zebrafish: effects on nutrient acquisition.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Jun 2:113832. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:

In mammals, knockout of LEPR results in a hyperphagic, morbid obese, and diabetic phenotype, which supports that leptin plays an important role in the control of appetite and energy metabolism, and that its receptor, LEPR, mediates these effects. To date, little is known about the role(s) of lepr in teleost physiology. We investigated a zebrafish (Danio rerio) homozygous lepr knockout (lepr) line generated by CRISPR/Cas9 in comparison to its wt counterpart with respect to nutrient acquisition, energy allocation, and metabolism. Read More

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Co-occurring environmental stressors have emerging impacts on sensory-motor behavior.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

Anthropogenic activities often lead to alterations in the natural environment via multiple routes. Simultaneous occurrence of interacting environmental perturbations may influence animals via more complex pathways than when being exposed to environmental stressors discretely. In our study, we investigated the interactive effects of poor visual environment and exposure to an environmentally realistic concentration of a common contaminant on the behavior of larval zebrafish, Danio rerio. Read More

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Phenotypic analysis of catastrophic childhood epilepsy genes.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 3;4(1):680. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Epilepsy Research Laboratory and Weill Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Genetic engineering techniques have contributed to the now widespread use of zebrafish to investigate gene function, but zebrafish-based human disease studies, and particularly for neurological disorders, are limited. Here we used CRISPR-Cas9 to generate 40 single-gene mutant zebrafish lines representing catastrophic childhood epilepsies. We evaluated larval phenotypes using electrophysiological, behavioral, neuro-anatomical, survival and pharmacological assays. Read More

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Effects of sulfometuron-methyl on zebrafish at early developmental stages.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 1;220:112385. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Ganzhou Key Laboratory for Drug Screening and Discovery, School of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Gannan Normal University, China; Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory of Zebrafish Modeling and Drug Screening for Human Diseases, Ji'an, Jiangxi, China; Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Organs, Ji'an 343009, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Sulfometuron methyl (SM) is a widely used herbicide and thus leading to accumulation in the environment. The toxicity assessments of SM in model organisms are currently rare. In the present study, zebrafish were utilized for evaluating the detrimental effects of SM in aquatic vertebrates. Read More

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Medium-throughput zebrafish optogenetic platform identifies deficits in subsequent neural activity following brief early exposure to cannabidiol and Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11515. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E9, Canada.

In light of legislative changes and the widespread use of cannabis as a recreational and medicinal drug, delayed effects of cannabis upon brief exposure during embryonic development are of high interest as early pregnancies often go undetected. Here, zebrafish embryos were exposed to cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) until the end of gastrulation (1-10 h post-fertilization) and analyzed later in development (4-5 days post-fertilization). In order to measure neural activity, we implemented Calcium-Modulated Photoactivatable Ratiometric Integrator (CaMPARI) and optimized the protocol for a 96-well format complemented by locomotor analysis. Read More

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Kaempferol-3-O-Glucuronide Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Induced Larval Zebrafish and HepG2 Cell Models via Regulating Oxidation Stress.

Life (Basel) 2021 May 14;11(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China.

NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is one of the most prominent liver diseases in the world. As a metabolic-related disease, the development of NAFLD is closely associated with various degrees of lipid accumulation, oxidation, inflammation, and fibrosis. Ilex chinensis Sims is a form of traditional Chinese medicine which is used to treat bronchitis, burns, pneumonia, ulceration, and chilblains. Read More

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Parental transfer of nanopolystyrene-enhanced tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate induces transgenerational thyroid disruption in zebrafish.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jul 19;236:105871. Epub 2021 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Materials and Pollution Control, Education Department of Jilin Province, Siping 136000, China; College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Jilin Normal University, Haifeng Street, Tiexi Dist, Siping 136000, China.

Plastic is a globally recognized superwaste that can affect human health and wildlife when it accumulates and is amplified in the food chain. Microplastics (plastic particles < 5 mm) and nanoplastics (plastic particles < 100 nm) can interact with organic pollutants already present in the aquatic environment, potentially acting as carriers for pollutants entering organisms and thus influencing the bioavailability and toxicity of those pollutants. In this study, we investigated the transfer kinetics and transgenerational effects of exposure to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) in F1 offspring. Read More

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An integrated in vivo and in silico analysis of the metabolism disrupting effects of CPI-613 on embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 26;248:109084. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

CPI-613 is a mitochondrial metabolism disrupter that inhibits tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity. The consequences of TCA cycle disruption on various metabolic pathways and overall organismal physiology are not fully known. The present study integrates in vivo experimental data with an in silico stoichiometric metabolism model of zebrafish to study the metabolic pathways perturbed under CPI-613 exposure. Read More

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IMPDH forms the cytoophidium in zebrafish.

Dev Biol 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, 201210, China. Electronic address:

Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. Its activity is negatively regulated by the binding of GTP. IMPDH can form a membraneless subcellular structure termed the cytoophidium in response to certain changes in the metabolic status of the cell. Read More

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Glucocorticoid-Induced Exacerbation of Mycobacterial Infection Is Associated With a Reduced Phagocytic Capacity of Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2021 11;12:618569. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

Glucocorticoids are effective drugs for treating immune-related diseases, but prolonged therapy is associated with an increased risk of various infectious diseases, including tuberculosis. In this study, we have used a larval zebrafish model for tuberculosis, based on () infection, to study the effect of glucocorticoids. Our results show that the synthetic glucocorticoid beclomethasone increases the bacterial burden and the dissemination of a systemic infection. Read More

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Efficacy of Fenfluramine and Norfenfluramine Enantiomers and Various Antiepileptic Drugs in a Zebrafish Model of Dravet Syndrome.

Neurochem Res 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, Laboratory for Molecular Biodiscovery, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Herestraat 49, 824, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a rare genetic encephalopathy that is characterized by severe seizures and highly resistant to commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In 2020, FDA has approved fenfluramine (FFA) for treatment of seizures associated with DS. However, the clinically used FFA is a racemic mixture (i. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis reveals the importance of exogenous nutrition in regulating antioxidant defenses during the mouth-opening stage in oviparous fish.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Institute of Three Gorges Ecological Fisheries of Chongqing, College of Fisheries, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Antioxidant system is crucial for protecting against environmental oxidative stress in fish life cycle. Although the effects of starvation on the antioxidant defenses in several adult fish have been defined, no relevant researches have been reported in the larval stage, particularly during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding. To clarify the molecular response of antioxidant system that occurs during the mouth-opening stage under starvation stress and explore its association with energy metabolism, we employed RNA-seq to analyze the gene expression profiles in zebrafish larvae that received a delayed first feeding for 3 days. Read More

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Embryonic toxicity of epoxiconazole exposure to the early life stage of zebrafish.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 16;778:146407. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China. Electronic address:

Epoxiconazole (EPX), as a broad-spectrum triazole fungicide, is widely used in agriculture to resist pests and diseases, while it may have potential toxicity to non-target organisms. In the present study, early developmental stage zebrafish were used as the subject organisms to assess the toxicity of EPX, and the possible mechanism of toxicity was also discussed by biochemical and transcriptomic analysis. Through embryo toxicity test, we had made it clear that the 96 h LC of embryo was 7. Read More

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Algorithms underlying flexible phototaxis in larval zebrafish.

J Exp Biol 2021 May 24;224(10). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

To thrive, organisms must maintain physiological and environmental variables in suitable ranges. Given that these variables undergo constant fluctuations over varying time scales, how do biological control systems maintain control over these values? We explored this question in the context of phototactic behavior in larval zebrafish. We demonstrate that larval zebrafish use phototaxis to maintain environmental luminance at a set point, that the value of this set point fluctuates on a time scale of seconds when environmental luminance changes, and that it is determined by calculating the mean input across both sides of the visual field. Read More

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Oxidative stress inducers potentiate 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated pre-cardiac edema in larval zebrafish.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University.

We reported the involvement of oxidative stress and prostaglandins including thromboxane and prostacyclin in pre-cardiac edema (early edema) caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). While the involvement of oxidative stress in TCDD-induced toxicity has been frequently reported, the mechanism of its action is still unclear. In the present study, oxidative stress inducers including paraquat, hydrogen peroxide (HO) and rotenone augmented early edema (edema) induced by a low concentration of TCDD (0. Read More

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Behavior Effects of Structurally Diverse Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Zebrafish.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, College of Agricultural Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97333, United States.

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitously detected in the environment, and some pose significant human and environmental health concerns globally. While some PFAS induce adverse health effects, relatively few toxicological studies adequately address the broad structural diversity of this chemical class. In the current study, we evaluated 58 individual PFAS spanning 14 structural subclasses and 2 mixtures at single concentrations for developmental toxicity in zebrafish using highly sensitive behavior endpoints. Read More

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Developmental toxicity of procymidone to larval zebrafish based on physiological and transcriptomic analysis.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 15;248:109081. Epub 2021 May 15.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China. Electronic address:

As a broad-spectrum with low toxicity, procymidone (PCM), is widely used in agriculture and frequently observed in aquatic system, which may cause some impacts on aquatic organisms. Here, to determine the developmental toxicity of PCM, embryonic and larval zebrafish were exposed to PCM at 0, 1, 10, 100 μg/L in dehydrogenated natural water containing 0.01% acetone for 7 days. Read More

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Toxic effects of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larval behavior.

Harmful Algae 2021 03 4;103:101996. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Wenzhou Key Laboratory of Sanitary Microbiology, Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Ministry of Education, China, School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China 325035. Electronic address:

Karenia mikimotoi is a toxic dinoflagellate that forms harmful blooms in coastal waters, threatening aquaculture worldwide. However, we do not know whether K. mikimotoi has a neurotoxic effect on aquatic animal behavior. Read More

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Effects of conventionally-treated and ozonated wastewater on mortality, physiology, body length, and behavior of embryonic and larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 27;286:117241. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Aquatic Ecology and Centre for Water and Environmental Research (ZWU), University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 5, 45141, Essen, Germany.

To date, micropollutants from anthropogenic sources cannot be completely removed from effluents of wastewater treatment plants and therefore enter freshwater systems, where they may impose adverse effects on aquatic organisms, for example, on fish. Advanced treatment such as ozonation aims to reduce micropollutants in wastewater effluents and, thus, to mitigate adverse effects on the environment. To investigate the impact and efficiency of ozonation, four different water types were tested: ozonated wastewater (before and after biological treatment), conventionally-treated wastewater, and water from a river (River Ruhr, Germany) upstream of the wastewater treatment plant effluent. Read More

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Zebrafish mbnl mutants model physical and molecular phenotypes of myotonic dystrophy.

Dis Model Mech 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Molecular Biology.

The muscleblind RNA binding proteins (MBNL1, MBNL2, and MBNL3) are highly conserved across vertebrates and are important regulators of RNA alternative splicing. Loss of MBNL protein function through sequestration by CUG or CCUG RNA repeats is largely responsible for the phenotypes of the human genetic disorder myotonic dystrophy (DM). We generated the first stable zebrafish (Danio rerio) models of DM-associated MBNL loss of function through mutation of the three zebrafish mbnl genes. Read More

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Myomixer is expressed during embryonic and post-larval hyperplasia, muscle regeneration and differentiation of myoblats in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Gene 2021 Jul 5;790:145688. Epub 2021 May 5.

INRAE, UR1037 Laboratory of Fish Physiology and Genomics, 35000 Rennes, France. Electronic address:

In contrast to mice or zebrafish, trout exhibits post-larval muscle growth through hypertrophy and formation of new myofibers (hyperplasia). The muscle fibers are formed by the fusion of mononucleated cells (myoblasts) regulated by several muscle-specific proteins such as Myomaker or Myomixer. In this work, we identified a unique gene encoding a Myomixer protein of 77 amino acids (aa) in the trout genome. Read More

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Effect of body stiffness distribution on larval fish-like efficient undulatory swimming.

Sci Adv 2021 May 5;7(19). Epub 2021 May 5.

Physical Intelligence Department, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Energy-efficient propulsion is a critical design target for robotic swimmers. Although previous studies have pointed out the importance of nonuniform body bending stiffness distribution () in improving the undulatory swimming efficiency of adult fish-like robots in the inertial flow regime, whether such an elastic mechanism is beneficial in the intermediate flow regime remains elusive. Hence, we develop a class of untethered soft milliswimmers consisting of a magnetic composite head and a passive elastic body with different These robots realize larval zebrafish-like undulatory swimming at the same scale. Read More

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Presence of diclofenac, estradiol, and ethinylestradiol in Manzanares River (Spain) and their toxicity to zebrafish embryo development.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Unity of Antibacterial Resistance, Spanish Food Safety and Nutrition Agency, Madrid, Spain.

Diclofenac (DCF), 17-β-estradiol (E2), and 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) are emerging pollutants included in the first watch list agreed by European countries and set in the EU Water Directive. The objective of the present study was the analytical monitoring of DCF, E2, and EE2 in surface water and sediment of the Manzanares River in a stretch that crosses the city of Madrid, Spain, and to assess whether such environmental levels could affect the development of aquatic vertebrates through a zebrafish embryo-larval assay. Samples taken during two campaigns in the spring of 2015 were analyzed for DCF, E2, and EE2 by LC-MS or GC-MS. Read More

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Embryonic ethanol exposure on zebrafish early development.

Brain Behav 2021 May 3:e02062. Epub 2021 May 3.

Physiology and Behavior Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

Introduction: Embryonic exposure to ethanol leads to a condition of physical, behavioral, and cognitive deficiencies named fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The most severe variations are in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is easier to diagnose and not studied in animal models. On the other side, the pFAS (partial fetal alcohol syndrome) includes cases of alcohol-related congenital disabilities and neurodevelopmental disorder with an inconclusive diagnosis. Read More

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