51,577 results match your criteria larval


Impact of desiccation pre-exposure on deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress in Bombina variegata juveniles.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Sep 15:109191. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Physiology, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia.

Global warming represents a severe threat to existing ecosystems, especially for anuran tadpoles who encounter significant fluctuations in their habitats. Decreasing water levels in permanent and temporary water bodies is a significant risk for larval survival or fitness. On the other hand, the natural environment of amphibians is extremely polluted by various xenobiotics. Read More

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September 2021

Onset of nutrient consumption during early life stage digestive system development of two tuna species (Thunnus orientalis and Thunnus albacares).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Sep 15:111075. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Shirahama Experimental Station, Fisheries Laboratory, Kindai University, 3153 Shirahama, Nishimuro, Wakayama 649-2211, Japan.

To specify the timing of exogenous nutrient consumption in the larvae of two commercially important tuna species, the Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF) Thunnus orientalis and the yellowfin tuna (YFT) Thunnus albacares, the gene expressions of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) were examined. The mRNA expressions of PEPT1 first occurred at 2 days post hatching (dph) in PBF larvae and 3 dph for the YFT, and PEPT1 was found to only be expressed in the intestinal tract. The histological changes of the digestive tract of the YFT larvae were observed and compared to PBF larvae from a previous study. Read More

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September 2021

The mRNA decapping protein 2 (DCP2) is a major regulator of developmental events in Drosophila-insights from expression paradigms.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Uttar Pradesh, Varanasi, 221005, India.

The Drosophila genome codes for two decapping proteins, DCP1 and DCP2, out of which DCP2 is the active decapping enzyme. The present endeavour explores the endogenous promoter firing, transcript and protein expression of DCP2 in Drosophila wherein, besides a ubiquitous expression across development, we identify an active expression paradigm during dorsal closure and a plausible moonlighting expression in the Corazonin neurons of the larval brain. We also demonstrate that the ablation of DCP2 leads to embryonic lethality and defects in vital morphogenetic processes whereas a knockdown of DCP2 in the Corazonin neurons reduces the sensitivity to ethanol in adults, thereby ascribing novel regulatory roles to DCP2. Read More

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September 2021

Cypermethrin and ivermectin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latrielle, 1806) collected from dogs in south India.

Vet Res Commun 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Veterinary Parasitology, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Gannavaram, 521102, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The abuse of acaricides for control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks led to a strong selection pressure for acaricide resistance. Data on acaricide resistance in R. sanguineus s. Read More

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September 2021

Conditional immobilization for live imaging Caenorhabditis elegans using auxin-dependent protein depletion.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1229, USA.

The visualization of biological processes using fluorescent proteins and dyes in living organisms has enabled numerous scientific discoveries. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a widely used model organism for live imaging studies since the transparent nature of the worm enables imaging of nearly all tissues within a whole, intact animal. While current techniques are optimized to enable the immobilization of hermaphrodite worms for live imaging, many of these approaches fail to successfully restrain the smaller male worms. Read More

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September 2021

A Parallel Randomized Clinical Trial for Comparison of Two Methods of Maggot Therapy, Free-Range Larvae and Larval-bag, in Diabetic Ulcer (Wagner 2).

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2021 Sep 17:15347346211044295. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

48439Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In the present study, the efficiency of two formulations of maggot therapy: free-range larvae on the wounds and larvae in a special bag (larval-bag), was compared for healing diabetic ulcers with Wagner 2 diabetic ulcer. This study was conducted as a parallel randomized clinical trial. Out of 281 patients with Wagner grade 2 diabetic ulcers referred to the wound clinic, 54 patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to intervention groups. Read More

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September 2021

Expression profiles of tyrosine metabolic pathway genes and functional analysis of DOPA decarboxylase in puparium tanning of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Background: Tanning is an important physiological process that play the critical roles in affecting cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization. Previous studies have showed that insect cuticle tanning was closely associated with tyrosine metabolism pathway that consisted of a series of enzymes.

Results: In this study, a total of 24 tyrosine metabolism pathway genes were identified in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) genome. Read More

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September 2021

Does Habituation Affect the Efficacy of Semiochemical Oviposition Repellents Developed Against Drosophila suzukii?

Environ Entomol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Entomology, Cornell AgriTech, Cornell University, 630 W North Street, Geneva, NY 14456, USA.

The application of feeding and oviposition repellents is limited to arthropod systems in which habituation does not occur. Although several compounds appear to reduce Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Dipetra: Drosophilidae) oviposition in berries, previous studies have yet to address whether habituation is a significant risk following preexposure. We tested the response of adult female D. Read More

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September 2021

What underscored successful malaria elimination in Palestine 100 years ago? Effective Education.

Authors:
Anton Alexander

Malariaworld J 2021 1;12. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

BC Business Centrum, Elscot House, Arcadia Avenue, London N3 2JU, United Kingdom.

Transmission of malaria by anopheline mosquitoes had been established by 1897, and in 1922, the first start of a successful national malaria elimination campaign began. Until then, only malaria control had been considered anywhere as a feasible project, such malaria control having been conducted primarily through larval source management. From 1922 onwards, in Palestine, by ensuring the breeding sites remained destroyed continuously over years and years, malaria elimination was eventually achieved. Read More

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Low winter precipitation, but not warm autumns and springs, threatens mountain butterflies in middle-high mountains.

PeerJ 2021 27;9:e12021. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Institute of Entomology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Biology Centre, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Low-elevation mountains represent unique model systems to study species endangered by climate warming, such as subalpine and alpine species of butterflies. We aimed to test the effect of climate variables experienced by butterflies during their development on adult abundances and phenology, targeting the key climate factors determining the population dynamics of mountain insects. We analysed data from a long-term monitoring of adults of two subalpine and alpine butterfly species, and (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) in the Jeseník Mts and Krkonoše Mts (Czech Republic). Read More

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Superparasitism and fitness parameters in three native wasp parasitoids (Braconidae: Opiinae) of the Mexican fruit fly, (Diptera: Tephritidae).

Bull Entomol Res 2021 Sep 17:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Programa Moscafrut SENASICA-SADER, Camino a los Cacaotales S/N, Metapa de Domínguez, Chiapas, 30860, México.

Knowledge on reproductive strategies and host use in insect parasitoids is fundamental for biological control purposes. Superparasitism and multiparasitism, oviposition in a previously parasitized host by a female of the same or different species, respectively, may impact pest management decisions. Our objective was to determine the occurrence of superparasitism and multiparasitism in three species of native larval-pupal solitary endoparasitoids that attack Anastrepha Shiner species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Neotropical region, and the possible effect on offspring fitness parameters. Read More

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September 2021

Myogenesis of Siboglinum fiordicum sheds light on body regionalisation in beard worms (Siboglinidae, Annelida).

Front Zool 2021 Sep 16;18(1):44. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Many annelids, including well-studied species such as Platynereis, show similar structured segments along their body axis (homonomous segmentation). However, numerous annelid species diverge from this pattern and exhibit specialised segments or body regions (heteronomous segmentation). Recent phylogenomic studies and paleontological findings suggest that a heteronomous body architecture may represent an ancestral condition in Annelida. Read More

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September 2021

Mycobacteriophage-antibiotic therapy promotes enhanced clearance of drug-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Sep 16;14(9). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Institut de Recherche en Infectiologie de Montpellier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 9004, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier 34293, France.

Infection by multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus is increasingly prevalent in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, leaving clinicians with few therapeutic options. A compassionate study showed the clinical improvement of a CF patient with a disseminated M. abscessus (GD01) infection, following injection of a phage cocktail, including phage Muddy. Read More

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September 2021

The biological regulation of sea urchin larval skeletogenesis - From genes to biomineralized tissue.

J Struct Biol 2021 Sep 13:107797. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Marine Biology Department, Charney School of Marine Sciences, the University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel. Electronic address:

Biomineralization is the process in which soft organic tissues use minerals to produce shells, skeletons and teeth for various functions such as protection and physical support. The ability of the cells to control the time and place of crystal nucleation as well as crystal orientation and stiffness is far beyond the state-of-the art of human technologies. Thus, understanding the biological control of biomineralization will promote our understanding of embryo development as well as provide novel approaches for material engineering. Read More

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September 2021

Regulation of membrane phospholipids during the adult life of worker honey bee.

J Insect Physiol 2021 Sep 13:104310. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address:

Two female castes that are genetically identical are found in honey bees: workers and queens. Adult female honey bees differ in their morphology and behaviors, but the most intriguing difference between the castes is the difference in their longevity. Queens live for years while workers live generally for weeks. Read More

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September 2021

Development of a qPCR-based method for counting overwintering spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) larvae collected during fall surveys and for assessing their natural enemy load: a proof-of-concept study.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Laurentian Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 4C7, Canada.

Background: In eastern Canada, surveys of overwintering second-instar spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) larvae ('L2s') are carried out each fall to guide insecticide application decisions in the following spring. These surveys involve the collection of fir and spruce branches in selected stands, followed by the mechanical/chemical removal of larvae. The latter are then counted manually on filter papers, using a stereomicroscope. Read More

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September 2021

Infection with endosymbiotic Spiroplasma disrupts tsetse (Glossina fuscipes fuscipes) metabolic and reproductive homeostasis.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Sep 16;17(9):e1009539. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house a population-dependent assortment of microorganisms that can include pathogenic African trypanosomes and maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria, the latter of which mediate numerous aspects of their host's metabolic, reproductive, and immune physiologies. One of these endosymbionts, Spiroplasma, was recently discovered to reside within multiple tissues of field captured and laboratory colonized tsetse flies grouped in the Palpalis subgenera. Read More

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September 2021

Cuticular Hydrocarbon Trails Released by Host Larvae Lose their Kairomonal Activity for Parasitoids by Solidification.

J Chem Ecol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Ecological Chemistry, Plant Analysis and Stored Product Protection, Julius Kühn Institute, Königin-Luise-Str.19, 14195, Berlin, Germany.

Successful host search by parasitic wasps is often mediated by host-associated chemical cues. The ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis is known to follow chemical trails released by host larvae of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, for short-range host location. Although the hexane-extractable trails consist of stable, long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) with low volatility, the kairomonal activity of a trail is lost two days after release. Read More

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September 2021

Lead (Pb)-induced oxidative stress mediates sex-specific autistic-like behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Zoology, School of Biological Sciences, Central University of Kerala, Tejaswini Hills, Periya, 671320, Kasaragod, India.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by three main behavioural symptoms: abnormal social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication impairments, and repetitive and restricted activities or interests. Even though the exact aetiology of ASD remains unknown, studies have shown a link between genetics and environmental pollutants. Heavy metal lead (Pb), the environmental pollutant, is associated with ASD. Read More

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September 2021

Symbiotic Interactions Between Mosquitoes and Mosquito Viruses.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 30;11:694020. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

ISEM, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, EPHE, Montpellier, France.

Mosquitoes not only transmit human and veterinary pathogens called arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) but also harbor mosquito-associated insect-specific viruses (mosquito viruses) that cannot infect vertebrates. In the past, studies investigating mosquito viruses mainly focused on highly pathogenic interactions that were easier to detect than those without visible symptoms. However, the recent advances in viral metagenomics have highlighted the abundance and diversity of viruses which do not generate mass mortality in host populations. Read More

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An unusual presentation of hydatid cyst: A tight mass a case report with a literature review.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Nov 8;16(11):3485-3490. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Radiology department, Mohammed V Military Hospital, Rabat -Morocco.

Hydatidosis is a worldwide infectious disease caused by the larval form of a parasitic tapeworm of helminths affecting mainly the liver and lungs in cattle- and sheep-raising regions. Muscle localization remains extremely rare and its diagnosis is sometimes challenging. We report the case of a 45-year-old man presenting with a swelling of the left thigh gradually increasing in size. Read More

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November 2021

Definitive hematopoietic stem cells minimally contribute to embryonic hematopoiesis.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(11):109703

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Bronx, NY, USA; Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Gottesman Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Medicine (Oncology), Bronx, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare cells that arise in the embryo and sustain adult hematopoiesis. Although the functional potential of nascent HSCs is detectable by transplantation, their native contribution during development is unknown, in part due to the overlapping genesis and marker gene expression with other embryonic blood progenitors. Using single-cell transcriptomics, we define gene signatures that distinguish nascent HSCs from embryonic blood progenitors. Read More

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September 2021

Alveolar echinococcosis: what triggers emergence in North America, Central Europe and Asia?

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2021 Oct;34(5):440-446

Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty and Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: Infection with the larval (metacestode) stage of Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a serious hepatic disorder. The parasite has increased its infection extensity in wildlife and domestic dogs, mainly due to urbanization and spatial extension of wildlife hosts in Europe, Asia as well as North America, resulting in emerging infection risk for humans.

Recent Findings: In hyperendemic areas such as Kyrgyzstan and China, ecological and socioeconomic changes have been associated with the unpredictable increase of AE cases. Read More

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October 2021

Selective CDK9 inhibition resolves neutrophilic inflammation and enhances cardiac regeneration in larval zebrafish.

Development 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Sustained neutrophilic inflammation is detrimental for cardiac repair and associated with adverse outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI). An attractive therapeutic strategy to treat MI is to reduce or remove infiltrating neutrophils to promote downstream reparative mechanisms. CDK9 inhibitor compounds enhance the resolution of neutrophilic inflammation, however, their effects on cardiac repair/regeneration are unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular biomarkers as tool for early warning by chlorpyrifos exposure on Alpine chironomids.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 26;290:118061. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Hydrobiology, MUSE-Museo delle Scienze, Corso del Lavoro e della Scienza 3, I-38122, Trento, Italy.

Pesticides used in agriculture can be transported at a medium-high distance due to the drift effect, reaching even remote areas as mountain regions, glaciers, and snow cover. With the melting process, pesticides enter freshwater glacier ecosystems, becoming a threat to wildlife fauna, mainly dominated by Diptera Chironomidae. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), as one of the most commonly used pesticides in alpine vineyards and apple orchards, is frequently detected in icemelt waters. Read More

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Influence of dispersant application on the toxicity to sea urchin embryos of crude and bunker oils representative of prospective oil spill threats in Arctic and Sub-Arctic seas.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Sep 9;172:112922. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

BCTA Research Group. Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU), Sarriena z/g, E-48940 Leioa-Bizkaia, Basque Country, Spain; BCTA Research Group. Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PiE-UPV/EHU), University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Areatza z/g, 48620 Plentzia-Bizkaia, Basque Country, Spain. Electronic address:

This study deals with the toxicity assessment of crude and bunker oils representative of prospective oil spill threats in Arctic and Sub-Arctic seas (NNA: Naphthenic North-Atlantic crude oil; MGO: Marine Gas Oil; IFO: Intermediate Fuel Oil 180), alone or in combination with a third-generation dispersant (Finasol OSR52®). Early life stages of sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, were selected for toxicity testing of oil low-energy water accommodated fractions. A multi-index approach, including larval size increase and malformation, and developmental disruption as endpoints, was sensitive to discriminate from slight to severe toxicity caused by the tested aqueous fractions. Read More

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September 2021

Silencing uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase gene impairs larval development in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Agriculture Ministry Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in East China/State & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Green Pesticide Invention and Application, Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Background: Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) diphosphorylase (UAP) catalyzes the formation of UDP-GlcNAc, the precursor for production of chitin in the ectodermally-derived epidermal cells and midgut, for GlcNAcylation of proteins and for generation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol anchors in all tissues in Drosophila melanogaster.

Results: Here we identified a putative HvUAP gene in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata. Knockdown of HvUAP at the second, third and fourth instar stages impaired larval development. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of Symbiotic Probiont Strains on the Growth of Amphora and Chlorella and Its Potential Protections Against Vibrio spp. in Artemia.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The emerging aquaculture industry is in need of non-antibiotic-based disease control approaches to minimize the risk of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacterial infections mainly caused by Vibrio spp. have caused mass mortalities of fish especially during the larval stages. Read More

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September 2021

Intertidal estimates of sea urchin abundance reveal congruence in spatial structure for a guild of consumers.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 9;11(17):11930-11944. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Zoology and Entomology Rhodes University Grahamstown South Africa.

We hypothesized congruence in the spatial structure of abundance data sampled across multiple scales for an ecological guild of consumers that exploit similar nutritional and habitat resources. We tested this hypothesis on the spatial organization of abundance of an herbivorous guild of sea urchins. We also examined whether the amount of local along-shore rocky habitat can explain the observed spatial patterns of abundance. Read More

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September 2021

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for the rapid detection of alveolar echinococcosis in hepatic nodules of horses.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Sep 11;299:109573. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Laboratory of Veterinary Histopathology, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan.

Alveolar echinococcosis, which is caused by a larval-stage infection of Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonosis with public health importance. Recently, alveolar echinococcosis in slaughtered horses has been reported in Japan and Poland. In terms of public health, a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic method is essential for early detection during meat inspection. Read More

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September 2021