78,078 results match your criteria large reduction

Parallel functional reduction in the mitochondria of apicomplexan parasites.

Curr Biol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address:

Gregarines are an early-diverging lineage of apicomplexan parasites that hold many clues into the origin and evolution of the group, a remarkable transition from free-living phototrophic algae into obligate parasites of animals. Using single-cell transcriptomics targeting understudied lineages to complement available sequencing data, we characterized the mitochondrial metabolic repertoire across the tree of apicomplexans. In contrast to the large suite of proteins involved in aerobic respiration in well-studied parasites like Toxoplasma or Plasmodium, we find that gregarine trophozoites have significantly reduced energy metabolism: most lack respiratory complexes III and IV, and some lack the electron transport chains (ETCs) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle entirely. Read More

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Prevention of Neonatal Hypoglycemia With Oral Glucose Gel for High-Risk Newborns.

WMJ 2021 Apr;120(1):51-53

University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Neonatal hypoglycemia (glucose <47) is the most common metabolic problem in newborns (incidence 5% - 15%) and can cause adverse outcomes, even in the absence of noticeable symptoms. Oral glucose gel (OGG) is safe and effective for treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia. In order to reduce interventions such as intravenous (IV) dextrose administration and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) transfer, in October 2017, we implemented a protocol in our Level 1 rural community hospital to identify newborns with asymptomatic hypoglycemia based on risk factors and treat them with OGG. Read More

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Effects of Gasterophilus pecorum infestation on the intestinal microbiota of the rewilded Przewalski's horses in China.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251512. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Macau, Macao, China.

Horse botflies have been a threat to the Przewalski's horses in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve in Xinjiang of China since their reintroduction to the original range. As larvae of these parasites could infest the intestine of a horse for months, they could interact with and alter the structure and composition of its intestinal microbiota, affecting adversely its health. Nonetheless, there are no such studies on the rewilded Przewalski's horses yet. Read More

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Social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic and health-related quality of life among esophageal cancer survivors.

Acta Oncol 2021 May 11:1-8. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: The purpose was to investigate whether social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) in esophageal cancer patients and if so, to identify factors related to the HRQL changes.

Methods: A prospective Swedish nationwide study of patients who undergone surgery for esophageal cancer between 2013 and 2019. Telephone interviews were conducted 5 weeks and 13 weeks after the introduction of social distancing recommendations. Read More

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Fulvic Acid-Mediated Interfacial Reactions on Exposed Hematite Facets during Dissimilatory Iron Reduction.

Langmuir 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

National-Regional Joint Engineering Research Center for Soil Pollution Control and Remediation in South China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-environmental Pollution Control and Management, Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, P. R. China.

Although the dual role of natural organic matter (NOM) as an electron shuttle and an electron donor for dissimilatory iron (Fe) reduction has been extensively investigated, the underlying interfacial interactions between various exposed facets and NOM are poorly understood. In this study, fulvic acid (FA), as typical NOM, was used and its effect on the dissimilatory reduction of hematite {001} and {100} by CN-32 was investigated. FA accelerates the bioreduction rates of hematite {001} and {100}, where the rate of hematite {100} is lower than that of hematite {001}. Read More

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Effectiveness of Liposomal Ozonised Oil in Reducing Ocular Microbial Flora in Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

1Eye Clinic, Policlinico Umberto I, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy 2Microbiology and Virology Unit, University Hospital Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy 3Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy 4Department of Medicine and Health Science 'V. Tiberio', University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy.

Purpose: To evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of a liposomal ozonised-oil solution used as a home therapy in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Antimicrobial efficacy was evaluated as the reduction in the bacterial load of the most common bacteria isolated from endophthalmitis cases.

Setting: Twenty Italian experimental centres of the ELOOM (Effectiveness of Liposomal Ozonised-oil on Ocular Microbial flora before cataract surgery) study group. Read More

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Inhaled bacteriophage therapy in a porcine model of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa during mechanical ventilation.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

INSERM, Centre d'Etude des Pathologies Respiratoires, U1100, Tours, France.

Background And Purpose: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a main cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with drug-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophage therapy has experienced resurgence to compensate for the limited development of novel antibiotics. However, phage therapy is limited to a compassionate use so far, resulting from lack of adequate studies in relevant pharmacological models. Read More

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Disruptions in Rheumatology Care and the Rise of Telehealth in Response to the COVID19 Pandemic in a Community Practice-Based Network.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: The effect of the COVID19 pandemic on community-based rheumatology care and use of telehealth is unclear.

Methods: Using a community practice-based rheumatologist network, we examined trends in in-person vs. telehealth visits vs. Read More

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Reduction of immunosuppression combined with whole-brain radiotherapy and concurrent systemic rituximab is an effective yet toxic treatment of primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (pCNS-PTLD): 14 cases from the prospective German PTLD registry.

Ann Hematol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Haematology and Oncology, DIAKO Ev. Diakonie-Krankenhaus Bremen, Gröpelinger Heerstr. 406-408, 28239, Bremen, Germany.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) exclusively affecting the central nervous system-primary CNS-PTLD (pCNS-PTLD)-are rare. There is no standard therapy, and previous case series have included heterogeneous treatment approaches. We performed a retrospective, multi-centre analysis of 14 patients with pCNS-PTLD after solid organ transplantation (SOT) treated in the prospective German PTLD registry with reduction of immunosuppression (RI), whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and concurrent systemic rituximab between 2001 and 2018. Read More

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Comprehensive mapping of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants induced by natural infection or vaccination.

medRxiv 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Background: Immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination has been threatened by recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants. A systematic summary of the landscape of neutralizing antibodies against emerging variants is needed.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and 3 pre-print servers for studies that evaluated neutralizing antibodies titers induced by previous infection or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 variants and comprehensively collected individual data. Read More

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Effectiveness and feasibility of convalescent blood transfusion to reduce COVID-19 fatality ratio.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 10;8(2):202248. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3J 1P3.

As of December 2020, COVID-19 has spread all over the world with more than 81 million cases and more than 1.8 million deaths. The rapidly increasing number of patients mandates the consideration of potential treatments for patients under severe and critical conditions. Read More

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February 2021

Rapid synthesis and characterization of silver-loaded graphene oxide nanomaterials and their antibacterial applications.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 24;8(2):201744. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Yongchuan 402160, People's Republic of China.

With the promising potential application of Ag/graphene-based nanomaterials in medicine and engineering materials, the large-scale production has attracted great interest of researchers on the basis of green synthesis. In this study, water-soluble silver/graphene oxide (Ag/GO) nanomaterials were synthesized under ultrasound-assisted conditions. The structural characteristics of Ag/GO were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectroscopy, respectively. Read More

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February 2021

Weak selection on synonymous codons substantially inflates estimates in bacteria.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Center for Computational Genetics and Genomics, Department of Biology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122;

Synonymous codon substitutions are not always selectively neutral as revealed by several types of analyses, including studies of codon usage patterns among genes. We analyzed codon usage in 13 bacterial genomes sampled from across a large order of bacteria, Enterobacterales, and identified presumptively neutral and selected classes of synonymous substitutions. To estimate substitution rates, given a neutral/selected classification of synonymous substitutions, we developed a flexible [Formula: see text] substitution model that allows multiple classes of synonymous substitutions. Read More

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Natural family-free genomic distance.

Algorithms Mol Biol 2021 May 10;16(1). Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Technology and Center for Biotechnology (CeBiTec), Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.

Background: A classical problem in comparative genomics is to compute the rearrangement distance, that is the minimum number of large-scale rearrangements required to transform a given genome into another given genome. The traditional approaches in this area are family-based, i.e. Read More

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Static and dynamic culture of human endothelial cells encapsulated inside alginate-gelatin microspheres.

Microvasc Res 2021 May 7:104174. Epub 2021 May 7.

Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

This study aimed to explore the angiogenesis potential of human endothelial cells encapsulated inside alginate-gelatin microspheres under static and dynamic culture systems after 7 days. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were encapsulated inside alginate (1%) and gelatin (1.2%) using an electrostatic encapsulation method. Read More

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Temporal Trends in Case Fatality, Discharge Destination, and Admission to Long-term Care After Acute Stroke.

Neurology 2021 Apr 23;96(16):e2037-e2047. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

From the Department of Clinical Neurosciences (R.A.J., E.E.S.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary; ICES (R.A.J., A.Y.X.Y., M.R., J.F., M.K.K.), Toronto; and the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (A.Y.X.Y.) and General Internal Medicine (M.K.K.), and Institute of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation (M.K.K.), University of Toronto, Canada.

Objective: To determine contemporary trends in case fatality, discharge destination, and admission to long-term care after acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) using a large, population-based cohort.

Methods: We used linked administrative data to identify all emergency department visits and hospital admissions for first-ever ischemic stroke or ICH in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2017. We calculated crude and age-/sex-standardized risk of death at 30 days and 1 year from stroke onset. Read More

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Genes in treatment: polygenic risk scores for different psychopathologies, neuroticism, educational attainment and IQ and the outcome of two different exposure-based fear treatments.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 10:1-36. Epub 2021 May 10.

Mental Health Research and Treatment Center, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany.

Objectives: Evidence for a genetic influence on psychological treatment outcome so far has been inconsistent, likely due to the focus on candidate genes and the heterogeneity of the disorders treated. Using polygenic risk scores (PRS) in homogenous patient samples may increase the chance of detecting genetic influences.

Methods: A sample of 342 phobic patients treated either for clinically relevant dental fear ( = 189) or other (mixed) phobic fears ( = 153) underwent highly standardized exposure-based CBT. Read More

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Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart failure: a review.

Endokrynol Pol 2021 ;72(2):163-170

3rd Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Silesian Center for Heart Diseases, Zabrze, Poland.

Diabetes mellitus is a major, global problem. Among the numerous complications of diabetes, there is increasing concern over the coexisting heart failure. Metformin is the most frequently used oral antidiabetic drug that is considered to be safe and effective in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

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January 2021

Risk of Pregnancy Termination and Congenital Anomalies After Domperidone Exposure: A Study in the EFEMERIS Database.

Drug Saf 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Réseau REGARDS, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie Médicale et Clinique (Medical and Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (Toulouse University Hospital Centre), Centre d'Epidémiologie et de Recherche en santé des POPulations (Center for Epidemiology and Research in POPulation health, CERPOP), INSERM UMR 1295, Equipe SPHERE: Study of Perinatal, paediatric and adolescent Health: Epidemiological Research and Evaluation, Faculté de Médecine de Toulouse (Toulouse Faculty of Medicine), 37 allées Jules Guesde, 31000, Toulouse, France.

Introduction: Domperidone is widely used during pregnancy, although the risks associated with pregnant women have not been adequately evaluated.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the rate of pregnancy outcomes and congenital anomalies between pregnant women exposed and unexposed to domperidone during pregnancy.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing pregnant women exposed and unexposed to domperidone during pregnancy. Read More

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Clinical Outcomes of Proximal Optimization Technique (POT) in Bifurcation Stenting.

EuroIntervention 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Ramsay Générale de Santé, ICPS, Hôpital Jacques Cartier, Massy, France.

Background: Optimal deployment of coronary stents in a bifurcation lesion remains a matter of debate.

Aims: We sought to capture the daily practice of bifurcation stenting by means of a worldwide registry and to investigate how the post-implantation deployment techniques influence the clinical outcomes.

Methods: Data from the e-ULTIMASTER registry were used to perform an analysis of 4395 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for bifurcation lesions. Read More

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High-Quality CoFeP Nanocrystal/N, P Dual-Doped Carbon Composite as a Novel Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zn-Air Battery.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, P. R. China.

A novel composite catalyst (CoFeP@C) was constructed by high-quality CoFeP nanoparticles embedded in a N, P dual-doped carbon matrix. These CoFeP nanoparticles are rich in active sites of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at surfaces and provide metallic conductivity in their bulk phases. The N, P dual-doped carbon matrix provided abundant active sites of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and formed a conductive network substrate. Read More

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Readmissions After Distal Radius Fracture Open Reduction and Internal Fixation: An Analysis of 11,124 Patients.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2020 Jul;4(7):e2000110

From the Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (Mr. Malpani, Mr. Mercier, Mr. Ottesen, Dr. Nduaguba, and Dr. Grauer), and the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (Dr. John, and Dr. Webb).

Purpose: Distal radius fracture (DRF) open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a common surgical procedure. This study assesses reasons and risk factors for readmission after DRF ORIF using the large sample size and follow-up of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database.

Methods: Adult patients who underwent DRF ORIF were identified in the 2011 to 2016 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Read More

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Spatio-temporal graph convolutional network for diagnosis and treatment response prediction of major depressive disorder from functional connectivity.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Psychosomatic and Psychiatry, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

The pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been explored to be highly associated with the dysfunctional integration of brain networks. It is therefore imperative to explore neuroimaging biomarkers to aid diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we developed a spatiotemporal graph convolutional network (STGCN) framework to learn discriminative features from functional connectivity for automatic diagnosis and treatment response prediction of MDD. Read More

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A Multi-Criteria Framework for Pandemic Response Measures.

Front Public Health 2021 20;9:583706. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.

In managing the COVID-19 pandemic, several compelling narratives seem to have played a significant role in the decision-making processes regarding which risk mitigation and management measures to implement. Many countries were to a large extent unprepared for such a situation, even though predictions about a significant probability for a pandemic to occur existed, and national governments of several countries often acted in an uncoordinated manner, which resulted in many inconsistencies in the disaster risk reduction processes. Limited evidence has also made room for strategic narratives meant to persuade the public of the chosen set of actions, even though the degree of uncertainty regarding the outcomes of these was high, further complicating the situation. Read More

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High Diversity and Functional Potential of Undescribed "Acidobacteriota" in Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:643950. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Center for Microbial Communities, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

Microbial communities in water resource recovery facilities encompass a large diversity of poorly characterized lineages that could have undescribed process-critical functions. Recently, it was shown that taxa belonging to "Acidobacteriota" are abundant in Danish full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), and here we investigated their diversity, distribution, and functional potential. "Acidobacteriota" taxa were identified using a comprehensive full-length 16S rRNA gene reference dataset and amplicon sequencing surveys across 37 WWTPs. Read More

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A 30-Year Study of Impacts, Recovery, and Development of Critical Effect Sizes for Endocrine Disruption in White Sucker () Exposed to Bleached-Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent at Jackfish Bay, Ontario, Canada.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 22;12:664157. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Jackfish Bay is an isolated bay on the north shore of Lake Superior, Canada that has received effluent from a large bleached-kraft pulp mill since the 1940s. Studies conducted in the late 1980s found evidence of reductions in sex steroid hormone levels in multiple fish species living in the Bay, and increased growth, condition and relative liver weights, with a reduction in internal fat storage, reduced gonadal sizes, delayed sexual maturation, and altered levels of circulating sex steroid hormones in white sucker (). These early studies provided some of the first pieces of evidence of endocrine disruption in wild animals. Read More

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Deciphering the Formulation Secret Underlying Chinese Huo-Clearing Herbal Drink.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:654699. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Drug Discovery and Molecular Engineering, Department of Medicinal Plants, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Herbal teas or herbal drinks are traditional beverages that are prevalent in many cultures around the world. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, an herbal drink infused with different types of medicinal plants is believed to reduce the 'Shang Huo', or excessive body heat, a status of sub-optimal health. Although it is widely accepted and has a very large market, the underlying science for herbal drinks remains elusive. Read More

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Polysaccharides for sustainable energy storage - A review.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Aug 20;265:118063. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Bioproducts and Paper Technology, Graz University of Technology, 8010, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

The increasing amount of electric vehicles on our streets as well as the need to store surplus energy from renewable sources such as wind, solar and tidal parks, has brought small and large scale batteries into the focus of academic and industrial research. While there has been huge progress in performance and cost reduction in the past years, batteries and their components still face several environmental issues including safety, toxicity, recycling and sustainability. In this review, we address these challenges by showcasing the potential of polysaccharide-based compounds and materials used in batteries. Read More

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Implementation of clinical practice guidelines: Wishful thinking or reality. Decision algorithm.

Clin Investig Arterioscler 2021 May;33 Suppl 1:33-39

Servicio de Cardiología, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Toledo, España.

The clinical practice guidelines (CPG) have contributed to the dissemination of scientific information that supports decision-making in different clinical situations. CPGs have become more necessary as scientific information has grown, sometimes offering contradictory data, which makes it difficult for the clinician to easily make the most appropriate decision. In this context, the CPGs summarize and simplify the available scientific information, making it available to the doctor who must make the decisions. Read More

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Vascular normalization in immunotherapy: A promising mechanisms combined with radiotherapy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 6;139:111607. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China; Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology & Therapy, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Radiobiology, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address:

Leakage and compression of blood vessels may result in deprivation of blood flow to a large number of tumor tissues, which can lead to tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia induces an increase in the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in tumor cells, which induces angiogenesis in tumors through the high expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby forming a positive feedback vicious circle. Improving hypoxia by normalizing blood vessels and improving radiosensitivity by immunotherapy has emerged as a new application of combined immunotherapy and radiotherapy. Read More

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