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Machine-Learning Predictions of High Arsenic and High Manganese at Drinking Water Depths of the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern Continental United States.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

U.S. Geological Survey, 215 Limekiln Road, New Cumberland, Pennsylvania 17070, United States.

Globally, over 200 million people are chronically exposed to arsenic (As) and/or manganese (Mn) from drinking water. We used machine-learning (ML) boosted regression tree (BRT) models to predict high As (>10 μg/L) and Mn (>300 μg/L) in groundwater from the glacial aquifer system (GLAC), which spans 25 states in the northern United States and provides drinking water to 30 million people. Our BRT models' predictor variables (PVs) included recently developed three-dimensional estimates of a suite of groundwater age metrics, redox condition, and pH. Read More

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X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia in Crossbred Beef Cattle Due to a Large Deletion in .

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.

X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia-1 (ECTD1) in people results in a spectrum of abnormalities, most importantly hypotrichosis, anodontia/oligodontia, and absent or defective ectodermally derived glands. Five Red Angus-Simmental calves born over a 6-year period demonstrated severe hypotrichosis and were diagnosed as affected with ECTD1-like syndrome. Two died of severe pneumonia within a week of birth. Read More

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Use of Services by People Living Alone With Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.

Innov Aging 2021 18;5(1):igab004. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institute for Health & Aging, University of California San Francisco, USA.

Background And Objectives: Formal supports and social services are essential to people living alone with cognitive impairment (PLACI) because they are at risk of negative health outcomes and lack cohabitants who may support them with cognitively demanding tasks. To further our understanding of this critical and worldwide issue, we conducted a systematic review to understand whether, and how, PLACI access and use essential formal supports and services.

Research Design And Methods: We searched 6 databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Sociological Abstracts) to identify quantitative and mixed-method literature on formal service use among PLACI. Read More

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January 2021

Using random assignment to measure court accessibility for low-income divorce seekers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

University of Michigan Law School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.

We conducted a field experiment in which 311 low-income individuals seeking a divorce were randomly assigned to receive access to a pro bono lawyer (versus minimal help) to assist with filing for divorce. Examining court records, we found that assignment to an attorney made a large difference in whether participants filed for and obtained a divorce. Three years after randomization, 46% of the treated group had terminated their marriages in the proper legal venue, compared to 9% of the control group. Read More

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Uncertainty quantification of dynamic earthquake rupture simulations.

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2021 May 29;379(2197):20200076. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Computer Science, Brunel University London, London, UK.

We present a tutorial demonstration using a surrogate-model based uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach to study dynamic earthquake rupture on a rough fault surface. The UQ approach performs model calibration where we choose simulation points, fit and validate an approximate surrogate model or emulator, and then examine the input space to see which inputs can be ruled out from the data. Our approach relies on the mogp_emulator package to perform model calibration, and the FabSim3 component from the VECMA toolkit to streamline the workflow, enabling users to manage the workflow using the command line to curate reproducible simulations on local and remote resources. Read More

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Stationary Ca nanodomains in the presence of buffers with two binding sites.

Biophys J 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey. Electronic address:

We examine closed-form approximations for the equilibrium Ca and buffer concentrations near a point Ca source representing a Ca channel, in the presence of a mobile buffer with two Ca binding sites activated sequentially and possessing distinct binding affinities and kinetics. This allows us to model the impact on Ca nanodomains of realistic endogenous Ca buffers characterized by cooperative Ca binding, such as calretinin. The approximations we present involve a combination or rational and exponential functions, whose parameters are constrained using the series interpolation method that we recently introduced for the case of simpler Ca buffers with a single Ca binding site. Read More

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Application-specific nuclear medicalimaging devices.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, UC Davis Health System, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3100, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA, Sacramento, California, 95817, UNITED STATES.

Nuclear medical imaging devices, such as those enabling photon emission imaging (gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), or positron emission imaging (PET)), that are typically used in today's clinics are optimized for assessing large portions of the human body, and are classified as whole-body imaging systems. These systems have known limitations for organ imaging, therefore application-specific devices have been designed, constructed and evaluated. These devices, given their compact nature and superior technical characteristics, such as their higher detection sensitivity and spatial resolution for organ imaging compared to whole-body imaging systems, have shown promise for niche applications. Read More

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Brief Report: Autism-Specific College Support Programs: Differences Across Geography and Institutional Type.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA.

Many postsecondary institutions have begun their own Autism-Specific College Support Programs (ASPs) to integrate the emergence of autistic students into college and offer supports aiding their success (Longtin in J Postsecond Educ Disabil 27(1):63-72, 2014), yet little is known about these programs. We conducted an exhaustive, year-long search of all postsecondary institutions in the United States to identify all ASPs. Although we identified a total of 74 programs located in 29 states, our analyses suggest these are unavailable to students in large portions of the country. Read More

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A rare case of penetration related to ischemic duodenitis after ventricular assist device implantation for dilated cardiomyopathy.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1, Seiryo-Cho, Aoba-Ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8574, Japan.

A 66-year-old man with a history of diabetes and dilated cardiomyopathy underwent the implantation of a ventricular assist device (VAD) at the age of 62. He suffered from epigastralgia for a month and then visited our hospital with complaints of severe epigastralgia and hematemesis. A physical examination revealed abdominal distension without rigidity. Read More

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Forest cover mediates large and medium-sized mammal occurrence in a critical link of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(3):e0249072. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

Connectivity of natural areas through biological corridors is essential for ecosystem resilience and biodiversity conservation. However, robust assessments of biodiversity in corridor areas are often hindered by logistical constraints and the statistical challenges of modeling data from multiple species. Herein, we used a hierarchical community occupancy model in a Bayesian framework to evaluate the status of medium and large-sized mammals in a critical link of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC) in Costa Rica. Read More

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Estimating transition path times and shapes from single-molecule photon trajectories: A simulation analysis.

J Chem Phys 2021 Mar;154(11):115101

Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520, USA.

In a two-state molecular system, transition paths comprise the portions of trajectories during which the system transits from one stable state to the other. Because of their low population, it is essentially impossible to obtain information on transition paths from experiments on a large sample of molecules. However, single-molecule experiments such as laser optical tweezers or Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy have allowed transition-path durations to be estimated. Read More

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Mitochondrial network remodeling: an important feature of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

The remodeling of the mitochondrial network is a critical process in maintaining cellular homeostasis and is intimately related to mitochondrial function. The interplay between the formation of new mitochondria (biogenesis) and the removal of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) provide a means for the repopulation of the mitochondrial network. Additionally, mitochondrial fission and fusion serve as a bridge between biogenesis and mitophagy. Read More

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Prominent hypointense vessel on susceptibility-weighted images accompanying hyperacute and acute large infarction.

Jpn J Radiol 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daeku, South Korea.

Background: Multiple prominent hypointense vessels on susceptibility-weighted image (SWI) have been found in the ischemic territory of patients with acute ischemic stroke. SWI is suitable for venous imaging.

Purpose: To evaluate the conditions of prominent hypointense vessel (PHV) in hyperacute and acute cerebral infarctions using susceptibility-weighted image (SWI). Read More

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Evolution of DNA packaging in gene transfer agents.

Virus Evol 2021 Jan 19;7(1):veab015. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are virus-like particles encoded and produced by many bacteria and archaea. Unlike viruses, GTAs package fragments of the host genome instead of the genes that encode the components of the GTA itself. As a result of this non-specific DNA packaging, GTAs can transfer genes within bacterial and archaeal communities. Read More

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January 2021

TEX264 at the intersection of autophagy and DNA repair.

Autophagy 2021 Mar 17:1-10. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Medical Research Council (MRC) Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

TEX264 (testes expressed gene 264) is a single-pass transmembrane protein, consisting of an N-terminal hydrophobic region, a gyrase inhibitory (GyrI)-like domain, and a loosely structured C terminus. TEX264 was first identified as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Atg8-family-binding protein that mediates the degradation of portions of the ER during starvation (i.e. Read More

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Receipt of Behavioral Health Services Among US Children and Youth With Adverse Childhood Experiences or Mental Health Symptoms.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Mar 1;4(3):e211435. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Sociology, University of New Hampshire, Durham.

Importance: Epidemiological literature on children's mental health and children's adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have consistently pointed to widespread, unaddressed, and treatable high-risk conditions among children.

Objective: To estimate the proportion of children with either high levels of ACEs and/or high levels of mental health symptoms who were not receiving services from behavioral health professionals.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study included 11 896 children who participated in 3 National Surveys of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), which were nationally representative surveys conducted in 2008, 2011, and 2014. Read More

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Strengthening emergency care by developing data collection systems in low- and middle-income countries.

Afr J Emerg Med 2021 Mar 1;11(1):111-112. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Emergency care surveillance as well as registries of emergency care are largely absent in most LMICs. Improper data systems in Emergency Department create an important gap in our understanding about the health of large portions of the population. Clinical data systems in LMICs and lower-resource settings will foster research and generation of contextualized evidence. Read More

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Influence of Habitual Dairy Food Intake on LDL Cholesterol in a Population-Based Cohort.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 11;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologiche, University of Catania, I-95100 Catania, Italy.

Background: Cholesterol has a pivotal role in human physiology, exerting both structural and functional activity. However, higher blood cholesterol levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), are a major cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, special attention has been given to the effect of dietary factors in influencing LDL-C blood levels. Read More

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February 2021

Recent advances in understanding RNA polymerase II structure and function.

Authors:
Daniel Reines

Fac Rev 2020 17;9:11. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

More than 50 years after the identification of RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for the transcription of most eukaryotic genes, studies have continued to reveal fresh aspects of its structure and regulation. New technologies, coupled with years of development of a vast catalog of RNA polymerase II accessory proteins and activities, have led to new revelations about the transcription process. The maturation of cryo-electron microscopy as a tool for unraveling the detailed structure of large molecular machines has provided numerous structures of the enzyme and its accessory factors. Read More

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November 2020

Injury-severity analysis of lane change crashes involving commercial motor vehicles on interstate highways.

J Safety Res 2021 02 1;76:30-35. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, The University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: One of the challenging tasks for drivers is the ability to change lanes around large commercial motor vehicles. Lane changing is often characterized by speed, and crashes that occur due to unsafe lane changes can have serious consequences. Considering the economic importance of commercial trucks, ensuring the safety, security, and resilience of freight transportation is of paramount concern to the United States Department of Transportation and other stakeholders. Read More

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February 2021

A culture-independent approach to understanding the role of soil fungal communities in Bromus tectorum stand failure.

Microbiologyopen 2021 01;10(1):e1155

Department of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass (Poaceae) that has colonized large portions of the Intermountain West. Cheatgrass stand failures have been observed throughout the invaded region, the cause of which may be related to the presence of several species of pathogenic fungi in the soil or surface litter. Read More

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January 2021

Relative Roles of Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Invasive Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis spp.) in Carrion Decomposition.

J Med Entomol 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA.

Fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) have increasingly been reported from carrion in the southeastern United States and are now a part of the normal succession community. There have been previous observations of these ants altering carrion and preying on other carrion-attendant fauna; however, the overall effects of these activities on carrion decomposition rates, community composition, and blow fly larval development are poorly understood. Read More

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February 2021

North American Prairie Is a Source of Pollen for Managed Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

J Insect Sci 2021 Jan;21(1)

Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Prairie was a dominant habitat within large portions of North America before European settlement. Conversion of prairies to farmland resulted in the loss of a large proportion of native floral resources, contributing to the decline of native pollinator populations. Efforts to reconstruct prairie could provide honey bees (Apis mellifera) a source of much-needed forage, especially in regions dominated by crop production. Read More

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January 2021

Test-retest reliability of the human functional connectome over consecutive days: identifying highly reliable portions and assessing the impact of methodological choices.

Netw Neurosci 2020 1;4(3):925-945. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Countless studies have advanced our understanding of the human brain and its organization by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to derive network representations of human brain function. However, we do not know to what extent these "functional connectomes" are reliable over time. In a large public sample of healthy participants ( = 833) scanned on two consecutive days, we assessed the test-retest reliability of fMRI functional connectivity and the consequences on reliability of three common sources of variation in analysis workflows: atlas choice, global signal regression, and thresholding. Read More

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September 2020

Persistence of Hepatitis A Virus RNA in Water, on Non-porous Surfaces, and on Blueberries.

Front Microbiol 2021 4;12:618352. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Enteric viruses, such as human norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are the leading cause of transmissible foodborne illness. Fresh produce such as berries are often contaminated by infected food handlers, soiled water, or food contact surfaces. The gold-standard method for virus detection throughout the food chain is RT-qPCR, which detects portions of genomes including non-infectious viral particles and naked viral RNA. Read More

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February 2021

Development of a Photographic Food Atlas as a Portion Size Estimation Kit for Malaysian.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2020 ;66(Supplement):S184-S189

Nutritional Sciences Programme & Centre for Community Health Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

A photographic food atlas is a series of photographs showing different quantities of different foods. It serves as a portion size estimation aid (PSEA). In Malaysia, the existing food atlases, which display foods in exchanges and standard portion sizes, may not be representative of the actual sizes of the portions of food consumed by the local population. Read More

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January 2020

Phylogeny and classification of Odonata using targeted genomics.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Feb 18;160:107115. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, USA.

Dragonflies and damselflies are a charismatic, medium-sized insect order (~6300 species) with a unique potential to approach comparative research questions. Their taxonomy and many ecological traits for a large fraction of extant species are relatively well understood. However, until now, the lack of a large-scale phylogeny based on high throughput data with the potential to connect both perspectives has precluded comparative evolutionary questions for these insects. Read More

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February 2021

Imaging features of fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinomas: a retrospective study.

Cancer Imaging 2021 Feb 19;21(1):24. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 300 E 66th St #1407, NY, 10065, New York, USA.

Backgound: Fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma (FH-RCC) is a subtype of RCC that is increasingly recognized pathologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of FH-RCC on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), and to determine the pre-operative diagnostic potential of imaging.

Methods: This single-site retrospective study included patients with histologically confirmed FH-RCC or with a renal cancer and known germline FH mutation; imaging of the renal mass before treatment with contrast-enhanced CT, contrast-enhanced MRI, or FDG PET/CT between October 2007 and May 2019. Read More

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February 2021

Middle Pleistocene genome calibrates a revised evolutionary history of extinct cave bears.

Curr Biol 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK.

Palaeogenomes provide the potential to study evolutionary processes in real time, but this potential is limited by our ability to recover genetic data over extended timescales. As a consequence, most studies so far have focused on samples of Late Pleistocene or Holocene age, which covers only a small part of the history of many clades and species. Here, we report the recovery of a low coverage palaeogenome from the petrous bone of a ∼360,000 year old cave bear from Kudaro 1 cave in the Caucasus Mountains. Read More

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February 2021

Endonasal Endoscopic Approach for a Psammomatous Juvenile Active Ossifying Fibroma: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

We present the case of an 18-yr-old female with 4 mo of progressive vision loss in the left eye. She underwent a computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which revealed a large mass in the sphenoid sinus, sella, and anterior cranial fossa. This mass was T1 isointense, with heterogenous enhancement noted on T1 with gadolinium sequences. Read More

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February 2021