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Medical consequences of radiation exposure of the bronchi - what can we learn from high-dose precision radiation therapy?

J Radiol Prot 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Stockholm, SWEDEN.

The bronchial tolerance to high doses of radiation is not fully understood. However, in the event of a radiological accident with unintended exposure of the central airways to high doses of radiation it would be important to be able to anticipate the clinical consequences given the magnitude of the absorbed dose to different parts of the bronchial tree. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a radiation treatment technique involving a few large fractions of photon external-beam radiation delivered to a well-defined target in the body. Read More

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September 2021

Fungal endophthalmitis: Analysis of 730 consecutive eyes from seven tertiary eye care centers in India.

Ophthalmol Retina 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Retina and Vitreous, Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and microbiological features of a large cohort of culture-confirmed fungal endophthalmitis across India.

Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based retrospective medical records review.

Participants: Seven large tertiary eye care centers from different regions of India. Read More

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September 2021

Identification and composition of clasper scent gland components of the butterfly Heliconius erato and its relation to mimicry.

Chembiochem 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Cambridge Central Science Library: University of Cambridge, Department of Zoology, UNITED KINGDOM.

The butterfly Heliconius erato occurs in various mimetic morphs. The male clasper scent gland releases an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone and additionally contains a complex mixture of up to 350 components, varying between individuals. In 114 samples of five different mimicry groups and their hybrids 750 different compounds were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Read More

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September 2021

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of L-glutamate signal central inflammatory neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis.

J Neurochem 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Caserta, Italy.

Excessive extracellular concentrations of L-glutamate (L-Glu) can be neurotoxic and contribute to neurodegenerative processes in multiple sclerosis (MS). The association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) L-Glu levels, clinical features, and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with MS remains unclear. In 179 MS patients (relapsing remitting, RR, n = 157; secondary progressive/primary progressive, SP/PP, n = 22), CSF levels of L-Glu at diagnosis were determined and compared with those obtained in a group of 40 patients with non-inflammatory/non-degenerative disorders. Read More

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September 2021

The impact of green credit on economic growth-The mediating effect of environment on labor supply.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(9):e0257612. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Economics and Management, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The progress of green credit in China is accelerating, but its development is uneven and insufficient in different regions. And whether the issuance of green credit can effectively promote the improvement of the environment and economy is not well understood.

Objective: Previous research has found that green credit promotes economic growth through improvement of the industrial structure and green technological innovation. Read More

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September 2021

The brain-derived neurotrophic factor prompts platelet aggregation and secretion.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep;5(18):3568-3580

Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has both autocrine and paracrine roles in neurons, and its release and signaling mechanisms have been extensively studied in the central nervous system. Large quantities of BDNF have been reported in circulation, essentially stored in platelets with concentrations reaching 100- to 1000-fold those of neurons. Despite this abundance, the function of BDNF in platelet biology has not been explored. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence and Specificity of Chemoreceptor Profiles in Plant-Associated Bacteria.

mSystems 2021 Sep 21:e0095121. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas (CBGP), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) - Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid, Spain.

Chemosensory pathways are among the most abundant prokaryotic signal transduction systems, allowing bacteria to sense and respond to environmental stimuli. Signaling is typically initiated by the binding of specific molecules to the igand inding omain (LBD) of hemoeceptor proteins (CRs). Although CRs play a central role in plant-microbiome interactions such as colonization and infection, little is known about their phylogenetic and ecological specificity. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of B field variation in brain at 3 T using 385 healthy individuals across the lifespan.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Purpose: The transmit field at 3 T in brain affects the spatial uniformity and contrast of most image acquisitions. Here, spatial variation in brain at 3 T is characterized in a large healthy population.

Methods: Bloch-Siegert maps were acquired at 3 T from 385 healthy subjects aged 5-90 years on a single MRI system. Read More

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September 2021

Predictors of Test Positivity, Mortality, and Seropositivity during the Early Coronavirus Disease Epidemic, Orange County, California, USA.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Oct;27(10):2604-2618

We conducted a detailed analysis of coronavirus disease in a large population center in southern California, USA (Orange County, population 3.2 million), to determine heterogeneity in risks for infection, test positivity, and death. We used a combination of datasets, including a population-representative seroprevalence survey, to assess the actual burden of disease and testing intensity, test positivity, and mortality. Read More

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October 2021

Descriptive analysis of MRI functional changes occurring during reduced dose radiotherapy for myxoid liposarcomas.

Br J Radiol 2021 Oct;94(1126):20210310

MRI unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

Objectives: Myxoid liposarcomas (MLS) show enhanced response to radiotherapy due to their distinctive vascular pattern and therefore could be effectively treated with lower radiation doses. This is a descriptive study to explore the use of functional MRI to identify response in a uniform cohort of MLS patients treated with reduced dose radiotherapy.

Methods: 10 patients with MLS were imaged pre-, during, and post-radiotherapy receiving reduced dose radiotherapy and the response to treatment was histopathologically assessed post-radiotherapy. Read More

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October 2021

Integrative analysis of hub genes and key pathway in two subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by bioinformatics and basic experiments.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Sep 21:e23978. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Hematology/Hematological Lab, The Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background: The germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell (ABC) subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have a significant difference in prognosis. This study aimed to identify potential hub genes, and key pathways involved in them.

Methods: Databases including Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and STRING were accessed to obtain potential crucial genes and key pathways associated with the GCB and ABC. Read More

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September 2021

Role of the KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX protein (KD1) in regulating abscission of tomato flower pedicels at early and late stages of the process.

Physiol Plant 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Postharvest Science, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Institute, Israel.

The KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX PROTEIN1 (KD1) gene is highly expressed in flower and leaf abscission zones (AZs), and KD1 was reported to regulate tomato flower pedicel abscission via alteration of the auxin gradient and response in the flower AZ (FAZ). The present work was aimed to further examine how KD1 regulates signaling factors and regulatory genes involved in pedicel abscission, by using silenced KD1 lines and performing a large-scale transcriptome profiling of the FAZ before and after flower removal, using a customized AZ-specific microarray. The results highlighted a differential expression of regulatory genes in the FAZ of KD1-silenced plants compared to the wild type. Read More

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September 2021

Isolation of Highly Purified, Intact, and Functional Mitochondria from Potato Tubers Using a Two-in-One Percoll Density Gradient.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2363:39-50

Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

The isolation of mitochondria from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) is described, but the methodology can easily be adapted to other storage tissues. After homogenization of the tissue, filtration and differential centrifugation, the key step is a Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Read More

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January 2022

A Unique Case of Mantle Cell Lymphoma Masquerading as a Cecal Mass.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2021 10;2021:5581043. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, St Michael's Medical Center, 111 Central Ave, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is a rare and aggressive disease with a poor prognosis due to its advanced presentation at diagnosis. It is characterized by a translocation in the Bcl-1 gene, which results in overexpression of cyclin D1. MCL is frequently seen in the form of multiple lymphomatous polyposis (MLP) in which innumerable polyps are observed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Read More

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September 2021

Prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and threat processing: implications for PTSD.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Posttraumatic stress disorder can be viewed as a disorder of fear dysregulation. An abundance of research suggests that the prefrontal cortex is central to fear processing-that is, how fears are acquired and strategies to regulate or diminish fear responses. The current review covers foundational research on threat or fear acquisition and extinction in nonhuman animals, healthy humans, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, through the lens of the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in these processes. Read More

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September 2021

Prefrontal contributions to the stability and variability of thought and conscious experience.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

The human prefrontal cortex is a structurally and functionally heterogenous brain region, including multiple subregions that have been linked to different large-scale brain networks. It contributes to a broad range of mental phenomena, from goal-directed thought and executive functions to mind-wandering and psychedelic experience. Here we review what is known about the functions of different prefrontal subregions and their affiliations with large-scale brain networks to examine how they may differentially contribute to the diversity of mental phenomena associated with prefrontal function. Read More

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September 2021

Massive methane fluxing from magma-sediment interaction in the end-Triassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 20;12(1):5534. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Lithosphere Fluid Research Lab, Research and Industrial Relations Center, Faculty of Science, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

Exceptional magmatic events coincided with the largest mass extinctions throughout Earth's history. Extensive degassing from organic-rich sediments intruded by magmas is a possible driver of the catastrophic environmental changes, which triggered the biotic crises. One of Earth's largest magmatic events is represented by the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, which was synchronous with the end-Triassic mass extinction. Read More

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September 2021

New scoring systems for predicting advanced proximal neoplasia in asymptomatic adults with or without knowing distal colorectal findings: a prospective, cross-sectional study.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine The Center for Innovation, Health Services Research and Development, Roudebush Virginia Medical Center Regenstrief Institute; Indianapolis, Indiana Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Models estimating risk for advanced proximal colorectal neoplasia (APN) may be used to select colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test, either prior to knowing distal colorectal findings or afterward. Current models have only fair discrimination and nearly all require knowing distal findings.

Objective: Derive and test risk prediction models for APN with and without distal findings. Read More

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September 2021

Role of genetics in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a large cohort study in Chinese mainland population.

J Med Genet 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Neurology, Neurological Diseases and Brain Function Laboratory, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Background: A large number of new causative and risk genes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been identified mostly in patients of European ancestry. In contrast, we know relatively little regarding the genetics of ALS in other ethnic populations. This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the genetics of ALS in an unprecedented large cohort of Chinese mainland population and correlate with the clinical features of rare variants carriers. Read More

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September 2021

Social contexts of fertility desire among non-childbearing young men and women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria.

Reprod Health 2021 Sep 20;18(1):186. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Demography and Population Studies Programme, Schools of Public Health and Social Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Reduction in ideal number of children has been suggested as a necessary precursor for fertility decline especially in high fertility countries of Western and Central Africa. In this study, we explored the social contexts of fertility desires by documenting the effects of individual, household as well as contextual characteristics among young men and women in Nigeria.

Methods: Data source was the male and female recode file of 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Read More

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September 2021

Decentralized facility financing versus performance-based payments in primary health care: a large-scale randomized controlled trial in Nigeria.

BMC Med 2021 Sep 21;19(1):224. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Development Data Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC, 20433, USA.

Background: Health system financing presents a challenge in many developing countries. We assessed two reform packages, performance-based financing (PBF) and direct facility financing (DFF), against each other and business-as-usual for maternal and child healthcare (MCH) provision in Nigeria.

Methods: We sampled 571 facilities (269 in PBF; 302 in DFF) in 52 districts randomly assigned to PBF or DFF, and 215 facilities in 25 observable-matched control districts. Read More

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September 2021

A Bayesian latent class mixture model with censoring for correlation analysis in antimicrobial resistance across populations.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2021 Sep 20;21(1):186. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, United States of America.

Background: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance across populations is a global threat to public health. Surveillance programs often monitor human and animal populations to evaluate trends of emergence in these populations. Many national level antibiotic resistance surveillance programs quantify the proportion of resistant bacteria as a means of monitoring emergence and control measures. Read More

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September 2021

Quantitative accuracy in total-body imaging using the uEXPLORER PET/CT scanner.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Radiology, UC Davis Health System, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3100, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA, Sacramento, California, 95817, UNITED STATES.

Absolute quantification of regional tissue concentration of radioactivity in PET is a critical parameter-of-interest across various clinical and research applications and is affected by a complex interplay of factors including scanner calibration, data corrections, and image reconstruction. The emergence of long AFOV PET systems widens the dynamic range accessible to PET and creates new opportunities in reducing scan time and radiation dose, delayed or low radioactivity imaging, as well as kinetic modeling of the entire human. However, these imaging regimes impose challenging conditions for accurate quantification due to constraints from image reconstruction, low count conditions, as well as large and rapidly changing radioactivity distribution across a large AFOV. Read More

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September 2021

Assessing the causal associations of insomnia with depressive symptoms and subjective well-being: a bidirectional Mendelian randomization study.

Sleep Med 2021 Sep 2;87:85-91. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Background: The interactions and associations between insomnia, depressive symptoms, and subjective well-being are complex, thus it is hard to explore the effect and direction of causalities. This bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) study was to assess the causal associations of insomnia with depressive symptoms and subjective well-being.

Methods: Summary statistics for insomnia, depressive symptoms, and subjective well-being were obtained from three large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of European ancestry. Read More

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September 2021

Response surface approach to optimize the removal of the critical raw material dysprosium from water through living seaweeds.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 17;300:113697. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

LAQV-REQUIMTE - Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Dysprosium (Dy) is a rare earth element with a high economic and strategic value, and simultaneously an emerging contaminant, whose removal from wastewaters is gaining increasing attention. In this work, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) combined with a Box-Behnken Design (3 factors-3 levels) was used to optimize the key operational conditions that influence the uptake of Dy by two living seaweed, Ulva sp. and Gracilaria sp. Read More

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September 2021

Relaxation training with and without Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics for Tourette's disorder: A multiple baseline across participants consecutive case series.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2021 Sep 15;74:101692. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background And Objectives: Behavioral therapies such as the Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) are recommended as the first-line treatment for Tourette's Disorder. This treatment approach is comprised of three central components: habit reversal training, functional assessment/intervention, and relaxation training. Despite its combined efficacy, the contribution of each therapeutic component in CBIT for reducing tic severity remains undetermined. Read More

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September 2021

The chemical composition of the aerial parts essential oil of subsp. (Lamiaceae) growing in Sicily (Italy).

Nat Prod Res 2021 Sep 20:1-5. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF), Università di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

is a small genus of economically important plants belonging to Lamiaceae family whose botanical collocation is quite problematic due to the disagreement among the botanists and the presence in literature of several names and synonyms from different sources. In the present study the chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of subsp. (Strobl) Brullo & Brullo collected in Central Sicily was analyzed by GC-MS. Read More

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September 2021

Codes in Code: AIE Supramolecular Adhesive Hydrogels Store Huge Amounts of Information.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 20:e2105418. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Shenzhen Institute of Molecular Aggregate Science and Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, 2001 Longxiang Boulevard, Longgang District, Shenzhen City, Guangdong, 518172, China.

With the continuous advancement of information technology, the requirements for the information storage capacity of materials are getting higher and higher. However, information code materials usually only store a single piece of information. In order to improve their storage capacity, aggregation-induced emission (AIE) supramolecular adhesive hydrogels with different fluorescent colors are prepared, and a "Codes in Code" method is used to demonstrate the storage capacity for large amounts of information. Read More

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September 2021

The perinatal outcomes of frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer are better than fresh blastocyst transfer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Objectives: Transfer of cryopreserved-warmed blastocysts is common in the practice of in vitro fertilization. The purpose of the study is to examine the available evidence and determine whether cryopreservation of blastocysts and subsequent frozen blastocyst transfer (BT) result in better outcomes than fresh BT.

Material And Methods: Related studies comparing outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles between fresh and frozen BTs were retrieved from Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, EMBASE, DARE, and CINAHL through March 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Disease-associated genetic variants in the regulatory regions of human genes: mechanisms of action on transcription and genomic resources for dissecting these mechanisms.

Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii 2021 Feb;25(1):18-29

Institute of Cytology and Genetics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Whole genome and whole exome sequencing technologies play a very important role in the studies of the genetic aspects of the pathogenesis of various diseases. The ample use of genome-wide and exome-wide association study methodology (GWAS and EWAS) made it possible to identify a large number of genetic variants associated with diseases. This information is accumulated in the databases like GWAS central, GWAS catalog, OMIM, ClinVar, etc. Read More

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February 2021