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Lake Michigan insights from island studies: the roles of chipmunks and coyotes in maintaining Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi in the absence of white-tailed deer.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Jun 6;12(5):101761. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Fisheries and Wildlife Department, Michigan State University, 480 Wilson Rd., East Lansing, MI, USA, 48824; Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 784 Wilson Rd., East Lansing, MI, USA, 48824.

Deer management (e.g., reduction) has been proposed as a tool to reduce the acarological risk of Lyme disease. Read More

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Selecting the Right Criteria and Proper Classification to Diagnose Mast Cell Activation Syndromes: A Critical Review.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy & Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

In recent years, our knowledge about mechanisms underlying mast cell activation (MCA) and accumulation in various pathologic conditions increased substantially. In addition, criteria and a classification of MCA syndromes (MCAS) have been set forth. MCAS is defined by typical clinical symptoms, a substantial increase in serum tryptase level during an attack over the patient´s baseline tryptase, and a response of the symptoms to drugs targeting mast cells, mediator production and/or mediator effects. Read More

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Floodplains landforms, clay deposition and irrigation return flow govern arsenic occurrence, prevalence and mobilization: A geochemical and isotopic study of the mid-Gangetic floodplains.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 21:111516. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Discipline of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar, India. Electronic address:

This article attempts at the evolution of groundwater chemistry in the mid Gangetic plain followed by identification of hydrogeochemical processes that include recharge and geological features. Isotopic investigations identifies that irrigation return flow is partly responsible for arsenic (As) enrichment through preferential vertical recharge. Further, the floodplain geomorphological attributes and associated As hydrogeochemical behaviour traced through isotopes tracers techniques highlighted that meandering, and ox-bow like geomorphological features owing to clay deposition leads to the anoxic condition induced reductive microbial dissolution of As-bearing minerals causing the arsenic contamination in the investigated aquifer of the mid-Gangetic plain (MGP). Read More

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Rates of pregnancy among levonorgestrel and copper intrauterine emergency contraception initiators: implications for backup contraception recommendations.

Contraception 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 30 N 1900 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA.

Objective: This study assessed the timing, frequency, use of backup method and one-month pregnancy rates among individuals who had an intrauterine device (IUD) placed as emergency contraception and reported intercourse within seven days post-placement.

Study Design: In this secondary analysis of a randomized control trial of IUDs for emergency contraception, 518 individuals reporting unprotected intercourse in the preceding five days had a 52mg levonorgestrel intrauterine system (IUS) or 380mm copper IUD placed outside the first week of their menstrual cycle. All participants were advised to use backup contraception for seven days. Read More

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Is Blood Thicker Than Water? Perhaps not Always….

Authors:
S Adil Husain

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

University of Utah School of Medicine, 100 N Mario Capecchi Dr, Suite 220, Salt Lake City, UT 84113. Electronic address:

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Active Rap1-mediated inhibition of choroidal neovascularization requires interactions with IQGAP1 in choroidal endothelial cells.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21642

The John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is a leading cause of blindness. The pathophysiology involves activation of choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) to transmigrate the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) monolayer and form choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the neural retina. The multidomain GTPase binding protein, IQGAP1, binds active Rac1 and sustains activation of CECs, thereby enabling migration associated with vision-threatening CNV. Read More

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Balancing fertility and livelihood diversity in mixed economies.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(6):e0253535. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America.

Mixed economies provide a unique context for testing theories of fertility change. Because they have a stake in two traditions, mixed-economy households balance the demands of both a labor-based subsistence economy, which benefits from a large family, and a wage-labor economy, which benefits from reduced fertility. Additionally, household size changes over the course of its life-cycle and shapes available economic opportunities. Read More

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THE EFFECT OF LEG PREFERENCE ON MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY DURING SINGLE-LEG EXTENSION EXERCISE.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

To investigate how leg preference affects net efficiency (ηnet), we examined central and peripheral hemodynamics, muscle fiber type, activation and force of preferred (PL) and non-preferred (NPL) leg. Our hypothesis was that PL greater efficiency could be explained by adaptations and interactions between central, peripheral factors and force. Fifteen young participants performed single-leg extension exercise at absolute (35W) and relative (50%peak power-output (Wpeak)) workloads with PL and NPL. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Serologic Assays Dependent on Dual-Antigen Binding Demonstrate Diverging Kinetics Relative to Other Antibody Detection Methods.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Jun 24:JCM0123121. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Longitudinal studies assessing durability of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immune response have generated conflicting results. This has been proposed to be due to differences in patient populations, the lack of standardized methodologies, and the use of assays that measure distinct aspects of the humoral response. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were serially measured in sera from a cohort of 44 well-characterized convalescent plasma donors over 120 days post-COVID-19 symptom onset, utilizing eight assays, which varied according to antigen source, the detected antibody isotype, and the activity measured ( binding, blocking, or neutralizing). Read More

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Small artificial waterbodies are widespread and persistent emitters of methane and carbon dioxide.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 756 51, Uppsala, Sweden.

Inland waters play an active role in the global carbon cycle and emit large volumes of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH ) and carbon dioxide (CO ). A considerable body of research has improved emissions estimates from lakes, reservoirs, and rivers but recent attention has been drawn to the importance of small, artificial waterbodies as poorly quantified but potentially important emission hotspots. Of particular interest are emissions from drainage ditches and constructed ponds. Read More

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Integrated ecosystems: linking food webs through reciprocal resource reliance.

Ecology 2021 Jun 24:e03450. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85281, USA.

Ecosystems are defined, studied, and managed according to boundaries constructed to conceptualize patterns of interest at a certain scale and scope. The distinction between ecosystems becomes obscured when resources from multiple origins cross porous boundaries and are assimilated into food webs through repeated trophic transfers. Ecosystem compartments can define bounded localities in a heterogeneous landscape that simultaneously retain and exchange energy in the form of organic matter. Read More

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Draft Genome Sequences of sp. Strain C25 and sp. Strain C78, Acidophiles Isolated from Iron-Rich Pelagic Aggregates (Iron Snow).

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Jun 24;10(25):e0010221. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institute of Biodiversity, Aquatic Geomicrobiology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany.

We report the draft genome sequences of two acidophiles, the Fe-oxidizing bacterium sp. strain C25 and the putative Fe-reducing sp. strain C78. Read More

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Monolayer Iridium Sulfide Halides with High Mobility Transport Anisotropy and Highly Efficient Light Harvesting.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 24:6007-6013. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institute of Physics & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

The discovery and design of two-dimensional semiconductors with high carrier mobilities is of vital importance for high-speed electronic and optoelectronic devices. Herein, based on high-throughput computations, we identify a group of semiconductors, iridium sulfide halides IrSX' (X' = F, Cl, Br, I), with high carrier mobilities (∼10 cm V s) and highly efficient light harvesting (∼34%). Moreover, these materials exhibit anisotropic in-plane transport behavior, which is switchable via ferroelastic switching, providing the monolayer (ML) IrSX's great potential for applications in direction-controlled high-speed electronic and optoelectronic devices. Read More

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Umbilical Cord Drug Screening in Multiple Births: Experience from a Reference Laboratory and Academic Medical Center.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

The objective of this study was to review the results of umbilical cord drug screening in twins and triplets (multiples) to compare drug(s) and/or drug metabolite(s) detected. Results that did not agree between multiples were considered mismatched and were investigated. A retrospective analysis was conducted using de-identified data from a national reference laboratory, and results were compared with data from an academic medical center, where detailed medical chart review was performed. Read More

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Phase IIa Global Study Evaluating Rituximab for the Treatment of Pediatric Patients With Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis or Microscopic Polyangiitis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Roche Products Ltd, Welwyn Garden City, UK.

Objective: To assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of rituximab in pediatric patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA).

Methods: PePRS (Pediatric Polyangiitis Rituximab Study) was a Phase IIa, international, open-label, single-arm study. During the initial 6-month remission induction phase, patients received 4 weekly intravenous rituximab infusions (MabThera/Rituxan ), 375 mg/m body surface area (BSA), and glucocorticoids. Read More

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T cells mediate cell non-autonomous arterial aging in mice.

J Physiol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Key Points: Increased large artery stiffness and impaired endothelium dependent dilation occur with advanced age. We sought to determine whether T cells mechanistically contribute to age-related arterial dysfunction. We found that old mice exhibited greater proinflammatory T cell accumulation around both the aorta and mesenteric arteries. Read More

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A critical review of state-of-the-art electrocoagulation technique applied to COD-rich industrial wastewaters.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Electrocoagulation (EC) is one of the emerging technologies in groundwater and wastewater treatment as it combines the benefits of coagulation, sedimentation, flotation, and electrochemical oxidation processes. Extensive research efforts implementing EC technology have been executed over the last decade to treat chemical oxygen demand (COD)-rich industrial wastewaters with the aim to protect freshwater streams (e.g. Read More

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Inherited Mutations in Men Undergoing Multigene Panel Testing for Prostate Cancer: Emerging Implications for Personalized Prostate Cancer Genetic Evaluation.

JCO Precis Oncol 2017 May 4;1. Epub 2017 May 4.

, , , , , , , , , and , Thomas Jefferson University; , , , , , , and , Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA; and , Myriad Genetics, Salt Lake City, UT.

Purpose: Multigene panels are commercially available for the evaluation of prostate cancer (PCA) predisposition, which necessitates tailored genetic counseling (GC) for men. Here we describe emerging results of Genetic Evaluation of Men, prospective multigene testing study in PCA to inform personalized genetic counseling, with emerging implications for referrals, cancer screening, and precision therapy.

Patients And Methods: Eligibility criteria for men affected by or at high risk for PCA encompass age, race, family history (FH), and PCA stage/grade. Read More

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Umbilical Cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for COVID-19 Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).

CellR4 Repair Replace Regen Reprogram 2020 28;8. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Diabetes Research Institute, Cell Transplant Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is cause of a global pandemic of a pneumonia-like disease termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 presents a high mortality rate, estimated at 3.4%. Read More

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Study design of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of nintedanib in children and adolescents with fibrosing interstitial lung disease.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Apr 21;7(2). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) comprises >200 rare respiratory disorders, with no currently approved therapies and variable prognosis. Nintedanib reduces the rate of forced vital capacity (FVC) decline in adults with progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). We present the design of a multicentre, prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial of nintedanib in patients with fibrosing chILD (1199-0337 or InPedILD; ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder.

Cureus 2021 May 21;13(5):e15146. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of New England, Biddeford, USA.

A 64-year-old Caucasian man with a 20 to 25-pack-year cigarette smoking history presented to his primary care provider with the chief complaint of gross hematuria after experiencing three to four months of urinary frequency and urgency. His workup consisted of laboratory blood work, a renal/bladder ultrasound (US), a CT scan without contrast, cystoscopy with biopsy (with an attempted transurethral resection of bladder tumor), and a PET scan. He was diagnosed with stage T4 small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) shortly after seeking medical care with metastases to the liver, bone, and lymph nodes. Read More

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Combating Diagnostic Delay of Endometriosis in Adolescents via Educational Awareness: A Systematic Review.

Cureus 2021 May 20;13(5):e15143. Epub 2021 May 20.

Medical Education, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Erie, USA.

Endometriosis occurs in approximately 10% of adult women worldwide; however, it is commonly under- or misdiagnosed in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to analyze existing scientific literature for reasons for diagnostic delay of endometriosis and to determine how education regarding endometriosis could be improved. An integrative review was conducted based on articles published between December 1980 and December 2020. Read More

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Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in an Intravenous Drug User With Multiple Needle Fragments in the Neck Arteries.

Neurohospitalist 2021 Jul 16;11(3):272-274. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

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Validation of an adipose-liver human-on-a-chip model of NAFLD for preclinical therapeutic efficacy evaluation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 23;11(1):13159. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, Suite 400, Orlando, FL, 32826, USA.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and strongly correlates with the growing incidence of obesity and type II diabetes. We have developed a human-on-a-chip model composed of human hepatocytes and adipose tissue chambers capable of modeling the metabolic factors that contribute to liver disease development and progression, and evaluation of the therapeutic metformin. This model uses a serum-free, recirculating medium tailored to represent different human metabolic conditions over a 14-day period. Read More

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AsCas12a ultra nuclease facilitates the rapid generation of therapeutic cell medicines.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 23;12(1):3908. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc, Coralville, IA, USA.

Though AsCas12a fills a crucial gap in the current genome editing toolbox, it exhibits relatively poor editing efficiency, restricting its overall utility. Here we isolate an engineered variant, "AsCas12a Ultra", that increased editing efficiency to nearly 100% at all sites examined in HSPCs, iPSCs, T cells, and NK cells. We show that AsCas12a Ultra maintains high on-target specificity thereby mitigating the risk for off-target editing and making it ideal for complex therapeutic genome editing applications. Read More

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Impact of Florida's prescription drug monitoring program on drug- related fatal vehicle crashes: a difference-in-differences approach.

Inj Prev 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Matheson Center for Health Care Studies, University of Utah Health, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Background: Prescription drug use has soared in the USA within the last two decades. Prescription drugs can impair motor skills essential for the safe operation of a motor vehicle, and therefore can affect traffic safety. As one of the epicentres of the opioid epidemic, Florida has been struck by high opioid misuse and overdose rates, and has concurrently suffered major threats to traffic disruptions safety caused by driving under the influence of drugs. Read More

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Mitigation strategies for airborne disease transmission in orchestras using computational fluid dynamics.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 23;7(26). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic forced performing arts groups to cancel shows and entire seasons due to safety concerns for the audience and performers. It is unclear to what extent aerosols generated by wind instruments contribute to exposure because their fate is dependent on the airflow onstage. We use transient, second-order accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and quantitative microbial risk assessment to estimate aerosol concentrations and the associated risk and assess strategies to mitigate exposure in two distinct concert venues. Read More

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A precision medicine classification for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in older patients.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Jun 23;14(1):96. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, 320 West 10th Avenue, Starling Loving Hall B302, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Background: Older patients (≥ 60 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often have multiple, sequentially acquired, somatic mutations that drive leukemogenesis and are associated with poor outcome. Beat AML is a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society-sponsored, multicenter umbrella study that algorithmically segregates AML patients based upon cytogenetic and dominant molecular abnormalities (variant allele frequencies (VAF) ≥ 0.2) into different cohorts to select for targeted therapies. Read More

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