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ADME gene polymorphisms do not influence the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel: Results from a population pharmacokinetic study in Indian cancer patients.

Cancer Med 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, India.

Background: Pharmacokinetics (PK) of docetaxel is characterized by high inter-individual variability (IIV). While covariate models that explain the PK variability of docetaxel exist, not much is known about the effects of genetic variations on docetaxel disposition.

Methods: Fifty patients with head and neck or prostate cancer were enrolled of whom two patients withdrew consent before the start of the study. Read More

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Prevalence and risk factors of peripheral artery disease in a population with chronic kidney disease in Australia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

There is a lack of clarity and guidance for screening peripheral artery disease (PAD) in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage kidney disease (ESKD) despite this group being at excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this current study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence and risk factors for PAD in persons with CKD in Australian cohorts. We used the inverse variance heterogeneity meta-analysis with double arcsine transformation to summarize the prevalence of PAD (with 95% CIs). Read More

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Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Children: An Update to the ESPGHAN Position Paper.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Faculty of Medicine, University Children's Hospital, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia KidZ Health Castle UZ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi"- University of Messina, Italy Al Jalila Children's Specialty Hospital, Dubai, UAE Digestive Endoscopy and Surgery Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital IRCCS, Rome. Italy University Lille, CHU Lille, Infinite U1286, Lille, F-59000, France Children's Hospital Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb Croatia, University J.J. Strossmayer, School of Medicine, Osijek, Croatia Sheffield Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK Université Libre de Bruxelles, Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Belgium University Children's Hospital Basel, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, University of Basel, Switzerland Maternal and Child Health Department, Sapienza, University of Rome, Italy Centro Hospitalar S. João, Porto, Portugal.

Background: The ESPGHAN position paper from 2015 on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) required updating in the light of recent clinical knowledge and data published in medical journals since 2014.

Methods: A systematic review of medical literature from 2014 to 2020 was carried out. Consensus on the content of the manuscript, including recommendations, was achieved by the authors through electronic and virtual means. Read More

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Characterizing the Parental Perspective of Food-Related Quality of Life in Families After Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Diagnosis.

Gastroenterol Nurs 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Kelly Fisher, DCN, RD, CSP, LD, is Assistant Professor of Professional Practice, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas. Laura Byham-Gray, PhD, RD, LD, FNKF, is Professor, Department of Clinical and Preventive Nutrition Sciences, School of Health Professions, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey. Pamela Rothpletz-Puglia, EdD, RD, LD, is Associate Professor, Department of Clinical and Preventive Nutrition Sciences, School of Health Professions, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey.

Food-related quality of life is defined as achieving adequate nutrition, deriving pleasure, and maintaining social activities through eating and drinking. The objective of this qualitative study was to characterize the parental perspective about eating experiences and family functioning after diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in their child in order to describe how these experiences may impact food-related quality of life. Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 parents of a child with inflammatory bowel disease. Read More

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[Long-acting reversible contraception methods in women under 26 years of age].

Semergen 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Departamento de Evaluación y Calidad, Madrid Salud, Madrid, España.

Objectives: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods have proven their high safety and efficacy for pregnancy prevention and they are specially indicated in young and vulnerable population, but their use encounter barriers both between providers and users due to lack of information or to the economic cost. The aim of this study was to assess the use of two LARC methods, intrauterine device (IUD) and implant, in minors under 26 years old after giving an adequate contraceptive advice and subsidizing them in vulnerability situations. To analyze the population that chooses them, the side effects, the reasons for abandoning and the permanence time. Read More

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Racial and ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.

Authors:
John M Carethers

Adv Cancer Res 2021 5;151:197-229. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, and Department of Human Genetics and Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. Electronic address:

The occurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) shows a large disparity among recognized races and ethnicities in the U.S., with Black Americans demonstrating the highest incidence and mortality from this disease. Read More

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Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency in dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: A pilot study in 21 dogs.

Vet J 2021 Jul 16;273:105677. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, via livornese lato monte, San Piero a Grado, 56122, Pisa, Italy.

Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) refers to a lack of adequate corticosteroid activity, which occurs in up to 48% of dogs with sepsis. However, data regarding the occurrence of CIRCI in critically-ill dogs are still scarce. This study aimed to assess: (1) the relationship between CIRCI and clinicopathological inflammatory markers, hypotension and mortality; and (2) the impact of low-dose hydrocortisone treatment on survival. Read More

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Efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation in decreasing depression symptoms during the peripartum period: A systematic review.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 8;140:443-460. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive-Behavior Interventions, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Background: Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques have been suggested as alternative treatments to decrease depression symptoms during the perinatal period. These include brain stimulation techniques that do not require surgery and that are nonpharmacological and non-psychotherapeutic. NIBS with evidence of antidepressant effects include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial electric stimulation (TES) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Read More

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Junior doctor experiences and challenges in obtaining surgical informed consent: A qualitative systematic review & meta-ethnography.

J Surg Res 2021 Jun 16;267:143-150. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

College of Medicine & Dentistry, James Cook University, Australia.

Introduction: Surgical informed consent (SIC) to procedures is necessary to ensure patient autonomy is adequately respected. It is also necessary to protect doctors, and their institutions, from claims of negligence. While SIC is often acquired by senior consultants, it also commonly falls to the junior doctors on a team to ensure SIC is adequately acquired and documented. Read More

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Knowledge Gaps and Perceptions of Future Research Directions on Management of Diabetes during Ramadan Fasting: An Online Survey of Physicians.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jun 16:108923. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Endocrinology and Internal Medicine Department, Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, Monastir, Tunisia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Current knowledge and research on diabetes and Ramadan form the basis for evidence-based clinical practice. In this context, we aimed to explore physicians' perceptions of current knowledge gaps about research fasting (RF), barriers to, and foreseeable directions for advancement of the field.

Methods: We conducted an online survey of a convenience sample of 260 physicians from 27 countries. Read More

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Health Care Providers' Perceived Barriers to Screening for Substance Use During Pregnancy.

Nurs Womens Health 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Objective: To explore health care providers' perceived barriers to conducting standardized screening processes for substance use during pregnancy.

Design: Descriptive survey.

Setting/local Problem: A health system in the northwestern United States where there was a lack of consistent substance use screening in prenatal clinics. Read More

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An Initial Preparation for Human Cadaveric Dissection Ameliorates the Associated Mental Distress in Students.

Anat Sci Educ 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

School of Occupational Therapy, College of Health Sciences, Husson University, Bangor.

It is universally recognized that cadaveric dissection is an essential part of anatomy training. However, it has been reported to induce mental distress in some students and impair their intrinsic motivation to study. One of the postulated reasons for this behavior is the lack of adequate information and preparation of students for cadaveric dissection. Read More

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Applications of simple and accessible methods for meta-analysis involving rare events: A simulation study.

Stat Methods Med Res 2021 Jun 17:9622802211022385. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) School for Primary Care Research, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Meta-analysis of clinical trials targeting rare events face particular challenges when the data lack adequate number of events and are susceptible to high levels of heterogeneity. The standard meta-analysis methods (DerSimonian Laird (DL) and Mantel-Haenszel (MH)) often lead to serious distortions because of such data sparsity. Applications of the methods suited to specific incidence and heterogeneity characteristics are lacking, thus we compared nine available methods in a simulation study. Read More

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Assessment of dietary habits and the adequacy of dietary intake of patients with cirrhosis-the KIRRHOS study.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 7;40(6):3992-3998. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, School of Health Sciences and Education, Harokopio University, 70 El.Venizelou Ave, 176 71, Kallithea, Greece. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Undernutrition is widely prevalent in patients with cirrhosis and affects prognosis. Given the lack of data regarding the dietary intake (DI) and habits of patients with cirrhosis, the aim of the present study was to evaluate them by assessing diet's adequacy compared to the new guidelines, and the association of DI with nutritional status indicators.

Methods: One hundred and eighty-seven patients (57. Read More

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Is a flick-through enough? A content analysis of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) user manuals.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(6):e0252688. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Centre for Accident Research & Road Safety-Queensland (CARRS-Q), Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Kelvin Grove, QLD, Australia.

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are being developed and installed in increasing numbers. Some of the most popular ADAS include blind spot monitoring and cruise control which are fitted in the majority of new vehicles sold in high-income countries. With more drivers having access to these technologies, it is imperative to develop policy and strategies to guarantee the safe uptake of ADAS. Read More

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Psychometric Properties of a Vaccine Hesitancy Scale Adapted for COVID-19 Vaccination Among People with HIV.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1400 NW 10th AVE, Miami, Fl, 33136, USA.

We evaluated the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (VHS) among people with HIV (PWH) for COVID-19 vaccination in a cross-sectional study in the US. Self-report data from an online questionnaire were collected from a sample of N = 175 PWH. Participants were surveyed in English or Spanish regarding attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination using the adapted VHS. Read More

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The Indigenous Peoples in time of a global pandemic.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Theology and Religious Education, De La Salle University, Manila 1004, Philippines.

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a grave threat to Indigenous Peoples (IPs) around the world. In a recent correspondence, the author explores the vulnerabilities at the local level during COVID-19. IPs experience a high degree of socio-economic marginalization and are at disproportionate risk in public health emergencies, becoming even more vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic, owing to factors such as their lack of access to effective monitoring and early-warning systems, and adequate health and social services. Read More

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Living with albinism in an African community: exploring the challenges of persons with albinism in Lilongwe District, Malawi.

Heliyon 2021 May 12;7(5):e07034. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Social Work University of Ghana, Ghana.

Background: Albinism is a genetic condition caused by a deficit in the production of the pigment called melanin, which protects the skin against ultraviolet light and provides the skin with its color production. The condition may predispose persons with albinism (PWAs) to lifelong physical and health problems, such as visual impairment and ultra-violet induced skin damage. Due to this condition, we explored the challenges faced by persons living with albinism as they socialize in Lilongwe District, Malawi. Read More

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Popliteal artery patency is an indicator of ambulation and healing after below-knee amputation in vasculopaths.

Vascular 2021 Jun 16:17085381211026498. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Center for Wound Healing and Hyperbaric Medicine, 71541MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: The posterior flap is a conventional technique for closing a below-knee amputation (BKA) that uses the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle and relies on the popliteal and posterior compartment arteries. If the prior mentioned arterial blood supply is compromised, this flap likely relies on collateral flow. The purpose of this study is to identify and differentiate any significant associations between preoperative popliteal and tibial arterial flow and BKA outcomes and patient-reported function. Read More

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Measuring geospatial healthcare access to primary level facilities in Mexico: a GIS-based diagnosis analysis.

Cien Saude Colet 2021 14;26(suppl 1):2471-2482. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud. Ciudad de México México.

To describe a general overview of health services delivery in Mexico and geospatially analyze the current distribution and accessibility of Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities to contribute to new approaches to improve healthcare planning in Mexico. We performed a spatial analysis of official data to analyze current distances from health facilities to population, to determine the underserved areas of health services delivery in three selected states using a ranking of indicators. We estimated service area coverage of PHC facilities with road networks of three Mexican states (Chiapas, Guerrero, and Oaxaca). Read More

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Natural Substances in the Fight of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Evaluation Resulting from the Cross-Fertilization of Molecular Modeling Data with the Pharmacological Aspects.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e della Salute, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy.

The recent pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2, the last isolated human beta-coronavirus, has revolutionized modern knowledge of the pathogenesis of viral pneumonia. The lack of specific antiviral drugs and the need to develop adequate research for new antiviral drugs capable of treating this new form of the disease undertook three different research paths quickly. The first one is aimed to test antiviral molecules already present in therapeutic use, with a mechanism of an action directed towards viral proteins functional to replication or adsorption; the second one, it is the repositioning of molecules with known pharmacological activity for which various chemistry studies have been prepared in an attempt to find new and specific viral targets; the third, it is the search for molecules of natural origin for which to demonstrate a specific anti-coronavirus activity. Read More

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Exploring the ecological and evolutionary relationships between Rickettsia and hard ticks in the Neotropical region.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Jun 4;12(5):101754. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, Cidade Universitária. São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.

This study addresses a meta-analysis of the distribution of Rickettsia spp. in the Neotropical region, as well as their associations with ticks and vertebrates. A total of 219 published reports on Rickettsia in ticks in the target region were compiled, providing 599 records of 31 species of Rickettsia recorded in 50 species of Ixodidae. Read More

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Point-of-care Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Catheter Confirmation in Ultrasound Nonexperts.

AEM Educ Train 2021 Jul 13;5(3):e10530. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

the Department of Emergency Medicine Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis MO USA.

Objective: Emerging evidence suggests that chest radiography (CXR) following central venous catheter (CVC) placement is unnecessary when point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is used to confirm catheter position and exclude pneumothorax. However, few providers have adopted this practice, and it is unknown what contributing factors may play a role in this lack of adoption, such as ultrasound experience. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of POCUS to confirm CVC position and exclude a pneumothorax after brief education and training of nonexperts. Read More

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Rational use of PPE and preventing PPE related skin damage.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1547-1553. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

COVID-19 Committee Members: Director and CEO, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Basni, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

On 31 December, 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared in Wuhan, China. On 24 March 2020, there was a nationwide lockdown for 21 days, followed by Janata curfew on 22 March. As the pandemic has developed and spread across continents, everyone including policy makers have realized shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as N95 respirators, coverall, and face shields. Read More

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Comparison of Challenges and Problems Encountered in the Practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding by Primiparous and Multiparous Women in Rural Areas of Sindh, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Cureus 2021 May 12;13(5):e14976. Epub 2021 May 12.

Indus Hospital Research Center, The Indus Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction: The UNICEF (United Nations International Children Education Fund) and WHO (World Health Organization) recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of life. EBF is considered to be an important practice for enhancing infant health and wellbeing. Breastfeeding offers a wide range of psychological and physical health benefits in the long-term and short-term for young children, infants, and mothers. Read More

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Paediatrics: how to manage acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Drugs Context 2021 1;10. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics, The University of Calgary and The Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity amongst critically ill children. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an up-to-date review on the evaluation and management of paediatric ARDS (PARDS).

Methods: A PubMed search was performed with Clinical Queries using the key term "acute respiratory distress syndrome". Read More

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Case Report: Combined Intra-Lesional IL-2 and Topical Imiquimod Safely and Effectively Clears Multi-Focal, High Grade Cutaneous Squamous Cell Cancer in a Combined Liver and Kidney Transplant Patient.

Front Immunol 2021 27;12:678028. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax Regional Municipality, NS, Canada.

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer worldwide, with ever increasing incidence and mortality. While most patients can be treated successfully with surgical excision, cryotherapy, or radiation therapy, there exist a subset of patients with aggressive cSCC who lack adequate therapies. Among these patients are solid organ transplant recipients who due to their immunosuppression, develop cSCC at a dramatically increased rate compared to the normal population. Read More

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Effectiveness of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Gait in Parkinson Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Holist Nurs Pract 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

SC Educational, Research and Organization, ATS Sardegna, Sassari, Italy (Dr Burrai); Carlo Chenis Hospice, Local Health Authority, ASL Roma 4, Civitavecchia, Italy (Mr Apuzzo); and Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy (Dr Zanotti).

Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disease present in approximately 2% of the population older than 65 years. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in the early 1990s aimed to improve individual mobility in terms of gait speed, stride length, and cadence. Our systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize and evaluate the evidence of the effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait speed, stride length, and cadence in patients with Parkinson disease. Read More

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Perioperative clinical trials for glioma: Raising the bar.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jul 11;89:144-150. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia; Cancer Biology and Stem Cells Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Gliomas are a heterogeneous group of primary brain cancers with poor survival despite multimodality therapy that includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Numerous clinical trials have investigated systemic therapies in glioma, but have largely been negative. Multiple factors have contributed to the lack of progress including tumour heterogeneity, the tumour micro-environment and presence of the blood-brain barrier, as well as extrinsic factors relating to trial design, such as the lack of a contemporaneous biopsy at the time of treatment. Read More

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A survey on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and concern among Malaysians.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 12;21(1):1129. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Vaccination is an effective way to curtail the burden of COVID-19 in which success depends on a high acceptance of the vaccine. However, addressing concerns among vaccine-hesitant individuals is essential to avoid failure of the immunisation programme. This study sought to assess the concerns and acceptance rates regarding the COVID-19 vaccine among Malaysians. Read More

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