72,638 results match your criteria key molecules

Role of pyroptosis in diabetic retinopathy and its therapeutic implications.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 9:174166. Epub 2021 May 9.

Molecular Pharmacology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Pyroptosis has recently been established as a term of programmed-inflammatory cell death. Pyroptosis is mainly divided into two molecular signaling pathways, including caspase-1-dependent canonical and caspase-4/5/11-dependent non-canonical inflammasome pathways. Extensive investigations have reported inflammasome activation facilitates the maturation and secretion of the inflammatory factors interleukin-1β/18 (IL-1β/18), cleavage of gasdermin D (GSDMD), and leading to the stimulation of pyroptosis-mediated cell death. Read More

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Large-scale analysis of 2,152 Ig-seq datasets reveals key features of B cell biology and the antibody repertoire.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109110

Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Rd., Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Antibody repertoire sequencing enables researchers to acquire millions of B cell receptors and investigate these molecules at the single-nucleotide level. This power and resolution in studying humoral responses have led to its wide applications. However, most of these studies were conducted with a limited number of samples. Read More

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microRNA-132 as a negative regulator in NF-κB signaling pathway via targeting IL-1β in miiuy croaker.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 May 9:104113. Epub 2021 May 9.

Laboratory of Fish Molecular Immunology, College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; Laboratory of Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China; Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources (Shanghai Ocean University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China; National Pathogen Collection Center for Aquatic Animals, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The innate immune system is the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens. It can make a rapid immune response to the invading pathogenic microorganisms, thereby eliminating the invading pathogens and protecting the body from harm. microRNAs are a family of small non-coding ribonucleic acid molecules, which are important and multifunctional regulator of immune response. Read More

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Ligand-Controlled Regiodivergent Nickel-Catalyzed Hydrocyanation of Silyl-Substituted 1,3-Diynes.

Org Lett 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Shanghai Key Laboratory for Molecular Engineering of Chiral Drugs, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China.

A regiodivergent nickel-catalyzed hydrocyanation of 1-aryl-4-silyl-1,3-diynes is reported. When appropriate bisphosphine and phosphine-phosphite ligands are applied, the same starting materials can be converted into two different enynyl nitriles with good yields and high regioselectivities. The DFT calculations unveiled that the structural features of different ligands bring divergent alkyne insertion modes, which in turn lead to different regioselectivities. Read More

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Carbene-Catalyzed Atroposelective Annulation and Desymmetrization of Urazoles.

Org Lett 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Guizhou University, Huaxi District, Guiyang 550025, China.

An NHC-catalyzed atroposelective reaction between ynals and urazoles is disclosed. The reaction establishes a chiral C-N axis via an atroposelective [3 + 2] annulation/desymmetrization process. Our reaction allows efficient access to axially chiral and heteroatom-rich urazole derivatives with potential applications in bioactive molecules and catalysis. Read More

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Aminoalkoxycarbonyloxymethyl Ether Prodrugs with a pH-Triggered Release Mechanism: A Case Study Improving the Solubility, Bioavailability, and Efficacy of Antimalarial 4(1)-Quinolones with Single Dose Cures.

J Med Chem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, CHE 205, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, Florida 33620, United States.

Preclinical and clinical development of numerous small molecules is prevented by their poor aqueous solubility, limited absorption, and oral bioavailability. Herein, we disclose a general prodrug approach that converts promising lead compounds into aminoalkoxycarbonyloxymethyl (amino AOCOM) ether-substituted analogues that display significantly improved aqueous solubility and enhanced oral bioavailability, restoring key requirements typical for drug candidate profiles. The prodrug is completely independent of biotransformations and animal-independent because it becomes an active compound via a pH-triggered intramolecular cyclization-elimination reaction. Read More

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Vascular Sema3E-Plexin-D1 Signaling Reactivation Promotes Post-stroke Recovery through VEGF Downregulation in Mice.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Neurovascular Biology Laboratory, Neurovascular Unit Research Group, Korea Brain Research Institute, Daegu, 41062, Republic of Korea.

Post-stroke vascular remodeling, including angiogenesis, facilitates functional recovery. Proper vascular repair is important for efficient post-stroke recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms coordinating the diverse signaling pathways involved in vascular remodeling remain largely unknown. Recently, axon guidance molecules were revealed as key players in injured vessel remodeling. Read More

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Immobilization of cellulase on monolith supported with Zr(IV)-based metal-organic framework as chiral stationary phase for enantioseparation of five basic drugs in capillary electrochromatography.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 May 12;188(6):186. Epub 2021 May 12.

Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance (Ministry of Education), China Pharmaceutical University, No.24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009, People's Republic of China.

Metal-organic framework (UiO-66-NH)-incorporated organic polymer monolith was prepared by thermal polymerization. By virtue of the superior physical and chemical properties, the UiO-66-NH-modified organic monolith was then functionalized by chiral selector cellulase via the condensation reaction between the primary amino groups and aldehyde groups. The synthesized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and nitrogen sorption isotherm. Read More

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Structure and folding of four putative kink turns identified in structured RNA species in a test of structural prediction rules.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Cancer Research UK Nucleic Acid Structure Research Group, MSI/WTB Complex, The University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.

k-Turns are widespread key architectural elements that occur in many classes of RNA molecules. We have shown previously that their folding properties (whether or not they fold into their tightly kinked structure on addition of metal ions) and conformation depend on their local sequence, and we have elucidated a series of rules for prediction of these properties from sequence. In this work, we have expanded the rules for prediction of folding properties, and then applied the full set to predict the folding and conformation of four probable k-turns we have identified amongst 224 structured RNA species found in bacterial intergenenic regions by the Breaker lab (1). Read More

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Redox-related gene expression and sugar accumulation patterns are altered in the edible inflorescence produced by the cultivated form of pacaya palm (Chamaedorea tepejilote).

Ann Bot 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR DIADE, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background And Aims: The pacaya palm is a dioecious neotropical palm species that is exploited in Latin America for its male inflorescence which is edible when immature. It is cultivated, in a non-intensive manner, in Guatemala, where a morphotype occurs that produces much larger, more highly branched inflorescences compared to wild palms. We sought to identify molecular factors underlying this phenotypic divergence, which is likely to be a product of domestication. Read More

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Leep1 interacts with PIP3 and the Scar/WAVE complex to regulate cell migration and macropinocytosis.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jul 12;220(7). Epub 2021 May 12.

National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Polarity is essential for diverse functions in many cell types. Establishing polarity requires targeting a network of specific signaling and cytoskeleton molecules to different subregions of the cell, yet the full complement of polarity regulators and how their activities are integrated over space and time to form morphologically and functionally distinct domains remain to be uncovered. Here, by using the model system Dictyostelium and exploiting the characteristic chemoattractant-stimulated translocation of polarly distributed molecules, we developed a proteomic screening approach, through which we identified a leucine-rich repeat domain-containing protein we named Leep1 as a novel polarity regulator. Read More

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Manganese-Mediated Direct Functionalization of Hantzsch Esters with Alkyl Iodides via an Aromatization-Dearomatization Strategy.

Org Lett 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.

We report, for the first time, manganese-mediated direct functionalization of the Hantzsch esters with readily accessible alkyl iodides through an aromatization-dearomatization strategy. Applying this protocol, a library of valuable 4-alkyl-1,4-dihydropyridines were facilely afforded in good yields. This simple and practical reaction proceeds under visible-light irradiation at room temperature and displays high functional-group compatibility. Read More

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Precise Identification of the Dimethyl Sulfoxide Triggered Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) Dimer for Releasing CO.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 12:4658-4665. Epub 2021 May 12.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) can play vital roles in pharmacological and physiological functions in the human body. The transition-metal carbonyl complexes of the tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) dimer [Ru(CO)Cl (CORM-2)] were proposed as CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) to improve the delivery efficiency of CO for therapeutic effects. The accurate identification of final products for CORMs in solution and the detailed mechanisms of the release of CO were the essential prerequisite for its effective physiological application, which have been deficient. Read More

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Ionosomes: Observation of Ionic Bilayer Water Clusters.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 9190401, Israel.

Emulsification of immiscible two-phase fluids, i.e., one condensed phase dispersed homogeneously as tiny droplets in an outer continuous medium, plays a key role in medicine, food, chemical separations, cosmetics, fabrication of micro- and nanoparticles and capsules, and dynamic optics. Read More

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Scalable Fabrication of Kevlar/TiCT MXene Intelligent Wearable Fabrics with Multiple Sensory Capabilities.

ACS Nano 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, P. R. China.

Fiber-based wearable electronics are highly desirable for wearable devices that are expected to be lightweight, easily prepared, durable, flexible, washable, and conformable. However, developing fiber-based fabric electronics to simulate human perceptual systems or even transcend the sensory capabilities of natural creatures is still a pivotal challenge. Herein, we present a Kevlar/MXene (KM) intelligent wearable fabric with multiple sensory capabilities using an ingenious strategy of continuous wet-spinning. Read More

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Silver-incorporating peptide and protein supramolecular nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

J Mater Chem B 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. and Center for Mesoscience, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

The natural biomolecules of peptides and proteins are able to form elegant metal incorporating supramolecular nanomaterials through multiple weak non-covalent interactions. The use of toxic chemical reagents to fabricate silver nanoparticles poses a danger to apply them in various biomedical applications. Peptide and protein biomolecules have the potential to overcome this barrier by the supramolecular chemistry approach. Read More

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Chemical components and chain-length distributions affecting quinoa starch digestibility and gel viscoelasticity after germination treatment.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):4060-4071

School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China.

A germination treatment was explored in this study as a green strategy to reduce the in vitro starch digestibility of cooked quinoa. The alterations of chemical compositions, starch chain-length distributions (CLDs) and rheological characteristics of quinoa flours after the germination treatment were characterized. Results showed that a significant alteration of amylose CLDs and the starch digestibility was observed for cooked quinoa flours after different germination times. Read More

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Proximity-induced exponential amplification reaction triggered by proteins and small molecules.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(38):4714-4717

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biosensing and Molecular Recognition, Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry, and School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P. R. China.

We proposed a method to regulate nucleic acid polymerization by proximity and designed an ultrasensitive biosensor based on proximity-induced exponential amplification reaction for proximity assay of proteins (streptavidin) and small molecules (adenosine triphosphate), which allows us to detect a variety of interesting targets by simply changing the binding sites of DNA. Read More

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A nano-integrated microfluidic biochip for enzyme-based point-of-care detection of creatinine.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(38):4726-4729

Division of Physical Biology, CAS Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, P. R. China. and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, P. R. China.

A nano-integrated portable enzymatic microfluidic electrochemical biochip was developed for single-step point-of-care testing of creatinine. The biochip could automatically eliminate a lot of interferences from practical biological samples and enzymatic intermediate products. Gold nanostructure- and carbon nanotube-based screen-printed carbon electrodes were integrated into microfluidic structures to improve the detection performance for creatinine. Read More

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Efficient and gentle delivery of molecules into cells with different elasticity Progressive Mechanoporation.

Lab Chip 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light & Max-Planck-Zentrum für Physik und Medizin, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.

Intracellular delivery of cargo molecules such as membrane-impermeable proteins or drugs is crucial for cell treatment in biological and medical applications. Recently, microfluidic mechanoporation techniques have enabled transfection of previously inaccessible cells. These techniques create transient pores in the cell membrane by shear-induced or constriction contact-based rapid cell deformation. Read More

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Computational and experimental insights on the interaction of artemisinin, dihydroartemisinin and chloroquine with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD).

Nat Prod Res 2021 May 12:1-6. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

The mechanism of host cell invasion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 SARS-CoV-2 is connected with the interaction of spike protein (S) with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through receptor-binding domain (RBD). Small molecules targeting this assembly are being investigated as drug candidates to contrast SARS-CoV-2. In this context, chloroquine, an antimalarial agent proposed as a repurposed drug to treat coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), was hypothesized to bind RBD among its other mechanisms. Read More

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Control of Multicolor and White Emission by Triplet Energy Transfer.

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

A new strategy by manipulating the progress of triplet energy transfer (TET) is developed to realize adjustable multicolor and pure white emission. Donor phosphorescent molecules emits light when encapsulated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) through hydrogen bond interactions, and acceptor fluorescent molecules emits light when doped into PVA through cation-π interactions and hydrogen bond interactions. In addition, the triplet to singlet energy transfer process and mechanism are proved using the energy diagram and lifetime. Read More

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Ultrasensitive Vibrational Imaging of Retinoids by Visible Preresonance Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 05 8;8(9):2003136. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering Boston University Boston MA 02215 USA.

High-sensitivity chemical imaging offers a window to decipher the molecular orchestra inside a living system. Based on vibrational fingerprint signatures, coherent Raman scattering microscopy provides a label-free approach to map biomolecules and drug molecules inside a cell. Yet, by near-infrared (NIR) pulse excitation, the sensitivity is limited to millimolar concentration for endogenous biomolecules. Read More

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Metal-organic framework membranes with single-atomic centers for photocatalytic CO and O reduction.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2682. Epub 2021 May 11.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, PKU-HKU Joint Laboratory in Rare Earth Materials and Bioinorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, P. R. China.

The demand for sustainable energy has motivated the development of artificial photosynthesis. Yet the catalyst and reaction interface designs for directly fixing permanent gases (e.g. Read More

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Metal enhanced chemiluminescence nanosensor for ultrasensitive bioassay based on silver nanoparticles modified functional DNA dendrimer.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jun 21;1165:338541. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

A novel metal enhanced chemiluminescence (MEC) nanosensor was developed for ultrasensitive biosensing and imaging, based on functional DNA dendrimer (FDD), proximity-dependent DNAzyme and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The FDD containing two split G-quadruplex structures was prepared through an enzyme-free and step-by-step assembly strategy, and then reacted with AgNPs and hemin molecules to form the FDD/hemin/AgNPs facilely. Such a MEC nanosensor consisted of three modules: FDD (scaffold), the generated G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme (signal reporter) and AgNPs (chemiluminescence enhancer). Read More

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Molecular cloning of duck CD40 and its immune function research.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 11;100(6):101100. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, People's Republic of China.

Cosignal molecules are cell surface molecules that transduce signals to other cells to modulate immune response positively (costimulate) or negatively (cosuppress). Costimulatory signals are key factors in determining whether T/B cells are capable of responding to specific antigens and ultimately mediating an appropriate immune response. In this study, the cDNA sequence containing the complete coding frame of the costimulatory molecule duck CD40 gene was cloned and reported for the first time, and its mediated antiviral innate immune was verified in vitro. Read More

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Changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cells, and IL-6 and IL-10 levels predict response of pediatric medulloblastoma and germ cell tumors with residual or disseminated disease to craniospinal irradiation.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Radiotherapy modulates immune cells and cytokines resulting in both clinically beneficial and detrimental effects. The changes in peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines during radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors and the association of these changes with therapeutic outcomes have not been well described.

Methods And Materials: The study population consisted of children (n=83, ages 3∼18) with primary brain tumors (medulloblastoma, glioma, germ cell tumors, and CNS embryonal tumor-NOS), with or without residual or disseminated (R/D) diseases who were starting standard post-operative focal or craniospinal-irradiation (CSI). Read More

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A Bubble-Assisted Approach for Patterning Nanoscale Molecular Aggregates.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Organic Solid Laboratory, No.2,1st North Street,Zhongguancun, 100190, Beijing, CHINA.

We demonstrate a new approach to pattern functional organic molecules with a template of foams, and achieve a resolution of sub 100 nm. The bubble-assisted assembly (BAA) process is consisted of two periods, including bubble evolution and molecular assembly, which are dominated by the Laplace pressure and molecular interactions, respectively. Using TPPS (meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin), we systematically investigate the patterns and assembly behaviour in the bubble system with a series of characterizations, which show good uniformity in nanoscale resolution. Read More

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Comprehensive plasma metabolomic and lipidomic analyses reveal potential biomarkers for heart failure.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Cardiology and Institute of Vascular Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, No. 49, Hua Yuan North Rd, Hai Dian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Heart failure is a syndrome with symptoms or signs caused by cardiac dysfunction. In clinic, four stages (A, B, C, and D) were used to describe heart failure progression. This study was aimed to explore plasma metabolomic and lipidomic profiles in different HF stages to identify potential biomarkers. Read More

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QSAR analysis of 3-pyrimidin-4-yl-oxazolidin-2-one derivatives isocitrate dehydrogenase inhibitors using Topomer CoMFA and HQSAR methods.

Mol Divers 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, 710021, China.

A series of mIDH1 inhibitors derived from 3-pyrimidine-4-oxazolidin-2-ketone derivatives were studied by QSAR model to explore the key factors that inhibit mIDH1 activity. The generated model was cross-verified and non-cross-verified by Topomer CoMFA and HQSAR methods; the independent test set was verified by PLS method; the Topomer search technology was used for virtual screening and molecular design; and the Surflex-Dock method and ADMET technology were used for molecular docking, pharmacology and toxicity prediction of the designed drug molecules. The Topomer CoMFA and HQSAR cross-validation coefficients q are 0. Read More

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