40,493 results match your criteria key issues

Recent progress of electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction in fuel cells.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 6;607(Pt 1):791-815. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has gradually been in the limelight in recent years because of its great application potential for fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Therefore, significant issues are increasingly focused on developing effective and economical ORR electrocatalysts. This review begins with the reaction mechanisms and theoretical calculations of ORR in acidic and alkaline media. Read More

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September 2021

Environmental contamination and human exposure of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in China: A review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 11;805:150270. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Wastes Pollution Control and Recycling, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), together with 11 other organic compounds, were initially listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention because of their potential threat to ecosystems and humans. In China, many monitoring studies have been undertaken to reveal the level of PCBs in environment since 2005 due to the introduced stricter environmental regulations. However, there are still significant gaps in understanding the overall spatial and temporal distributions of PCBs in China. Read More

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September 2021

Prehabilitation services for people diagnosed with cancer in Scotland - Current practice, barriers and challenges to implementation.

Surgeon 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Professor of Public Health Nutrition, Centre for Research Into Cancer Prevention and Screening, Level 7, Mailbox 7, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, DD1 9SY, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Prehabilitation is the practice of enhancing a patient's functional and psychological capacity before treatment commences. It is of interest in the cancer context because of the impact of treatments on quality of life and cancer survivorship. This work aims to document current practice, barriers and challenges to implementing prehabilitation to inform the development of a national framework. Read More

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September 2021

Optimisation of airway management strategies: a prospective before-and-after study on events related to airway management.

Br J Anaesth 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Anaesthesia, University Children's Hospital Zurich - Eleonore Foundation, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Poor medical outcomes often result from series of minor events. The present study assessed events related to airway management to determine whether targeted changes to departmental strategies for airway management can reduce the incidence.

Methods: This prospective before-and-after study was performed with ethics committee approval and written informed consent from patients. Read More

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September 2021

Two novelty learning models developed based on deep cascade forest to address the environmental imbalanced issues: A case study of drinking water quality prediction.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 11;291:118153. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

School of Environment, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Exposure and Health, And Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510632, China.

Environmental quality data sets are typically imbalanced, because environmental pollution events are rarely observed in daily life. Prediction of imbalanced data sets is a major challenge in machine learning. Our recent work has shown deep cascade forest (DCF), as a base learning model, is promising to be recommended for environmental quality prediction. Read More

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September 2021

Provider perceptions of lack of supportive care during childbirth: A mixed methods study in Kenya.

Health Care Women Int 2021 Sep 17:1-22. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

UCSF Institute for Global Health Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA.

Supportive care is a key component of person-centered maternity care (PCMC), and includes aspects such as timely and attentive care, pain control, and the health facility environment. Yet, few researchers have explored the degree of supportive care delivered or providers' perceptions on supportive care practices during childbirth. The researchers' aim is to evaluate the extent of supportive care provided to women during childbirth and to identify the drivers behind the lack of supportive care from the perspective of maternity providers in a rural county in Western Kenya. Read More

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September 2021

A Novel Tin-Bonded Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, P. R. China.

Poor cyclic stability and low rate performance due to dramatic volume change and low intrinsic electronic conductivity are the two key issues needing to be urgently solved in silicon (Si)-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries. Herein, a novel tin (Sn)-bonded Si anode is proposed for the first time. Sn, which has a high electronic conductivity, is used to bond the Si-anode material and copper (Cu) current collector together using a hot-pressed method with a temperature slightly above the melting point of Sn. Read More

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September 2021

Pre-Appointment Nurse Navigation: Patient-Centered Findings From a Survey of Patients With Breast Cancer.

Clin J Oncol Nurs 2021 Oct;25(5):E57-E62

University of California, San Francisco.

Background: Research indicates that nurse navigators can play key roles in promoting empowerment for patients with cancer through advocacy, educational support, resource navigation, and psychosocial care.

Objectives: This study attempted to elucidate the efficacy of nurse navigation in patient knowledge, care coordination, and well-being before a breast oncology appointment.

Methods: Staff provided a nine-question survey to 50 newly referred patients before their initial appointment. Read More

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October 2021

Applications of blockchain in the medical field: A narrative review.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Dadao, Wuhan, CN.

Background: As a distributed technology, blockchain has attracted increasing attention from stakeholders in the medical industry. Although previous studies have analysed blockchain applications from the perspectives of technology, business or patient care, few studies have focused on actual use-case scenarios of blockchain in healthcare. In particular, the outbreak of COVID-19 has led to some new ideas for the application of blockchain in medical practice. Read More

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September 2021

The development of autoverification system of lymphocyte subset assays on the flow cytometry platform.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

NHC Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology (China Medical University), National Clinical Research Center for Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, P. R. China.

Objectives: Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets are important parameters for monitoring immune status; however, lymphocyte subset detection is time-consuming and error-prone. This study aimed to explore a highly efficient and clinically useful autoverification system for lymphocyte subset assays performed on the flow cytometry platform.

Methods: A total of 94,402 lymphocyte subset test results were collected. Read More

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September 2021

Characteristics of, and natural history among, individuals with Rome IV functional bowel disorders.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Sep 16:e14268. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Leeds Institute of Medical Research at St. James's, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Background: Little is known about the natural history of functional bowel disorders using Rome IV criteria. We examined these issues in a longitudinal follow-up study.

Methods: We collected complete demographic, gastrointestinal symptom, and psychological comorbidity data at baseline from 1372 adults who met Rome IV criteria for one of the five functional bowel disorders. Read More

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September 2021

Association of high adherence to vegetables and fruits dietary pattern with quality of life among Chinese women with early-stage breast cancer.

Qual Life Res 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Purpose: Dietary intake and patients' quality of life (QoL) are important supportive care issues in breast cancer survivorship. This study aimed to identify dietary pattern before and after breast cancer diagnosis. In addition, the association between dietary patterns and QoL were cross-sectionally and longitudinally investigated. Read More

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September 2021

Gaps in the civil registration and vital statistics systems of low- and middle-income countries and the health sector's role in improving the situation.

Glob Health Med 2021 Aug;3(4):243-245

National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS) is an essential administrative system that provides legal identification to all individuals and accurate statistical data of vital events, such as birth and death rates within the population. Globally, CRVS has been considered a priority issue, especially for low- and middle-income countries where the coverage of this system is poor. This may be attributed to factors such as inefficiency of laws, poor inter-ministerial cooperation, and a lack of awareness among people. Read More

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[The European ADVANTAGE experience for management of frailty: keys to its applicability in Latin AmericaA experiência europeia ADVANTAGE para manejo da fragilidade: apontamentos para sua aplicabilidade na América Latina].

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2021 13;45:e107. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Servicio de Geriatría, Hospital Universitario de Getafe GetafeMadrid España Servicio de Geriatría, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Getafe, Madrid, España.

The European Commission and 22 of its Member States cofinanced, in 2017-2019, the first joint action to address frailty in older persons, known as ADVANTAGE Joint Action. The initiative developed a common strategy, based on the best scientific evidence, to position healthy aging and frailty as priority public health issues in the participating countries and thus contribute to uniformly addressing frailty across Europe. This article details the methodology and main achievements of ADVANTAGE and includes an analysis of the key factors contributing to its success. Read More

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September 2021

The Association Between Perivascular Spaces and Cerebral Blood Flow, Brain Volume, and Cardiovascular Risk.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 31;13:599724. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Basal ganglia perivascular spaces are associated with cognitive decline and cardiovascular risk factors. There is a lack of studies on the cardiovascular risk burden of basal ganglia perivascular spaces (BG-PVS) and their relationship with gray matter volume (GMV) and GM cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the aging brain. Here, we investigated these two issues in a large sample of cognitively intact older adults. Read More

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Can Haptic Stimulation Enhance Music Perception in Hearing-Impaired Listeners?

Mark D Fletcher

Front Neurosci 2021 31;15:723877. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

University of Southampton Auditory Implant Service, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Cochlear implants (CIs) have been remarkably successful at restoring hearing in severely-to-profoundly hearing-impaired individuals. However, users often struggle to deconstruct complex auditory scenes with multiple simultaneous sounds, which can result in reduced music enjoyment and impaired speech understanding in background noise. Hearing aid users often have similar issues, though these are typically less acute. Read More

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Current neurologic treatment and emerging therapies in CDKL5 deficiency disorder.

J Neurodev Disord 2021 Sep 16;13(1):40. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Mailstop 3063, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD) is associated with refractory infantile onset epilepsy, global developmental delay, and variable features that include sleep, behavioral disturbances, and movement disorders. Current treatment is primarily symptom-based and informed by experience in caring for this population.

Methods: We describe medication and non-medication approaches to treatment of epilepsy and additional key neurologic symptoms (sleep disturbances, behavioral issues, movement disorders, and swallowing dysfunction) in a cohort of 177 individuals meeting criteria for CDD, 154 evaluated at 4 CDKL5 Centers of Excellence in the USA and 40 identified through the NIH Natural History Study of Rett and Related Disorders. Read More

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September 2021

Airway Management for Emergent Surgeries during COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Jan;31(1):S35-S37

Department of Anesthesia, Armed Forces Hospital, Jizan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) performed in the operating room during general anesthesia and surgery can contaminate the operation room environment putting the anesthetist, surgeons and paramedical staff at risk of infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 has low sensitivity and is time-bound. Emergent surgical cases might not give ample time for SARS-CoV-2 evaluation. Read More

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January 2021

Life cycle assessment of underground coal mining in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 10;805:150231. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College, United Kingdom.

Coal is not only the main fossil fuel in China but also a pollution source. To evaluate the impact of coal production on the environment, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the mining process of a typical coal mine in China by using the SimaPro 9.0. Read More

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September 2021

[email protected] Core-Shell fibers as cathode host material for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur batteries.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 28;607(Pt 1):655-661. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Key Laboratory of Bioinspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, PR China. Electronic address:

Owing to the low cost, high energy density, and high theoretical specific capacity, lithium-sulfur batteries have been deemed as a potential choice for future energy storage devices. However, they also have suffered from several scientific and technical issues including low conductivity, polysulfides migration, and volume changes. In this study, [email protected] core-shell fibers were fabricated through combination of coaxial electrospinning and selective vulcanization method. Read More

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Reducing Operating Room Cost: Comparing Attending and Surgical Trainee Perception Regarding the Implementation of Supply Receipts.

J Am Coll Surg 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Surgery, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110; Perioperative Services, Barnes Jewish Hospital, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110.

Background: As operating room (OR) expenditures increase, faculty and surgical trainees will play a key role in curbing future costs. However, supply cost utilization varies widely among providers and, despite requirements for cost education during surgical training, little is known about trainees' comfort discussing these topics. To improve OR cost transparency, our institution began delivering real-time supply "receipts" to faculty and trainees after each surgical case. Read More

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September 2021

Parents' Mental Health Experiences during the Perinatal Transition: A Qualitative Study.

Issues Ment Health Nurs 2021 Sep 16:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Community and Behavioral Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, USA.

Capturing the voices of both parents regarding perinatal mental health is imperative. This qualitative study employed a purposive sampling technique to interview 23 individuals, including mothers, partners, and perinatal practitioners/educators. Qualitative data analysis utilized an inductive, data-driven approach. Read More

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September 2021

Involvement of the nociceptin opioid peptide receptor in morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and physical dependence in female mice.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27th Taiping Road, Beijing, 100850, China.

Nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor modulates pain transmission and is considered a prospective target for pain management. Under acute pain conditions in rodents, however, no definitive conclusions about effects of systemically intervening NOP receptors on nociception, classical opioid-induced antinociception, tolerance and physical dependence have been drawn. Given that opioid analgesia has sex differences, and females experience greater pain and consume more opioids, clarifying these issues in females will help develop novel analgesics. Read More

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September 2021

3D Printing: an appealing technology for the manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Objectives: The traditional manufacturing methods of solid oral dosage forms (SODFs) are reported to be time-consuming, highly expensive and not tailored to the patient's needs. Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is an innovative emerging technology that can help to overcome these issues. The aim of this review is to describe the most employed 3DP technologies, materials and the state of the art on 3DP SODFs. Read More

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September 2021

3D Tungsten Disulfide/Carbon Nanotube Networks as Separator Coatings and Cathode Additives for Stable and Fast Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Institute of Industry & Equipment Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials & Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, P. R. China.

Commercial application of Li-S batteries is greatly restricted by their unsatisfactory cycle retention and poor cycling life originating from the lithium polysulfide (LiPS) shuttling effect and sluggish sulfur redox kinetics. Various strategies have been proposed to boost the performances of Li-S batteries, including nanostructured sulfur composites, functional separators/interlayers, electrode/electrolyte additives, and so on. However, how to combine two or more strategies to efficiently settle these challenging issues confronted by Li-S batteries is in desperate need. Read More

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September 2021

Enhanced intestinal permeability and intestinal co-morbidities in heat strain: A review and case for autodigestion.

Temperature (Austin) 2021 12;8(3):223-244. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Enhanced intestinal permeability is a pervasive issue in modern medicine, with implications demonstrably associated with significant health consequences such as sepsis, multiorgan failure, and death. Key issues involve the trigger mechanisms that could compromise intestinal integrity and increase local permeability allowing the passage of larger, potentially dangerous molecules. Heat stress, whether exertional or environmental, may modulate intestinal permeability and begs interesting questions in the context of global climate change, increasing population vulnerabilities, and public health. Read More

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Urban-Rural Differences in Patterns and Associated Factors of Multimorbidity Among Older Adults in China: A Cross-Sectional Study Based on Apriori Algorithm and Multinomial Logistic Regression.

Front Public Health 2021 30;9:707062. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Health Management, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Multimorbidity has become one of the key issues in the public health sector. This study aimed to explore the urban-rural differences in patterns and associated factors of multimorbidity in China and to provide scientific reference for the development of health management strategies to reduce health inequality between urban and rural areas. A cross-sectional study, which used a multi-stage random sampling method, was conducted effectively among 3,250 participants in the Shanxi province of China. Read More

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Determinants of Higher-Risk Sexual Behavior in Some Selected African Countries.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2021 3;2021:8089293. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Although higher-risk sexual behavior (H-RSB) is a major contributor to the rapid rising rate of new HIV infections, there exists paucity of comprehensive evidence across the sub-Saharan African region. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of H-RSB and its determinants across sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy.

Method: Data were obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of ten sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries with their three most current DHS surveys from 2000 to 2016. Read More

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September 2021

The multilevel organismal diversity approach deciphers difficult to distinguish nudibranch species complex.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 15;11(1):18323. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Zoological Museum, Moscow State University, Bolshaya Nikitskaya Str. 6, 125009, Moscow, Russia.

Species identification is a key procedure for broad-scoped ecological, phylogeographic and evolutionary studies. However, to perform a taxonomic study in the molecular era is a complicated task that has many pitfalls. In the present study we use particular examples of common but difficult to distinguish European species within the genus of Polycera (Nudibranchia, Mollusca) to discuss the general issues of the "cryptic species" problem that has broad biological and interdisciplinary importance and can significantly impede ecological, evolutionary, and other biodiversity-related research. Read More

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September 2021

Visual impairment and medication safety: a protocol for a scoping review.

Syst Rev 2021 Sep 15;10(1):248. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

NIHR Greater Manchester Patient Safety Translational Research Centre, University of Manchester, Suite 11, 7th floor, Williamson Building, Oxford Road M13 9PL, Manchester, UK.

Background: The number of individuals with a visual impairment in the UK was estimated a few years ago to be around 1.8 million. People can be visually impaired from birth, childhood, early adulthood or later in life. Read More

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September 2021