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Nanoscale mapping of electric polarizability in a heterogeneous dielectric material with surface irregularities.

Nanotechnology 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Power System, Department of, Electrical Engineering, Beijing, 100084, CHINA.

Nanoscale mapping of electric polarizability in a heterogeneous dielectric material with surface irregularities is of scientific and technical significance, but remains challenging. Here, we present an approach based on intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) in conjunction with finite element computation for precise and high-resolution mapping of polarizability in dielectric materials. Instead of using electrostatic force in conventional quantitative EFM approaches, the force gradient is acquired to achieve an unprecedented spatial resolution. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of marketable age on proximate composition and nutritional profile of breast meat from Cherry Valley broiler ducks.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 12;100(11):101425. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic, Breeding and Molecular Design, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China. Electronic address:

Marketable age is an important determinant of meat quality. Cherry Valley duck (SM3 medium) is the most efficient Pekin-type duck and is the most widely farmed breed globally. However, whether marketable age determines the meat quality of Cherry Valley ducks is not well documented. Read More

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Anti-Vibrio dibutyl phthalate from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. S073.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Sep 8;140:198-202. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Ecology, Institute of Hydrobiology, School of Life Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Eutrophication and Red Tide Prevention of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Engineering Research Center of Tropical and Subtropical Aquatic Ecological Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, PR China. Electronic address:

Marine Streptomyces S073 was previously shown to have strong anti-Vibrio activity, and its antibacterial mechanism was proposed to be associated with siderophore-mediated iron competition and other antagonistic agents. In this study, anti-Vibrio compounds produced by S073 were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation using column chromatography and HPLC, and the target compound in the most active fraction was identified as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) by various spectroscopic analyses, including EI-MS, H NMR and C NMR. The DBP-producing capacity of S073 was 2. Read More

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September 2021

Artificial light pollution inhibits plant phenology advance induced by climate warming.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 6;291:118110. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079, China; Key Laboratory of Geographic Information System, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079, China. Electronic address:

Natural photic regime has been drastically altered by the artificial night sky luminance. Despite evidence of sufficient light brightness inducing plant physiology and affecting phenology, generalization regarding effects of light pollution on plant phenology across species and locations is less clear. Meanwhile, the relative contributions and joint effects of artificial light pollution and climate change or other anthropic stressors still remain unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Endocrine Surgery Patients' and Providers' Perceptions of Telemedicine in the COVID Era.

J Surg Res 2021 Sep 12;269:76-82. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Division of Endocrine Surgery, MedStar-Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia 20010. Electronic address:

Background: Telemedicine has become a key modality for health care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic, including for endocrine surgery. Little data exists on patients' and referring endocrinologists' perspectives of its use. The study aimed to assess and compare endocrine surgery patients' attitudes about telemedicine to that of referring endocrinologists. Read More

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September 2021

Identification of CHMP4C as a new risk gene for inherited dilated cardiomyopathy.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

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September 2021

Endocrine regulation of fetal metabolism towards term.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 Aug 10;78:106657. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, UK; Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK.

Hormones have an important role in regulating fetal metabolism in relation to the prevailing nutritional conditions both in late gestation and during the prepartum period as the fetus prepares for birth. In particular, the pancreatic, thyroid and adrenal hormones all affect fetal uptake and utilization of nutrients for oxidative metabolism, tissue accretion and fuel storage. These hormones also influence the fetal metabolic preparations for the nutritional transition from intra- to extra-uterine life. Read More

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Coastal armouring affects intertidal biodiversity across the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea).

Mar Environ Res 2021 Sep 8;171:105475. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Laboratorio de Biología Marina, Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Biología. Universidad de Sevilla. Avda. de la Reina Mercedes, 6. 41012, Sevilla, Spain. Electronic address:

Intertidal ecosystems are key habitats that are being replaced by artificial hard substrates due to the increment of human activities in coastal areas. These new substrates host generally less biodiversity mainly due to differences in complexity and composition. This is a global phenomenon and has led to the development of strategies in the framework of eco-engineering. Read More

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September 2021

Exposure to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles enhances Toll-like Receptor 4 signal transduction and overcomes endotoxin tolerance in vitro and in vivo.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Emerging studies indicate hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) exhibit modest immunogenicity to elicit innate immune response which might involve Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. This study was proposed to elucidate how HANPs direct over TLR4 signal activity in macrophage in response to TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study for the first time reveals that HANPs themselves can induce TLR4 endocytosis and activate pathways both of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), which potentially trigger the production of inflammatory cytokine by macrophage. Read More

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September 2021

The cathelicidin-derived close-to-nature peptide D-11 sensitizes Klebsiella pneumoniae to a range of antibiotics in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Sep 12:106434. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747AG, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria constitutes a permeability barrier that prevents certain antibiotics to reach their targets, thus conferring a high tolerance to a wide range of antibiotics. Combined therapies of antibiotics and outer membrane-perturbing drugs have been proposed as an alternative treatment to extend the use of antibiotics against Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacteria. Among the outer-membrane active compounds, the outer-membrane permeabilizing peptides, play a prominent role. Read More

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September 2021

New dimeric phloroglucinol derivatives from Agrimonia pilosa and their hepatoprotective activities.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Sep 8;116:105341. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

Five new dimeric phloroglucinol derivatives, agrimones A - E (1-5), were isolated from the whole plant of Agrimonia pilosa. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by a series of spectroscopic data (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR), complemented with the comparison of the experimental and calculated ECD spectra, and gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) NMR calculations. Notably, compounds 1 and 2 represent a highly oxidized 6/6/6 tricyclic ring skeleton based on the cis-fused paraquinone and chroman. Read More

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September 2021

The exposome in practice: an exploratory panel study of biomarkers of air pollutant exposure in Chinese people aged 60-69 years (China BAPE Study).

Environ Int 2021 Sep 12;157:106866. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China; Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China. Electronic address:

The exposome overhauls conventional environmental health impact research paradigms and provides a novel methodological framework that comprehensively addresses the complex, highly dynamic interplays of exogenous exposures, endogenous exposures, and modifiable factors in humans. Holistic assessments of the adverse health effects and systematic elucidation of the mechanisms underlying environmental exposures are major scientific challenges with widespread societal implications. However, to date, few studies have comprehensively and simultaneously measured airborne pollutant exposures and explored the associated biomarkers in susceptible healthy elderly subjects, potentially resulting in the suboptimal assessment and management of health risks. Read More

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September 2021

High-throughput screening on cochlear organoids identifies VEGFR-MEK-TGFB1 signaling promoting hair cell reprogramming.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Sep;16(9):2257-2273

MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Medical School, Model Animal Research Center of Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210032, China; Research Institute of Otolaryngology, No. 321 Zhongshan Road, 210008 Nanjing, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210032, China; Institute for Brain Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210032, China. Electronic address:

Hair cell degeneration is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Hair cells in mammalian cochlea do not spontaneously regenerate, posing a great challenge for restoration of hearing. Here, we establish a robust, high-throughput cochlear organoid platform that facilitates 3D expansion of cochlear progenitor cells and differentiation of hair cells in a temporally regulated manner. Read More

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September 2021

Challenging the pipeline.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Sep;16(9):2033-2037

Personalized Healthcare Safety Interface, Product Development Safety, Roche Innovation Centre Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

This commentary presents a thought experiment seeking to answer the key question: "If you were to put aside all the traditional drug discovery processes and start a new drug discovery program that places the highest priority on human and disease-relevant models throughout the entire process, how could it be done?" Read More

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September 2021

The prolyl-isomerase PIN1 is essential for nuclear Lamin-B structure and function and protects heterochromatin under mechanical stress.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(11):109694

Laboratorio Nazionale CIB (LNCIB), Area Science Park, Padriciano 99, 34149 Trieste, Italy; Department of Life Sciences (DSV), University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy; FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (IFOM), 20139 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Chromatin organization plays a crucial role in tissue homeostasis. Heterochromatin relaxation and consequent unscheduled mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) are emerging as key contributors of aging and aging-related pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. However, the mechanisms governing heterochromatin maintenance or its relaxation in pathological conditions remain poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Homeostatic control of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene expression by the histone variant H2A.Z is essential for neuronal survival.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(11):109704

Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6, Canada; Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G5, Canada. Electronic address:

Histone variants are crucial regulators of chromatin structure and gene transcription, yet their functions within the brain remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that the H2A histone variant H2A.Z is essential for neuronal survival. Read More

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September 2021

RORα is critical for mTORC1 activity in T cell-mediated colitis.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(11):109682

Institute for Immunology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Shanghai Immune Therapy Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Affiliated Renji Hospital, Shanghai 200127, China. Electronic address:

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multi-factorial chronic intestinal inflammation driven by pathogenic T cells, among which a large portion of patients are resistant to current anti-inflammatory regimes. The mechanisms underlying colitis pathogenicity and drug resistance are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that RORα is highly expressed in active UC patients, particularly in those non-responsive to anti-TNF treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Pro-inflammatory and proliferative microglia drive progression of glioblastoma.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(11):109718

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing 100853, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Scant understanding of the glioblastoma microenvironment and molecular bases hampers development of efficient treatment strategies. Analyses of gene signatures of human gliomas demonstrate that the SETD2 mutation is correlated with poor prognosis of IDH1/2 wild-type (IDH-WT) adult glioblastoma patients. To better understand the crosstalk between SETD2 mutant (SETD2-mut) glioblastoma cells and the tumor microenvironment, we leverage single-cell transcriptomics to comprehensively map cellular populations in glioblastoma. Read More

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September 2021

In matters of the heart, (cellular) communication is key.

Immunity 2021 Sep;54(9):1906-1908

Laboratory of Myeloid Cell Biology in Tissue Damage and Inflammation, VIB Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Chemical Sciences, Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Castletroy, Co. Limerick, Ireland. Electronic address:

To maintain cardiac output, the failing heart undergoes significant remodeling. However, the mechanisms regulating this remain unclear. In this issue of Immunity, Zaman et al. Read More

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September 2021

Intestinal-derived HDL: The portal guardian of the liver.

Authors:
Sheng Chen Di Wang

Immunity 2021 Sep;54(9):1903-1905

Institute of Immunology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, P.R. China. Electronic address:

The trafficking and function of intestine-derived high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have not been identified. In a recent issue of Science, Han et al. (2021) find that intestine-derived HDL neutralizes intestinal-leaked LPS in the portal vein, serving as a host disease tolerance strategy to restrain liver damage of enteric origin under physiological conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Symbiont-regulated serotonin biosynthesis modulates tick feeding activity.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, P. R. China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods. Blood feeding ensures that ticks obtain nutrients essential for their survival, development, and reproduction while providing routes for pathogen transmission. However, the effectors that determine tick feeding activities remain poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Increased fidelity of protein synthesis extends lifespan.

Cell Metab 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

UCL Cancer Institute, Paul O'Gorman Building, University College London, 72 Huntley Street, London WC1E 6DD, UK; Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Electronic address:

Loss of proteostasis is a fundamental process driving aging. Proteostasis is affected by the accuracy of translation, yet the physiological consequence of having fewer protein synthesis errors during multi-cellular organismal aging is poorly understood. Our phylogenetic analysis of RPS23, a key protein in the ribosomal decoding center, uncovered a lysine residue almost universally conserved across all domains of life, which is replaced by an arginine in a small number of hyperthermophilic archaea. Read More

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September 2021

Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Stuttering Management Among Adolescents: Part I. Scale Development.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 Sep 15:1-18. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston.

Purpose This article is the first in a two-part series on the application of the to stuttering management among adolescents. In this article, we describe the process of developing measures to assess stage of change (SOC) by defining behaviors of stuttering management, as well as the two primary cognitive constructs that underlie one's readiness to make behavioral change: decisional balance (DB) and situational self-efficacy (SSE). This work hinges on the ability to develop an operational definition of what it means to successfully manage or do something positive about one's stuttering. Read More

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September 2021

Genome- and transcriptome-wide association studies reveal the genetic basis and the breeding history of seed glucosinolate content in Brassica napus.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

A high content of seed glucosinolates (GSLs) and their degradation products impose anti-nutritional effects on livestock; therefore, persistent efforts are made to reduce the seed GSL content to increase the commercial value of rapeseed meal. Here, we dissected the genetic structure of SGC by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) combined with transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS). Fifteen reliable QTLs were identified to be associated with the reduced SGC in modern B. Read More

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September 2021

A truncating NRIP1 variant in an Arabic family with congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute the most common cause of early-onset chronic kidney disease. In a previous study, we identified a heterozygous truncating variant in nuclear receptor-interacting protein 1 (NRIP1) as CAKUT causing via dysregulation of retinoic acid signaling. This large family remains the only family with NRIP1 variant reported so far. Read More

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September 2021

Dynamic Control of Sacrificial Bond Transformation in the Fe-N-C Single-Atom Catalyst for Molecular Oxygen Reduction.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

City University of Hong Kong, State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution, P5840, YEUNG, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, 000000, Kowloon, HONG KONG.

Atomically dispersed metal-nitrogen sites show great prospect for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), whereas the unsatisfactory adsorption-desorption behaviors of oxygenated intermediates on the metal centers impede improvement of the ORR performance. We propose a new conceptual strategy of introducing sacrificial bonds to remold the local coordination of Fe-N x sites, via controlling the dynamic transformation of the Fe-S bonds in the Fe-N-C single-atom catalyst. Spectroscopic and theoretical results reveal that the selective cleavage of the sacrificial Fe-S bonds induces the incorporation of the electron-withdrawing oxidized sulfur on the Fe centers. Read More

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September 2021

How to manage irritable bowel syndrome in children.

Acta Paediatr 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

KidZ Health Castle, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Aim: This paper discusses the risk factors and management of paediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with a focus on the role of the gastro-intestinal microbiome.

Methods: English articles of interest published in PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using subject heading and key words of interest.

Results: Only few randomized controlled trials on the management of IBS in children have been published. Read More

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September 2021

Altered albedo dominates the radiative forcing changes in a subtropical forest following an extreme snow event.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Pune, 411008, India.

Subtropical forests are important ecosystems globally due to their extensive role in carbon sequestration. Extreme climate events are known to introduce disturbances in the ecosystem that cause long-term changes in carbon balance and radiation reflectance. However, how these ecosystem function changes contribute to global warming in terms of radiative forcing (RF), especially in the years following a disturbance, still needs to be investigated. Read More

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September 2021

Metschnikowia bicuspidata isolated from milky diseased Eriocheir sinensis: Phenotypic and genetic characterization, antifungal susceptibility and challenge models.

J Fish Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Disease Prevention and Control, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, China.

A severe disease occurred in farmed Eriocheir sinensis characterized by milky liquid accumulation in the pectoral cavity, in the province of Liaoning, China, during October 2018-April 2019. Diseased crabs moved sluggishly, exhibited appetite loss and readily lost legs. Under the microscopic analysis, it was observed that the milky liquid contained a large number of yeastlike microorganisms (0. Read More

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September 2021