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Sequential drug delivery of vancomycin and rhBMP-2 via pore-closed PLGA microparticles embedded photo-crosslinked chitosan hydrogel for enhanced osteointegration.

Authors:
Wei Song Yu Xiao

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No.14, Section 3, Ren Min Nan Rd., Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

As generally accepted, inhibiting the bacterial invasion at initial stage and promoting the behavior of related osteogenesis cells afterwards is crucial to achieve favorable osteointegration after dental implantation. In this study, a novel combined structured hydrogel composed of chitosan and pore-closed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles was prepared and characterized. In vitro and in-vivo studies have identified that this biocompatible material can rapidly release vancomycin at initial 2 days and then sustainedly release recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for about 12 days, thus respectively accomplish antibacterial and osteogenesis functions. Read More

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Paradigm shifts in electrophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation.

Europace 2021 Apr;23(Supplement_2):ii9-ii13

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Determining the sequence of activation is a major source of information for understanding the electrophysiological mechanism(s) of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the complex morphology of the electrograms hampers their analysis, and has stimulated generations of electrophysiologists to develop a large variety of technologies for recording, pre-processing, and analysis of fibrillation electrograms. This variability of approaches is mirrored by a large variability in the interpretation of fibrillation electrograms and, thereby, opinions regarding the basic electrophysiological mechanism(s) of AF vary widely. Read More

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[Effectiveness of non-invasive prenatal screening for the detection of fetal sex chromosome anomalies].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(4):325-328

Fujian Provincial Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Key Laboratory for Prenatal Diagnosis and Birth Defect, Fuzhou, Fujian 350001, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for fetal sex chromosome anomalies.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out for 20 802 women undergoing NIPS screening. For 165 cases suspected for fetal sex chromosomal anomalies, the results of invasive prenatal diagnosis were obtained. Read More

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Type I interferons as key players in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in type 1 diabetes.

Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 2021 23;359:1-80. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnología Sanitaria de Elche (IDiBE), Universitas Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain; CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic islet inflammation (insulitis) and specific pancreatic β-cell destruction by an immune attack. Although the precise underlying mechanisms leading to the autoimmune assault remain poorly understood, it is well accepted that insulitis takes place in the context of a conflicting dialogue between pancreatic β-cells and the immune cells. Moreover, both host genetic background (i. Read More

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Contemporary trials evaluating neoadjuvant therapy for resectable pancreatic cancer.

Authors:
Akhil Chawla

J Surg Oncol 2021 May;123(6):1423-1431

Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

While the use of neoadjuvant therapy is well-accepted in the treatment of borderline resectable and locally advanced pancreatic cancers, the benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resectable disease has been a topic of debate. Recently, key trials evaluating neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable pancreatic cancer have reported results. This review describes key clinical trials evaluating the use of preoperative therapy in patients with technically resectable pancreatic cancer with a focus on their contribution to the available evidence. Read More

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A Data-Based Approach to Evaluate Representation by Gender and Affiliation in Key Presentation Formats at the SER Annual Meeting.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.

The Society for Epidemiologic Research's (SER) annual meeting is a major forum for sharing new research and promoting participants' career development. As such, evaluating representation in key presentation formats is critical. For the 3,257 presentations identified at the 2015-2017 SER annual meetings, we evaluated presenter characteristics, including gender, affiliation, subject area and h-index, and representation in three highlighted presentation formats: platform talks (n=382), invited symposium talks (n=273) and serving as a Concurrent Contributed Session or symposium chair (n=188). Read More

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Supportive Care: Low Cost, High Value.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2021 Mar;41:1-11

Division of Medical Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Supportive care aims to prevent and manage adverse effects of cancer and its treatment across the entire disease continuum. Research and clinical experience in dedicated centers have demonstrated that early appropriate supportive care interventions improve symptoms, quality of life, and overall survival in a cost-effective manner. The challenge is to assess symptoms and needs with validated tools regularly and, ideally, between clinic appointments; electronic patient-reported outcome measures and dedicated easily accessible supportive care units can help. Read More

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Two predicted models based on ceRNAs and immune cells in lung adenocarcinoma.

PeerJ 2021 23;9:e11029. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory health, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center of Respiratory Disease,  First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University,  State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou, China.

Background: It is well accepted that both competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) and immune microenvironment exert crucial roles in the tumor prognosis. The present study aimed to find prognostic ceRNAs and immune cells in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).

Materials And Methods: More specifically, we explored the associations of crucial ceRNAs with the immune microenvironment. Read More

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Genetic Variants Are Associated with the Susceptibility to Cervical Cancer in a Chinese Population.

Biomed Res Int 2021 20;2021:6670456. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Mechanism and Intervention Research for Plateau Diseases of Tibet Autonomous Region, School of Medicine, Xizang Minzu University, Xianyang, 712082 Shaanxi, China.

Background: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common tumor in women worldwide. Studies have been accepted that genetic variations play an important role in the development of CC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of variants on CC risk. Read More

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An overview of dietary supplements on obesity and type 2 diabetes: efficacy and mechanisms.

Curr Drug Metab 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, NHFPC; Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu. China.

Obesity is a common nutritional disorder, associated with a variety of chronic diseases, among them, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has emerged as a serious worldwide health problem. Insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction are the main pathological characteristics of T2DM, and obesity and hyperlipidemia are the critical causal factors. It is commonly accepted that dietary factors are of paramount importance in the management of obesity and T2DM. Read More

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Clinical Practice Guideline: Opioid Prescribing for Analgesia After Common Otolaryngology Operations Executive Summary.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Apr;164(4):687-703

American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, Alexandria, Virginia, USA.

Objective: Opioid use disorder (OUD), which includes the morbidity of dependence and mortality of overdose, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Overprescription of opioids can lead to chronic use and misuse, and unused narcotics after surgery can lead to their diversion. Research supports that most patients do not take all the prescribed opioids after surgery and that surgeons are the second largest prescribers of opioids in the United States. Read More

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Clinical Practice Guideline: Opioid Prescribing for Analgesia After Common Otolaryngology Operations.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Apr;164(2_suppl):S1-S42

American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, Alexandria, Virginia, USA.

Objective: Opioid use disorder (OUD), which includes the morbidity of dependence and mortality of overdose, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Overprescription of opioids can lead to chronic use and misuse, and unused narcotics after surgery can lead to their diversion. Research supports that most patients do not take all the prescribed opioids after surgery and that surgeons are the second largest prescribers of opioids in the United States. Read More

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Vacuum plasma sprayed porous titanium coating on polyetheretherketone for ACDF improves the osteogenic ability: An in vitro and in vivo study.

Biomed Microdevices 2021 Apr 5;23(2):21. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Spine Research Center of Wannan Medical College, No.22 Wenchang West Road, Wuhu, 241001, Anhui, China.

Cervical degenerative disease is a common and frequently occurring disease, which seriously affects the health and quality of the life of patients worldwide. Anterior cervical decompression and interbody fusion is currently recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of degenerative cervical spondylosis. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has become the prevailing material for cervical fusion surgery. Read More

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The prognostic role of CMR using global planimetric criteria in patients with excessive left ventricular trabeculation.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

MRI Unit, Fondazione G. Monasterio CNR-Regione Toscana, Area della Ricerca S. Cataldo, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Objectives: Although cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is widely used in the assessment of left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), there are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria and limited data regarding their prognostic value. We assessed the long-term prognostic role of the planimetric global Grothoff's criteria and of the CMR findings in predicting adverse cardiovascular events (CE).

Methods: We prospectively enrolled 78 patients (46. Read More

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Role of obesity-induced inflammation in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: history of the research and remaining questions.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar 31;26(1):1-13. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Soonchunhyang Institute of MediBio Science (SIMS), Department of Integrated Biomedical Science, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Korea.

The prevalence of obesity has increased alarmingly both worldwide and in Korea. This has also dramatically increased the prevalence of chronic obesity-associated diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Extensive studies on the molecular etiology of T2D have revealed several potential mechanisms by which obesity induces the development of insulin resistance and T2D. Read More

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New Human Follitropin Preparations: How Glycan Structural Differences May Affect Biochemical and Biological Function and Clinical Effect.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 19;12:636038. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Red de Apoyo a la Investigación, National University of Mexico-Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición SZ., Mexico City, Mexico.

It is well accepted that pituitary follitropin is secreted into the circulation as a mixture of variants, which differ not in primary structure but rather at the level of glycosylation. These glycosidic forms vary in the number of glycosylation sites filled, complexity of glycosidic chains, and sialylation and sulfation. It is generally agreed that high sialylation, 2,3 sialic acid capping of terminal N-acetyl galactosamine or galactose leads to longer circulating half-life, by blocking binding of asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) in the liver. Read More

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The Utility of Cerebrovascular Reactivity MRI in Brain Rehabilitation: A Mechanistic Perspective.

Front Physiol 2021 17;12:642850. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VAMC, Decatur, GA, United States.

Cerebrovascular control and its integration with other physiological systems play a key role in the effective maintenance of homeostasis in brain functioning. Maintenance, restoration, and promotion of such a balance are one of the paramount goals of brain rehabilitation and intervention programs. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), an index of cerebrovascular reserve, plays an important role in chemo-regulation of cerebral blood flow. Read More

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Global Diversity and Taxonomy of (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota): Four New Species and Keys to Species of the Genus.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;7(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Microbiology, School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, PO Box 61, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

The genus is a polypore genus with resupinate, white to cream or buff fresh basidioma, poroid or hydnoid hymenophore, a monomitic or dimitic hyphal system with generative hyphae bearing clamp connections, the presence of rosette-like crystals and allantoid to lunate basidiospores. We study the phylogeny and diversity of herein by using both morphological and molecular methods. Phylogenetic analyses are based on the ITS dataset, the combined 2-locus dataset (5. Read More

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Food Traceability: A Consumer-Centric Supply Chain Approach on Sustainable Tomato.

Foods 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Deptartment of Agricultural Economics, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541-24 Thessaloniki, Greece.

Technological advances result in new traceability configurations that, however, cannot always secure transparency and food safety. Even in cases where a system guarantees transparency, the actual consumer involvement and a real consumer-based perspective cannot always be ensured. The importance of such consumer centricity is vital, since it is strongly associated with effective supply chains that properly fulfil their end-users' needs and requests. Read More

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Diagnosis of Pancreatic Solid Lesions, Subepithelial Lesions, and Lymph Nodes Using Endoscopic Ultrasound.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 5;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 1397-1, Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298, Japan.

Currently, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become widely accepted and has considerable advantages over computed tomography (CT) and other imaging modalities, given that it enables echostructure assessment in lesions with <1 cm diameter and permits high resolution imaging. EUS-guided tissue acquisition (EUS-TA) provides consistent results under ultrasound guidance and has been considered more effective compared to CT- or ultrasound-guided lesion biopsy. Moreover, complication rates, including pancreatitis and bleeding, have been extremely low, with <1% morbidity and mortality rates, thereby suggesting the exceptional overall safety of EUS-TA. Read More

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Benchmarking Non-Targeted Metabolomics Using Yeast-Derived Libraries.

Metabolites 2021 Mar 10;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 38, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Non-targeted analysis by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is an essential discovery tool in metabolomics. To date, standardization and validation remain a challenge. Community-wide accepted cost-effective benchmark materials are lacking. Read More

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A Synopsis of s. lato (Bryophyta, Orthotrichaceae) in China, with Distribution Maps and a Key to Determination.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

College of Life Science and Technology of Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China.

A total of 46 species and two varieties of the traditionally interpreted genus are currently known to occur in China. They represent five genera, including (29 species), (14 species and two varieties), and and that are represented by a single species each. The fifth genus , also consisting of only one species, , is an entirely neglected representative of the China's moss flora. Read More

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Total neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer: Making sense of the results from the RAPIDO and PRODIGE 23 trials.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Mar 16;96:102177. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet - Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

A few months ago, results from two randomised phase III trials of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) in locally advanced rectal cancer were presented (RAPIDO and PRODIGE 23), consistently showing better short- and long-term outcomes with TNT as compared with standard neoadjuvant long-course chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or short-course radiotherapy (SCRT). These results represent corroborating evidence in support of a practice that many centres had already implemented based on promising preliminary data. Also, they provide new, high-level evidence to endorse TNT as a new management option in the treatment algorithm of stage II-III rectal cancer in those centres where CRT and SCRT have long remained the only accepted standard neoadjuvant treatments. Read More

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Between a rock and a cold place: Neanderthal biocultural cold adaptations.

Evol Anthropol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Anthropology, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana, USA.

A large body of work focuses on the unique aspects of Neanderthal anatomy, inferred physiology, and behavior to test the assumption that Neanderthals were hyper-adapted to living in cold environments. This research has expanded over the years to include previously unexplored and potentially adaptive features such as brown adipose tissue and fire-usage. Here we review the current state of knowledge of Neanderthal cold adaptations along morphological, physiological, and behavioral lines. Read More

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The Role of Obesity in the Immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 Respiratory Disease and Critical Illness.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Stony Brook University Renaissance School of Medicine, 12300, Allergy and Immunology, Stony Brook, New York, United States.

Coronavirus Disease 2019, (COVID-19), the clinical syndrome caused by the SARS-COV-2 virus is currently a global health pandemic with substantial morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 has cast a shadow on nearly every aspect of society, straining health systems and economies across the world. While it is widely accepted that a close relationship exists between obesity, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders on infection, we are only beginning to understand ways in which the immunological sequelae of obesity functions as a predisposing factor related to poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Read More

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Monomeric C-Reactive Protein Localized in the Cerebral Tissue of Damaged Vascular Brain Regions Is Associated With Neuro-Inflammation and Neurodegeneration-An Immunohistochemical Study.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:644213. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

National Natural Science foundation of China, Beijing, China.

Monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP) is now accepted as having a key role in modulating inflammation and in particular, has been strongly associated with atherosclerotic arterial plaque progression and instability and neuroinflammation after stroke where a build-up of the mCRP protein within the brain parenchyma appears to be connected to vascular damage, neurodegenerative pathophysiology and possibly Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and dementia. Here, using immunohistochemical analysis, we wanted to confirm mCRP localization and overall distribution within a cohort of AD patients showing evidence of previous infarction and then focus on its co-localization with inflammatory active regions in order to provide further evidence of its functional and direct impact. We showed that mCRP was particularly seen in large amounts within brain vessels of all sizes and that the immediate micro-environment surrounding these had become laden with mCRP positive cells and extra cellular matrix. Read More

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Boosting benzene combustion by engineering oxygen vacancy-mediated Ag/CeO-CoO catalyst via interfacial electron transfer.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 20;594:882-890. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, PR China.

Oxygen vacancy (O) engineering is a widely accepted effective strategy to manipulate the catalytic activity for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) abatement. Herein, we report the oxygen vacancy-mediated Ag/CeO-CoO catalyst to boost benzene combustion. The incorporation of Ag species in Ag/CeO-CoO induces the predominately exposed surface Co sites and structural distortion of CoO as well as rich oxygen vacancy owing to the improved interfacial electron transfer, which promote the adsorption of benzene and the dissociation of oxygen. Read More

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Holding It Together - When Cadherin Meets Cadherin.

Biophys J 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute of Science and Technology Austria, Klosterneuburg, Austria.

Intercellular adhesion is the key to multicellularity, and its malfunction plays an important role in various developmental and disease-related processes. While being intensively studied by both biologists and physicists, a commonly accepted definition of cell-cell adhesion is still being debated. Cell-cell adhesion has been described at the molecular scale as a function of adhesion receptors controlling binding affinity, at the cellular scale as resistance to detachment forces or modulation of surface tension, and at the tissue scale as a regulator of cellular rearrangements and morphogenesis. Read More

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ReCiter: An open source, identity-driven, authorship prediction algorithm optimized for academic institutions.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(4):e0244641. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Information Technologies & Services, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.

Academic institutions need to maintain publication lists for thousands of faculty and other scholars. Automated tools are essential to minimize the need for direct feedback from the scholars themselves who are practically unable to commit necessary effort to keep the data accurate. In relying exclusively on clustering techniques, author disambiguation applications fail to satisfy key use cases of academic institutions. Read More

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Source apportionment and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in soil from mining areas in northwestern China.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Environmental & Municipal Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, 730070, China.

Soil contaminated with toxic elements from mining activities is a public health concern. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the status and potential risks of inorganic toxic elements in soil resulting from mining activities, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni, As, and Cd were selected to evaluate a total of 42 soil samples collected from Gannan mining areas in northwestern China. The concentrations of As and Cd were much higher than their respective background values, while the concentrations of the other elements fluctuated around their background values. Read More

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